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Communications satellite

Index Communications satellite

A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. [1]

196 relations: Africa, Amateur radio, AMC-3, American Broadcasting Company, Angular velocity, Anik (satellite), Antarctica, Antenna (radio), Arthur C. Clarke, Ascension Island, Astrium, AT&T Corporation, Atlantic Ocean, ATS-6, Attitude control, Australia, Backhaul (broadcasting), Balloon satellite, Bandwidth (signal processing), Bell Labs, Bell TV, Boeing Satellite Development Center, BoPET, Broadband, Broadcasting, C band (IEEE), Cable television, Cable television headend, Canada, Cape Canaveral, CASSIOPE, CBS, China, Christian Broadcasting Network, Circular polarization, Commercial use of space, Communication channel, Communication Moon Relay, Corporate video, Defense Satellite Communications System, Diego Garcia, DirecTV, Dish Network, Distance education, DStv, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Easter Island, Electromagnetic radiation, Electronics World, Eutelsat, ..., Extremely high frequency, F band (NATO), Federal Communications Commission, Fixed-satellite service, Fleet Satellite Communications System, Free-space path loss, Free-to-air, Freeform (TV channel), Freesat, Galaxy 10R, Galaxy 25, General Post Office, Geostationary orbit, Geosynchronous orbit, Global Command and Control System, Global Positioning System, Globalstar, Greenland, Ground station, GSAT-7, HBO, High-definition television, Hot Bird, Hughes Aircraft Company, Indian Space Research Organisation, Intelsat I, Internet, Invention, Iridium satellite constellation, JetBlue, Ka band, Khabarovsk, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Ku band, Landline, Linear polarization, List of communication satellite companies, List of communications satellite firsts, List of orbits, LiveTV, Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Long-distance calling, Low Earth orbit, Magadan, Mars Exploration Rover, Medium Earth orbit, Military, Military communications, Milstar, Mobile-satellite service, Molniya (satellite), Multipath interference, NASA, NASA Deep Space Network, NATO, NBC, Network simulation, New Zealand, NewSpace, Non-inclined orbit, Norilsk, North America, Northrop Grumman, Optical fiber, Orange S.A., Orbcomm, Orbit, Orbita (TV system), Orbital elements, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Pacific Ocean, Passive repeater, Philco, PrimeStar, Project Echo, Public switched telephone network, Radio, Radio receiver, Reconnaissance satellite, Recreational vehicle, Reflector (antenna), Relay program, Remote broadcast, Repeaters, Republic of Ireland, Saint Helena, Satcom (satellite), Satcom On The Move, Satellite, Satellite constellation, Satellite dish, Satellite navigation, Satellite phone, Satellite television, SCORE (satellite), SES Astra, SES S.A., Shaw Direct, Siberia, Signal strength in telecommunications, Signaling (telecommunications), Sky UK, Skynet (satellite), Solar cell, Solar eclipse, South America, Soviet Union, Space segment, Spacebus, Spaceway F1, Sputnik 1, SSL (company), Star Bus, Store and forward, Submarine communications cable, Super high frequency, SuperDish, Syncom, System, TBS (U.S. TV channel), Telecommunications link, Telephone, Telephone call, Telesat, Television, Television network, Television receive-only, Telstar, Thales Alenia Space, The Weather Channel, Transmission (telecommunications), Transmitter, Transponder, Transponder (satellite communications), Ultra high frequency, United Kingdom, Very high frequency, Videotelephony, Vladivostok, Weather satellite, Westar 1, Western Union, X band, X.25, Yagi–Uda antenna, 1964 Summer Olympics. Expand index (146 more) »


Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Amateur radio

Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, describes the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication.

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AMC-3 (formerly GE 3) is a commercial broadcast communications satellite owned by SES World Skies, part of SES S.A. (and formerly GE Americom, then SES Americom).

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American Broadcasting Company

The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.

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Angular velocity

In physics, the angular velocity of a particle is the rate at which it rotates around a chosen center point: that is, the time rate of change of its angular displacement relative to the origin.

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Anik (satellite)

The Anik satellites are a series of geostationary communications satellites launched by Telesat Canada for television in Canada, from 1972 through 2013.

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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Antenna (radio)

In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.

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Arthur C. Clarke

Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.

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Ascension Island

Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island, 7°56' south of the Equator in the South Atlantic Ocean.

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Astrium was an aerospace manufacturer subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) that provided civil and military space systems and services from 2006 to 2013.

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AT&T Corporation

AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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ATS-6 (Applications Technology Satellite-6) was a NASA experimental satellite, built by Fairchild Space and Electronics Division It has been called the world's first educational satellite as well as world's first experimental Direct Broadcast Satellite as part of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment between NASA and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

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Attitude control

Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Backhaul (broadcasting)

In the context of broadcasting, backhaul refers to uncut program content that is transmitted point-to-point to an individual television station or radio station, broadcast network or other receiving entity where it will be integrated into a finished TV show or radio show.

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Balloon satellite

A balloon satellite (also occasionally referred to as a "satelloon", which is a trademarked name owned by Gilmore Schjeldahl's G.T. Schjeldahl Company) is a satellite that is inflated with gas after it has been put into orbit.

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Bandwidth (signal processing)

Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies.

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Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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Bell TV

Bell TV (Bell Télé; formerly known as Bell ExpressVu, Dish Network Canada, ExpressVu Dish Network, and now sometimes known as Bell Satellite TV to distinguish the service from Bell's IPTV Fibe TV service), is the division of BCE Inc. that provides satellite television service across Canada.

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Boeing Satellite Development Center

The Boeing Satellite Development Center is a major business unit of Boeing Defense, Space & Security.

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BoPET (biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate) is a polyester film made from stretched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, reflectivity, gas and aroma barrier properties, and electrical insulation.

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In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types.

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Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.

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C band (IEEE)

The C-band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4.0 to 8.0 gigahertz (GHz); however, this definition is the one used by radar manufacturers and users, not necessarily by microwave radio telecommunications users.

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Cable television

Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.

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Cable television headend

A cable television headend is a master facility for receiving television signals for processing and distribution over a cable television system.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Cape Canaveral

Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a cape in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast.

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CASSIOPE, or CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer, is a Canadian Space Agency (CSA) multi-mission satellite operated by MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates (MDA).

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CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Christian Broadcasting Network

The Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN) is an American Christian-oriented religious television network and production company.

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Circular polarization

In electrodynamics, circular polarization of an electromagnetic wave is a polarization state in which, at each point, the electric field of the wave has a constant magnitude but its direction rotates with time at a steady rate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wave.

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Commercial use of space

Commercial use of space is the provision of goods or services of commercial value by using equipment sent into Earth orbit or outer space.

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Communication channel

A communication channel or simply channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking.

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Communication Moon Relay

The Communication Moon Relay project (also known as simply Moon Relay, or, alternatively, Operation Moon Bounce) was a telecommunication project carried out by the United States Navy.

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Corporate video

Corporate video refers to any type of non-advertisement based video content created for and commissioned by a business, company, corporation, or organization.

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Defense Satellite Communications System

The Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) provides the United States with military communications to support globally distributed military users.

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Diego Garcia

Diego Garcia is an atoll just south of the equator in the central Indian Ocean, and the largest of 60 small islands comprising the Chagos Archipelago.

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DirecTV (stylized as DIRECTV) is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider based in El Segundo, California and is a subsidiary of AT&T.

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Dish Network

Dish Network Corporation +1-855-553-9444 is a U.S. television provider.

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Distance education

Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school.

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DStv (Digital Satellite Television) is a Sub-Saharan African direct broadcast satellite service owned by MultiChoice.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

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Easter Island

Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electronics World

Electronics World (Wireless World, founded in 1913, and in September 1984 renamed Electronics & Wireless World) is a technical magazine in electronics and RF engineering aimed at professional design engineers.

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Eutelsat S.A. is a European satellite operator.

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Extremely high frequency

Extremely high frequency (EHF) is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designation for the band of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz).

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F band (NATO)

The NATO F band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 3 000 to 4 000 MHz (equivalent to wavelengths between 10 and 7.5 cm) during the cold war period.

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Federal Communications Commission

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.

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Fixed-satellite service

Fixed-satellite service (short: FSS | also: fixed-satellite radiocommunication service) is – according to article 1.21 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as A radiocommunication service between earth stations at given positions, when one or more satellites are used; the given position may be a specified fixed point or any fixed point within specified areas; in some cases this service includes satellite-to-satellite links, which may also be operated in the inter-satellite service; the fixed-satellite service may also include feeder links for other space radiocommunication services.

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Fleet Satellite Communications System

FLTSATCOM (also FLTSAT) was a satellite communication system of the U.S. Navy which was used for UHF radio communications between ships, submarines, airplanes and ground stations of the Navy.

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Free-space path loss

In telecommunication, free-space path loss (FSPL) is the attenuation of radio energy between the feedpoints of two antennas that results from the combination of the receiving antenna's capture area plus the obstacle free, line-of-sight path through free space (usually air).

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Free-to-air (FTA) are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a subscription, other ongoing cost or one-off fee (e.g. Pay-per-view).

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Freeform (TV channel)

Freeform is an American cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the Disney–ABC Television Group division of The Walt Disney Company.

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Freesat is a free-to-air digital satellite television service in the United Kingdom, provided by joint venture between the BBC and ITV plc.

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Galaxy 10R

Galaxy 10R was an American communications satellite which was operated by PanAmSat, and later Intelsat.

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Galaxy 25

Galaxy 25 (G-25) launched in 1997 (formerly known as Intelsat Americas 5 (IA-5) until February 15, 2007 when it was renamed as result of the merger between owner Intelsat and PanAmSat or Telstar 5) is a medium-powered communications satellite formerly in a geostationary orbit at, above a point in the Pacific Ocean several hundred miles west of the Galapagos Islands.

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General Post Office

The General Post Office (GPO) was officially established in England in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of state postal system and telecommunications carrier.

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Geostationary orbit

A geostationary orbit, often referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.

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Geosynchronous orbit

A geosynchronous orbit (sometimes abbreviated GSO) is an orbit around Earth of a satellite with an orbital period that matches Earth's rotation on its axis, which takes one sidereal day (23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds).

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Global Command and Control System

Global Command and Control System (GCCS) is the United States' armed forces DoD joint command and control (C2) system used to provide accurate, complete, and timely information for the operational chain of command for U.S. armed forces.

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Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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Globalstar is a low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite constellation for satellite phone and low-speed data communications, somewhat similar to the Iridium satellite constellation and Orbcomm satellite systems.

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Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Ground station

A ground station, earth station, or earth terminal is a terrestrial radio station designed for extraplanetary telecommunication with spacecraft (constituting part of the ground segment of the spacecraft system), or reception of radio waves from astronomical radio sources.

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GSAT-7 or INSAT-4F is a multi-band military communications satellite developed by ISRO.

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Home Box Office (HBO) is an American premium cable and satellite television network of Home Box Office, Inc..

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High-definition television

High-definition television (HDTV) is a television system providing an image resolution that is of substantially higher resolution than that of standard-definition television, either analog or digital.

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Hot Bird

Hot Bird is a group of satellites operated by Eutelsat, located at 13°E over the Equator (orbital position) and with a transmitting footprint over Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.

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Hughes Aircraft Company

The Hughes Aircraft Company was a major American aerospace and defense contractor founded in 1932 by Howard Hughes in Glendale, California as a division of Hughes Tool Company.

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Indian Space Research Organisation

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.

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Intelsat I

Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird for the proverb "The early bird catches the worm") was the first commercial communications satellite to be placed in geosynchronous orbit, on April 6, 1965.

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process.

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Iridium satellite constellation

The Iridium satellite constellation provides L-band voice and data coverage to satellite phones, pagers and integrated transceivers over the entire Earth surface.

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JetBlue Airways Corporation, stylized as jetBlue, is an American low cost airline headquartered in New York City.

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Ka band

The Ka band (pronounced as either "kay-ay band" or "ka band") is a portion of the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum defined as frequencies in the range 26.5–40 gigahertz (GHz), i.e. wavelengths from slightly over one centimeter down to 7.5 millimeters.

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Khabarovsk (p;; ᠪᠣᡥᠣᡵᡳ|v.

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Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory of ethnic Polish descent.

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Ku band

The Ku band is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 12 to 18 gigahertz (GHz).

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A landline telephone (also known as land line, land-line, main line, home phone, landline, fixed-line, and wireline) is a phone that uses a metal wire or optical fiber telephone line for transmission as distinguished from a mobile cellular line, which uses radio waves for transmission.

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Linear polarization

In electrodynamics, linear polarization or plane polarization of electromagnetic radiation is a confinement of the electric field vector or magnetic field vector to a given plane along the direction of propagation.

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List of communication satellite companies

This is a list of all companies currently operating at least one commercial communication satellite or currently has one on order.

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List of communications satellite firsts

Milestones in the history of communications satellites.

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List of orbits

The following is a list of types of orbits.

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LiveTV was a major provider of airline in-flight entertainment systems.

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Lockheed Martin Space Systems

Lockheed Martin Space is one of the four major business divisions of Lockheed Martin.

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Long-distance calling

In telecommunications, a long-distance call or trunk call is a telephone call made to a location outside a defined local calling area.

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Low Earth orbit

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.

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Magadan (p) is a port town and the administrative center of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the Sea of Okhotsk in Nagayev Bay (within Taui Bay) and serving as a gateway to the Kolyma region.

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Mars Exploration Rover

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars.

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Medium Earth orbit

Medium Earth orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), is the region of space around Earth above low Earth orbit (altitude of above sea level) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of above sea level).

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A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Military communications

Military communications or military signals involve all aspects of communications, or conveyance of information, by armed forces.

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Milstar, originally meaning Military Strategic and Tactical Relay, is a constellation of military communications satellites in geostationary orbit, which are operated by the United States Air Force, and provide secure and jam-resistant worldwide communications to meet the requirements of the Armed Forces of the United States.

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Mobile-satellite service

Mobile-satellite service (MSS, or mobile-satellite radiocommunication service) is – according to Article 1.25 of the International Telecommunication Union's Radio Regulations – "A radiocommunication service.

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Molniya (satellite)

Molniya (a, "Lightning") were military communications satellites used by the Soviet Union.

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Multipath interference

Multipath interference is a phenomenon in the physics of waves whereby a wave from a source travels to a detector via two or more paths and, under the right condition, the two (or more) components of the wave interfere.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Deep Space Network

The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is a worldwide network of US spacecraft communication facilities, located in the United States (California), Spain (Madrid), and Australia (Canberra), that supports NASA's interplanetary spacecraft missions.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.

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Network simulation

In computer network research, network simulation is a technique whereby a software program models the behavior of a network by calculating the interaction between the different network entities (routers, switches, nodes, access points, links etc.). Most simulators use discrete event simulation - the modeling of systems in which state variables change at discrete points in time.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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NewSpace—formerly alt.space; also new space, entrepreneurial space, astropreneurship, and commercial space—are umbrella terms for a movement and philosophy encompassing a globally emerging, private spaceflight industry.

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Non-inclined orbit

A non-inclined orbit is an orbit coplanar with a plane of reference.

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Norilsk (p) is an industrial city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located above the Arctic Circle, east of the Yenisei River and south of the western Taymyr Peninsula.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Northrop Grumman

Northrop Grumman Corporation is an American global aerospace and defense technology company formed by Northrop's 1994 purchase of Grumman.

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Orange S.A.

Orange S.A., formerly France Télécom S.A., is a French multinational telecommunications corporation.

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ORBCOMM is an American company that offers industrial Internet of things (IoT) and machine to machine (M2M) communications solutions designed to track, monitor, and control fixed and mobile assets in markets including transportation, heavy equipment, maritime, oil and gas, utilities and government.

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In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

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Orbita (TV system)

Orbita (орбита) is a Soviet-Russian system of broadcasting and delivering TV signals via satellites.

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Orbital elements

Orbital elements are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit.

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Orbital Sciences Corporation

Orbital Sciences Corporation (commonly referred to as Orbital) was an American company specializing in the design, manufacture and launch of small- and medium- class space and rocket systems for commercial, military and other government customers.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Passive repeater

A passive repeater or passive radio link deflection, is a reflective or sometimes refractive panel or other object that assists in closing a radio or microwave link, in places where an obstacle in the signal path blocks any direct, line of sight communication.

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Philco (founded as Helios Electric Company, renamed Philadelphia Storage Battery Company) was a pioneer in battery, radio, and television production.

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PrimeStar was a U.S. direct broadcast satellite broadcasting company formed in 1991 by a consortium of cable television system operators (TCI Satellite Entertainment Group, Time Warner Cable, Cox Communications, Comcast and MediaOne) and GE Americom, the satellite arm of General Electric, collectively referred to as the PrimeStar Partners.

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Project Echo

Project Echo was the first passive communications satellite experiment.

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Public switched telephone network

The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication.

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Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.

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Radio receiver

In radio communications, a radio receiver (receiver or simply radio) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form.

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Reconnaissance satellite

A reconnaissance satellite (commonly, although unofficially, referred to as a spy satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications.

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Recreational vehicle

The term recreational vehicle (RV) is often used as a broad category of motor vehicles and trailers which include living quarters designed for temporary accommodation.

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Reflector (antenna)

An antenna reflector is a device that reflects electromagnetic waves.

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Relay program

The Relay program consisted of Relay 1 and Relay 2, two early American satellites in elliptical Low Earth orbit.

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Remote broadcast

In broadcast engineering, a remote broadcast (usually just called a remote or a live remote, or in news parlance, a live shot) is broadcasting done from a location away from a formal television studio and is considered an electronic field production (EFP).

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Repeaters is a 2010 Canadian thriller film directed by Carl Bessai, written by Arne Olsen, and starring Dustin Milligan, Amanda Crew, and Richard de Klerk as young drug addicts who find themselves stuck in a time loop.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Saint Helena

Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.

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Satcom (satellite)

The Satcom series was a family of communications satellites originally developed and operated by RCA American Communications (RCA Americom).

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Satcom On The Move

Satcom on the Move (SOTM), or satellite communications on the move, is a phrase used in the context of mobile satellite technology, specifically relating to military ground vehicles, Maritime and Airborne platforms.

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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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Satellite constellation

A satellite constellation is a group of artificial satellites working in concert.

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Satellite dish

A satellite dish is a dish-shaped type of parabolic antenna designed to receive or transmit information by radio waves to or from a communication satellite.

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Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.

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Satellite phone

A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a type of mobile phone that connects to orbiting satellites instead of terrestrial cell sites.

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Satellite television

Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.

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SCORE (satellite)

Project SCORE (Signal Communications by Orbiting Relay Equipment) was the world’s first communications satellite.

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SES Astra

SES Astra SA was a corporate subsidiary of SES, based in Betzdorf, in eastern Luxembourg, that maintained and operated the Astra series of geostationary communication satellites between 2001 and 2011.

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SES S.A. is a communications satellite owner and operator providing video and data connectivity worldwide to broadcasters, content and internet service providers, mobile and fixed network operators, governments and institutions, with a mission to “connect, enable, and enrich”.

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Shaw Direct

Shaw Direct is a direct broadcast satellite television distributor in Canada.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Signal strength in telecommunications

In telecommunications, particularly in radio frequency, signal strength (also referred to as field strength) refers to the transmitter power output as received by a reference antenna at a distance from the transmitting antenna.

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Signaling (telecommunications)

In telecommunication, signaling has the following meanings.

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Sky UK

Sky UK (formerly British Sky Broadcasting Limited, BSkyB and Sky) is a telecommunications company which serves the United Kingdom.

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Skynet (satellite)

Skynet is a family of military communications satellites, now operated by Astrium Services on behalf of the UK Ministry of Defence, which provide strategic communication services to the three branches of the British Armed Forces and to NATO forces engaged on coalition tasks.

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Solar cell

A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.

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Solar eclipse

A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and when the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Space segment

The space segment of an artificial satellite system is one of its three operational components (the others being the user and ground segments).

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Spacebus is a satellite bus produced at the Cannes Mandelieu Space Center in France by Thales Alenia Space.

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Spaceway F1

Spaceway F1 is part of DirecTV’s constellation of direct broadcast satellites.

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Sputnik 1

Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.

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SSL (company)

SSL, formerly Space Systems/Loral, LLC (SS/L), of Palo Alto, California, is a wholly owned manufacturing subsidiary of Maxar Technologies.

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Star Bus

Star Bus is a satellite bus family of Orbital ATK.

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Store and forward

Store and forward is a telecommunications technique in which information is sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station.

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Submarine communications cable

A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea.

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Super high frequency

Super high frequency (SHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range between 3 and 30 gigahertz (GHz).

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The SuperDish is a satellite dish that was deployed by Dish Network in November 2003 as a means to provide more channels for subscribing customers.

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Syncom (for "synchronous communication satellite") started as a 1961 NASA program for active geosynchronous communication satellites, all of which were developed and manufactured by Hughes Space and Communications.

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A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.

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TBS (U.S. TV channel)

TBS is an American basic cable and satellite television channel owned by Turner Broadcasting System.

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Telecommunications link

In telecommunications a link is a communication channel that connects two or more devices.

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A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

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Telephone call

A telephone call is a connection over a telephone network between the called party and the calling party.

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Telesat, formerly Telesat Canada, is a Canadian satellite communications company founded on May 2, 1969.

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Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.

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Television network

A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay television providers.

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Television receive-only

Television receive-only (TVRO) is a term used chiefly in North America to refer to the reception of satellite television from FSS-type satellites, generally on C-band analog; free-to-air and unconnected to a commercial DBS provider.

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Telstar is the name of various communications satellites.

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Thales Alenia Space

Thales Alenia Space is a Franco-Italian aerospace manufacturer formed after the Thales Group bought the participation of Alcatel in the two joint-ventures between Alcatel and Leonardo, Alcatel Alenia Space and Telespazio.

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The Weather Channel

The Weather Channel is an American basic cable and satellite television channel, owned by Byron Allen's Entertainment Studios.

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Transmission (telecommunications)

In telecommunications, transmission (abbreviations: TX, Xmit) is the process of sending and propagating an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium, either wired, optical fiber or wireless.

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In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.

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In telecommunication, a transponder can be one of two types of devices.

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Transponder (satellite communications)

A communications satellite's transponder is the series of interconnected units that form a communications channel between the receiving and the transmitting antennas.

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Ultra high frequency

Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Very high frequency

Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meter.

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Videotelephony comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at different locations, for communication between people in real-time.

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Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.

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Weather satellite

The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.

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Westar 1

Westar 1 was America's first domestic and commercially launched geostationary communications satellite, launched by Western Union (WU) and NASA on April 13, 1974.

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Western Union

The Western Union Company is an American financial services and communications company.

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X band

The X band is the designation for a band of frequencies in the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.

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Yagi–Uda antenna

A Yagi–Uda antenna, commonly known as a Yagi antenna, is a directional antenna consisting of multiple parallel elements in a line, usually half-wave dipoles made of metal rods.

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1964 Summer Olympics

The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan, from 10 to 24 October 1964.

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Redirects here:

Aerosat, Broadcast Satellite, Broadcasting Satellite, Broadcasting satellite, Commsat, Communication satellite, Communication satellites, Communications Satellite, Communications satellites, Data relay satellite, Digital satellite technology, Look angle, NGSO, Relay (satellite), Relay satellite, Sat-com, Satcoms, Satellite Communications, Satellite communication, Satellite communications, Satellite transmission, Satellite up-links, Space radiocommunication, Telecommunication satellite, Telecommunications satellite, Television satellite.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communications_satellite

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