248 relations: Alexandra Kollontai, Allies of World War II, Angelica Balabanoff, Anti-Comintern Pact, Antimilitarism, April Theses, Austromarxism, Azerbaijan, Balkans, Béla Kun, Belgian Labour Party, Blackshirts, Bletchley Park, Bolsheviks, British Socialist Party, Bulgaria, Bulgarian Communist Party, C. L. R. James, Chiang Kai-shek, Christian Rakovsky, Cominform, Communism, Communist front, Communist International (magazine), Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Lithuania and Belorussia, Communist Party of Armenia (Soviet Union), Communist Party of Austria, Communist Party of Belgium, Communist Party of Byelorussia, Communist Party of Estonia, Communist Party of Finland, Communist Party of Germany, Communist Party of Italy, Communist Party of Latvia, Communist Party of Lithuania, Communist Party of Poland, Communist Party of Spain, Communist Party of the Netherlands, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union), Communist University of the National Minorities of the West, Communist University of the Toilers of the East, Communist Women's International, Communist Workers' International, Congress of the Peoples of the East, Czech Social Democratic Party, Czechoslovakia, Democratic centralism, Denmark, Dictatorship of the proletariat, ..., Dmitry Manuilsky, Dungan people, Eastern Bloc, Eino Rahja, Emil Stang (born 1882), Endre Rudnyánszky, Europe-Asia Studies, Executive Committee of the Communist International, Far-left politics, Fifth International, Foreign relations of the Soviet Union, Fourth International, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Freikorps, French Communist Party, French Section of the Workers' International, Fritz Platten, Georgi Dimitrov, Georgia (country), Georgy Chicherin, Great Purge, Grigory Zinoviev, Gustav Klinger, György Lukács, Henri Guilbeaux, Hugo Eberlein, Hungarian Communist Party, Hungarian Soviet Republic, Hungary, Hyderabad, Imperialism, Independent Labour Party, Industrial Workers of the World, International Brigades, International Department of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, International Entente Against the Third International, International Lenin School, International Liaison Department (Comintern), International Red Aid, International relations (1919–1939), International Revolutionary Marxist Centre, International Working Union of Socialist Parties, International Workingmen's Association, Iran, Italian Fascism, Italian Socialist Party, Jacques Sadoul, Jaroslav Handlíř, Józef Unszlicht, Jean Jaurès, John Maclean (Scottish socialist), Joint State Political Directorate, Joseph Fineberg, Joseph Stalin, Josip Broz Tito, Jukka Rahja, Karl Korsch, Karl Liebknecht, Khorloogiin Choibalsan, Klassekampen, Krestintern, Kullervo Manner, Kuomintang, Labour movement, Labour Party (Norway), Labour Party (UK), Léon Blum, League against Imperialism, League of Communists of Yugoslavia, Left Party (Sweden), Lenin Boys, Leon Trotsky, Leopold Trepper, Liberal democracy, List of communist parties, List of delegates of the 1st Comintern congress, List of delegates of the 2nd Comintern congress, List of left-wing internationals, List of members of the Comintern, M. N. Roy, Magaza Masanchi, March on Rome, Marshall Plan, Marxism–Leninism, Mexican Communist Party, Mikhail Trilisser, Mir Jafar Baghirov, Mirza Davud Huseynov, Mongolian People's Party, Moscow Sun Yat-sen University, Mustafa Suphi, Mykola Skrypnyk, National unity government, Nazism, New Economic Policy, Nikolai Bukharin, NKVD, Non-interventionism, Occupation of the Ruhr, October Revolution, Otto Grimlund, Otto Rühle, Otto Wille Kuusinen, Palmiro Togliatti, Paris Commune, Patriotism, Paul Levi, Peter Hopkirk, Poland, Popular front, Popular Front (France), Portuguese Socialist Party, Prague, Problems of Peace and Socialism, Profintern, Proletarian internationalism, Rajani Palme Dutt, Ramsay MacDonald, Red, Red Army, Red Sport International, Reformism, Revolutionary defeatism, Revolutionary socialism, Revolutions of 1917–1923, Right Opposition, Romania, Rosa Luxemburg, Roter Frontkämpferbund, Russian Civil War, S. J. Rutgers, Second International, Sen Katayama, Serafima Hopner, Seventh World Congress of the Comintern, Shop steward, Social chauvinism, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social fascism, Socialism in One Country, Socialist Labor Party of America, Socialist Labour Party (UK, 1903), Socialist Party of America, Socialist Party of Romania, Socialist Propaganda League of America, Socialist Workers' Party of China, Spanish Civil War, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, Spartacist uprising, Spartacus League, Staff (military), Stalinism, Stockholm, Syndicalism, The Black Book of Communism, The Communist Manifesto, Third Period, Tours Congress, Triple Alliance (1882), Triple Entente, Turkestan, Turkey, Twenty-one Conditions, Ultra-leftism, United front, United Kingdom, United States, Valerian Osinsky, Vatslav Vorovsky, Victor Serge, Virendranath Chattopadhyaya, Vladimir Lenin, Wafd Party, War communism, What Is To Be Done?, Wilhelm Pieck, Willi Münzenberg, Winston Churchill, Workers International Relief, Workers of the world, unite!, Workers' International Industrial Union, World communism, World revolution, World Revolution (book), World War I, World War II, Yokohama, Young Communist International, Yrjö Sirola, Zimmerwald, Zimmerwald Conference, Zimmerwald Left, 1924 Estonian coup d'état attempt, 1st Congress of the Comintern, 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 2nd World Congress of the Comintern, 4th World Congress of the Communist International. 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Alexandra Mikhailovna Kollontai (Алекса́ндра Миха́йловна Коллонта́й — née Domontovich, Домонто́вич; – 9 March 1952) was a Russian Communist revolutionary, first as a member of the Mensheviks, then from 1915 on as a Bolshevik.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Angelica Balabanoff (or Balabanov, Balabanova; Анжелика Балабанова – Anzhelika Balabanova; 4 August 1878 – 25 November 1965) was a Russian-Jewish-Italian communist and social democratic activist.
The Anti-Comintern Pact was an anti-Communist pact concluded between Germany and Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascist, governments) on November 25, 1936, and was directed against the Communist International.
Antimilitarism (also spelt anti-militarism) is a doctrine that opposes war, relying heavily on a critical theory of imperialism and was an explicit goal of the First and Second International.
The April Theses (Russian: апрельские тезисы, transliteration) were a series of ten directives issued by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin upon his return to Petrograd from his exile in Switzerland via Germany and Finland.
Austro-Marxism was a Marxist theoretical current, led by Victor Adler, Otto Bauer, Karl Renner and Max Adler, members of the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Austria in Austria-Hungary and the First Austrian Republic (1918–1934).
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Béla Kun (20 February 1886 – 29 August 1938), born Béla Kohn, was a Hungarian Communist revolutionary and politician who was the de facto leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919.
The Belgian Labour Party or Belgian Workers' Party (Belgische Werkliedenpartij, BWP; Parti Ouvrier Belge, POB) was the first major socialist party in Belgium.
The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.
Bletchley Park was the central site for British (and subsequently, Allied) codebreakers during World War II.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The British Socialist Party (BSP) was a Marxist political organisation established in Great Britain in 1911.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP; Bulgarian: Българска Комунистическа Партия, Bâlgarska Komunisticheska Partiya (БКП)) was the Communist and Marxist-Leninist ruling party of the People's Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1989 when the country ceased to be a communist state.
Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901 – 31 May 1989), who sometimes wrote under the pen-name J. R. Johnson, was an Afro-Trinidadian historian, journalist and socialist.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
Christian Rakovsky (– September 11, 1941) was a Bulgarian socialist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and Soviet diplomat; he was also noted as a journalist, physician, and essayist.
Founded on October 5, 1947, Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
A Communist front organization is an organization identified as a front organization under the effective control of a Communist party, the Communist International or other Communist organizations.
The Communist International was the eponymous official magazine of the Moscow-based Communist International (Comintern).
The Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Lithuania and Belorussia (Коммунистическая партия (большевиков) Литвы и Беларуси; Lietuvos ir Baltarusijos komunistų partija (bolševikai) abbreviated КП(б)ЛиБ, translit. KP(b)LiB) was a communist party in the Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, existing from March 1919 until November 1920.
The Communist Party of Armenia (Հայաստանի կոմունիստական կուսակցություն, Коммунистическая партия Армении) was a branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union within Armenian SSR, and as such, the sole ruling party in Armenian SSR.
The Communist Party of Austria (Kommunistische Partei Österreichs, KPÖ) is a communist party in Austria.
Communist Party of Belgium (Kommunistische Partij van België, Parti Communiste de Belgique) was a political party in Belgium.
The Communist Party of Byelorussia (Коммунистическая партия Белоруссии, Камуністычная партыя Беларусі), known as Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Byelorussia (Коммунистическая партия (большевиков) Белоруссии) until 1952, was a communist party in Belarus 1918-1991, created following the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Communist Party of Estonia (Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei, EKP; Коммунистическая партия Эстонии) was a political party in Estonia.
The Communist Party of Finland (Suomen Kommunistinen Puolue; Finlands Kommunistiska Parti; abbreviated SKP) was a communist political party in Finland.
The Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.
The Communist Party of Italy (Partito Comunista d'Italia, PCd'I) was a communist political party in Italy which existed from 1921 to 1926 when it was outlawed by Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime.
Communist Party of Latvia (Latvijas Komunistiskā partija, LKP; Коммунистическая партия Латвии) was a political party in Latvia.
The Communist Party of Lithuania (Lietuvos komunistų partija, Коммунистическая партия Литвы) was a communist party in Lithuania, established in early October 1918.
The Communist Party of Poland (Komunistyczna Partia Polski, KPP) was a communist party in Poland.
The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España; PCE) is a historically Marxist-Leninist party that, since 1986, is part of the United Left coalition.
The Communist Party of the Netherlands (Communistische Partij Nederland,, CPN) was a Dutch communist party.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of Ukraine (Комуністична Партія України Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny, КПУ, KPU; Коммунистическая партия Украины), was the founding and ruling political party of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic operated as the Ukrainian branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).
The Communist University of the National Minorities of the West (KUNMZ - Kommunistichesky Universitet Natsionalnykh Menshinstv Zapada; КУНМЗ - Коммунистический университет национальных меньшинств Запада), was created by a 28 November 1921 decree of the Council of People's Commissars and charged with training party cadres from the western regions of Russia and the Volga Germans.
The Communist University of the Toilers of the East (KUTV) (Коммунистический университет трудящихся Востока; also known as the Far East University) was a revolutionary training school for important Communist political leaders.
The Communist Women's International was launched as an autonomous offshoot of the Communist International in April 1920 for the purpose of advancing communist ideas among women.
The Communist Workers' International (Kommunistische Arbeiter-Internationale, KAI) or Fourth Communist International was a council communist international.
The Congress of the Peoples of the East was a multinational conference held in September 1920 by the Communist International in Baku, Azerbaijan (then part of Soviet Russia).
The Czech Social Democratic Party (Česká strana sociálně demokratická, ČSSD) is a social-democratic political party in the Czech Republic.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Democratic centralism is a method of leadership in which political decisions reached by the party through its democratically elected bodies are binding upon all members of the party.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.
Dmitriy Manuilsky, or Dmytro Zakharovych Manuilsky (3 October 1883 in Sviatets near Kremenets – 22 February 1959 in Kiev) was an important Bolshevik, who was a Secretary of Comintern, the Communist International from December 1926 to its dissolution in May 1943.
Dungan (Хуэйзў, Xuejzw xwɛitsu, Xiao'erjing: حُوِ ظُ;; Xiao'erjing: دْوقًا ظُ; Дунгане, Dungane; Дунгандар, Dunğandar, دۇنغاندار; Дүңгендер, Du'n'gender, دٷڭگەندەر) is a term used in territories of the former Soviet Union to refer to a group of Muslim people of Chinese origin.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Eino Abramovich Rahja (20 June 1885, Kronstadt – 26 April 1936) was a Finnish-Russian politician who joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1903, becoming aligned with the party's Bolshevik faction.
Emil Stang, Jr. (22 September 1882 – 21 December 1964) was a Norwegian jurist and politician for the Norwegian Labour Party and for the Communist Party of Norway.
Endre Rudnyánszky (1885 - 1943?) was a Hungarian lawyer, military officer, and communist.
Europe-Asia Studies is an academic peer-reviewed journal published 10 times a year by Routledge on behalf of the Institute of Central and East European Studies, University of Glasgow, and continuing (since vol. 45, 1993) the journal Soviet Studies (vols. 1-44, 1949–1992), which was renamed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Executive Committee of the Communist International, commonly known by its acronym, ECCI (Russian acronym ИККИ), was the governing authority of the Comintern between the World Congresses of that body.
Far-left politics are political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left.
The phrase Fifth International refers to the efforts made by groups of socialists to create a new Workers' International.
At the time of the founding of the Soviet Union (the USSR) in 1922, most governments internationally regarded the Soviet state as a pariah because of its advocacy of communism, and thus most states did not give it diplomatic recognition.
The Fourth International (FI) is a revolutionary socialist international organisation consisting of followers of Leon Trotsky, or Trotskyists, with the declared goal of helping the working class overthrow capitalism and work toward international communism.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.
The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français, PCF) is a communist party in France.
The French Section of the Workers' International (Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière, SFIO) was a French socialist political party founded in 1905 and replaced in 1969 by the current Socialist Party (PS).
Fritz Platten (8 July 1883 – 22 April 1942) was a Swiss Communist, born in the Canton of St. Gallen to an Old Catholic family.
Georgi Dimitrov Mikhaylov (Гео̀рги Димитро̀в Миха̀йлов), also known as Georgi Mikhaylovich Dimitrov (Гео́ргий Миха́йлович Дими́тров; 18 June 1882 – 2 July 1949), was a Bulgarian communist politician.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgy Vasilyevich Chicherin (24 November 1872– 7 July 1936) was a Marxist revolutionary and a Soviet politician.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (– August 25, 1936), born Hirsch Apfelbaum, known also under the name Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician.
Gustav Klinger (1876 – 1937 ?) was a Russian Bolshevik politician.
György Lukács (also Georg Lukács; born György Bernát Löwinger; 13 April 1885 – 4 June 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher, aesthetician, literary historian, and critic.
Henri Guilbeaux (1885–1938) was a French socialist politician.
Hugo Eberlein (May 4, 1887 – October 16, 1941) was a German Communist politician.
The Party of Communists in Hungary (Kommunisták Magyarországi Pártja), renamed Hungarian Communist Party (Magyar Kommunista Párt) in October 1944, was founded on November 24, 1918, and was in power in Hungary briefly from March to August 1919 under Béla Kun and the Hungarian Soviet Republic.
The Hungarian Soviet Republic or literally Republic of Councils in Hungary (Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság or Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság) was a short-lived (133 days) communist rump state.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a British political party of the left, established in 1893, when the Liberals appeared reluctant to endorse working-class candidates, representing the interests of the majority.
The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), members of which are commonly termed "Wobblies", is an international labor union that was founded in 1905 in Chicago, Illinois in the United States of America.
The International Brigades (Brigadas Internacionales) were paramilitary units set up by the Communist International to assist the Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War.
The International Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was a department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union that oversaw the Party's relationships with foreign Communist Parties as well as with international communist front organizations.
The International Entente Against the Third International (Entente internationale contre la III:e internationale, after 1938 the International Anticommunist Entente, Entente Internationale Anticommuniste EIA) was an international anti-communist organisation based in Geneva, Switzerland.
The International Lenin School (ILS) was an official training school operated in Moscow by the Communist International from May 1926 to 1938.
The OMS (Отдел международной связи, otdel mezhdunarodnoy svyazi or ОМС), also known in English as the International Liaison Department (1921-1939), was "the most secret department" of the Comintern.
International Red Aid (also commonly known by its Russian acronym MOPR) was an international social service organization established by the Communist International.
International relations (1919–1939) covers the main interactions shaping world history in this era, with emphasis on diplomacy and economic relations.
The International Revolutionary Marxist Centre was an international association of left-socialist parties.
The International Working Union of Socialist Parties (IWUSP; also known as 2½ International or the Vienna International; Internationale Arbeitsgemeinschaft Sozialistischer Parteien, IASP) was a political international for the co-operation of socialist parties.
The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, 1864–1876), often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
The Italian Socialist Party (PSI) was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy.
Jacques Sadoul (1934 – 18 January 2013) was a French novelist, book editor and non-fiction author.
Jaroslav Handlíř (1888–1942) was a Czech politician and soldier who was a leader in both Czechoslovak and international communism and later joined the Social Democratic Party of Czechoslovakia.
Józef Unszlicht or Iosif Stanislavovich Unshlikht (Ио́сиф Станисла́вович У́ншлихт; nicknames "Jurowski", "Leon") (- July 28, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary activist, one of the founders of the Cheka, and Soviet government official of Polish-Jewish extraction from the Masovian region.
Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès, commonly referred as Jean Jaurès (3 September 185931 July 1914) was a French Socialist leader.
John Maclean (14 August 1879 – 30 November 1923) was a Scottish schoolteacher and revolutionary socialist of the Red Clydeside era.
The Joint State Political Directorate (also translated as the All-Union State Political Administration and Unified State Political Directorate) was the secret police of the Soviet Union from 1923 to 1934.
Joe Fineberg (1886–1957) was a prominent translator for the Communist International.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Jukka Rahja (1887, Kronstadt – 31 August 1920, Petrograd) was a Russian-Finnish Bolshevik who was killed by the Petrograd Opposition.
Karl Korsch (August 15, 1886 – October 21, 1961) was a German Marxist theoretician.
Karl Liebknecht (13 August 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder with Rosa Luxemburg of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany.
Khorloogiin Choibalsan (Хорлоогийн Чойбалсан, (February 8, 1895 – January 26, 1952) was the Communist leader of the Mongolian People's Republic and Marshal (general chief commander) of the Mongolian armed forces from the 1930s until his death in 1952. His rule marked the first and last time in modern Mongolian history that an individual had complete political power. Sometimes referred to as "the Stalin of Mongolia", Choibalsan oversaw Soviet-ordered purges in the late 1930s that resulted in the deaths of an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Mongolians. Most of the victims were Buddhist clergy, intelligentsia, political dissidents, ethnic Buryats and Kazakhs and other "enemies of the revolution." His intense persecution of Mongolia's Buddhists brought about their near complete extinction in the country. Although Choibalsan's devotion to Joseph Stalin helped preserve his country's fledgling independence during the early years of the Mongolian People's Republic (MPR), it also bound Mongolia closely to the Soviet Union. Throughout his rule, Mongolia's economic, political and military ties to the USSR deepened, infrastructure and literacy rates improved and international recognition of Mongolia's independence expanded, especially after World War II.
Klassekampen (The Class Struggle) is a Norwegian daily newspaper, which styles itself as "the daily left-wing newspaper".
The Peasant International (Крестьянский Интернационал), known most commonly by its Russian abbreviation Krestintern (Крестинтерн), was an international peasants' organization formed by the Communist International in October 1923.
Kullervo Achilles Manner (12 October 1880 in Kokemäki, Finland – 15 January 1939 in Ukhta-Pechora, the USSR) was a Finnish journalist and politician, and later a Soviet politician.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.
The Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet, A/Ap), formerly the Norwegian Labour Party, is a social-democratic political party in Norway.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
André Léon Blum (9 April 1872 – 30 March 1950) was a French politician, identified with the moderate left, and three times Prime Minister of France.
The League against Imperialism (Ligue contre l'impérialisme et l'oppression coloniale; Liga gegen Kolonialgreuel und Unterdrückung) was a transnational anti-imperialist organization in the interwar period.
The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, was the country's largest communist party, and the ruling party of SFR Yugoslavia.
The Left Party (Vänsterpartiet, V) is a socialist and feminist political party in Sweden.
The Lenin Boys (Lenin-fiúk) were a band of Communist enforcers formed to support the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic of 1919.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Leopold Trepper (February 23, 1904 – January 19, 1982) was the organizer of the Soviet spy ring ''Rote Kapelle'' (Red Orchestra) prior to and during World War II.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
There are a number of communist parties active in various countries across the world, and a number that used to be active.
This is a list of delegates to the first congress of the Comintern.
Following is a list of delegates at the 2nd Comintern World Congress, held in Petrograd and Moscow from 19 July through 7 August 1920.
This is a list of socialist, communist, and anarchist internationals.
The Comintern had, at the first Congress, voting delegates from the following groups.
Manabendra Nath Roy (21 March 1887 – 24 January 1954), born Narendra Nath Bhattacharya, was an Indian revolutionary, radical activist and political theorist, as well as a noted philosopher in the 20th century.
Magaza Masanchi (1886–1937; Cyrillic Dungan: Магәзы Масанчын), Magaza Masanchin (Cyrillic Dungan: Магәзы Масанчын), or Ma Sanqi, was a Dungan Communist revolutionary commander and Statesman in the Soviet Union.
The March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
The Mexican Communist Party (Partido Comunista Mexicano, PCM) was a communist party in Mexico.
Mikhail Abramovich Trilisser (Ме́ер Абра́мович Трили́ссер; Jewish, born Meier Abramovich Trilisser) (1 April 1883, Astrakhan – 2 February 1940), also known by the pseudonym Moskvin (Москви́н), was a Soviet chief of the Foreign Department of the Cheka and the OGPU.
Mir Jafar Baghirov Abbas oglu (Mir Cəfər Bağırov Abbas oğlu; 17 September 1896 – 7 May 1956) was the communist leader of the Azerbaijan SSR from 1932 to 1953, under the Soviet leadership of Joseph Stalin.
Mirza Davud Baghir oglu Huseynov (Azeri: Mirzə Davud Hüseynov; Russian: Мирза Давуд Гусейнов), also spelled Husseynov or Guseynov (March 1894 – March 21, 1938), was an Azerbaijani revolutionary and statesman.
The Mongolian People's Party (MPP; Монгол Ардын Нам, MAH; Mongol Ardīn Nam, MAN) is the oldest political party in Mongolia.
Moscow Sun Yat-sen University, officially the Sun Yat-sen Communist University of the Toilers of China, was a Comintern school, which operated from 1925-1930 in the city of Moscow, Russia, then the Soviet Union.
Mustafa Suphi (1883 - 28 January 1921) was a Turkish revolutionary communist militant leader.
Mykola Oleksiyovych Skrypnyk (Микола Олексійович Скрипник, also known as Nikolai Alekseevich Skrypnik, 25 January [O.S. 13 January, 1872 – 7 July 1933) was a Ukrainian Bolshevik leader who was a proponent of the Ukrainian Republic's independence, and led the cultural Ukrainization effort in Soviet Ukraine.
A national unity government, government of national unity, or national union government is a broad coalition government consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature, usually formed during a time of war or other national emergency.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The New Economic Policy (NEP, Russian новая экономическая политика, НЭП) was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin in 1921 as a temporary expedient.
Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (– 15 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet politician and prolific author on revolutionary theory.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
Non-interventionism or non-intervention is a foreign policy that holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations but still retain diplomacy and avoid all wars unless related to direct self-defense.
The Occupation of the Ruhr (Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to meet its second reparation payment of the £6.6 billion that was dictated in the Treaty of Versailles by the Triple Entente(1919) in the aftermath of World War I.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Otto Bernhard Grimlund (30 December 1893 – 15 September 1969) was a Swedish Communist politician.
Otto Rühle (23 October 1874 in Großschirma – 24 June 1943 in Mexico) was a student of Alfred Adler and a German Marxist active in opposition to both the First and Second World Wars.
Otto Wilhelm (Wille) Kuusinen (О́тто Вильге́льмович Ку́усинен, Otto Vilgelmovich Kuusinen) (4 October 1881 – 17 May 1964) was a Finnish and, later, Soviet politician, literary historian, and poet who, after the defeat of the Reds in the Finnish Civil War, fled to the Soviet Union, where he worked until his death.
Palmiro Togliatti (26 March 1893 – 21 August 1964) was an Italian politician and leader of the Italian Communist Party from 1927 until his death.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.
Paul Levi (March 11, 1883 – February 9, 1930) was a German Communist and Social Democratic political leader.
Peter Hopkirk (15 December 1930 – 22 August 2014) was a British journalist, author and historian who wrote six books about the British Empire, Russia and Central Asia.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A popular front is a broad coalition of different political groupings, usually made up of leftists and centrists.
The Popular Front (Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.
The Portuguese Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Português) was a political party in Portugal.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Problems of Peace and Socialism (Russian: Проблемы мира и социализма), also commonly known as World Marxist Review (WMR), the name of its English-language edition, was a theoretical journal containing jointly-produced content by Communist and workers parties from around the world.
The Red International of Labor Unions (RILU) (Russian: Красный интернационал профсоюзов — Krasnyi internatsional profsoyuzov), commonly known as the Profintern, was an international body established by the Communist International with the aim of coordinating Communist activities within trade unions.
Proletarian internationalism, sometimes referred to as international socialism, is the perception of all communist revolutions as being part of a single global class struggle rather than separate localized events.
Rajani Palme Dutt (19 June 1896 – 20 December 1974), generally known as R. Palme Dutt, was a leading journalist and theoretician in the Communist Party of Great Britain.
James Ramsay MacDonald, (né James McDonald Ramsay; 12 October 18669 November 1937) was a British statesman who was the first Labour Party politician to become Prime Minister, leading minority Labour governments in 1924 and in 1929–31.
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The International Association of Red Sports and Gymnastics Associations, commonly known as Red Sport International (RSI) or Sportintern was a Comintern-supported international sports organization established in July 1921.
Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.
Revolutionary defeatism is a concept made most prominent by Vladimir Lenin in World War I. It is based on the Marxist idea of class struggle.
Revolutionary socialism is the socialist doctrine that social revolution is necessary in order to bring about structural changes to society.
The Revolutions of 1917–1923 were a period of political unrest and revolts around the world inspired by the success of the Russian Revolution and the disorder created by the aftermath of World War I. The uprisings were mainly socialist or anti-colonial in nature and were mostly short-lived, failing to have a long-term impact.
The Right Opposition (Pravaya oppozitsiya) was the name given to the tendency made up of Nikolai Bukharin, Alexei Rykov, Mikhail Tomsky and their supporters within the Soviet Union in the late 1920s.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.
The Roter Frontkämpferbund, "Alliance of Red Front-Fighters"), usually called Rotfrontkämpferbund, abbreviated RFB, was officially a non-partisan and legally registered association, but in practice a paramilitary organization under the leadership of the Communist Party of Germany during the Weimar Republic. The first local groups of the RFB were established in July 1924 and Ernst Thälmann was elected the first leader of the federal committee during the first nationwide meeting in February 1925 in Berlin. Die Rote Front (The Red Front) was the newspaper of the RFB. The greeting of “Rot Front!” (Red Front!) while rising a clenched fist was responsible for the expression Rotfront, often used among friends and foes to refer to the organization instead of using the entire title of the alliance. The clenched fist "protecting the friend, fighting off the enemy" ("schützend den Freund, abwehrend den Feind") was the symbol of the RFB used on all its insignias and its registered trademark since March 1, 1926. In May 1926, during a flag parade, activists use it as a sign of rallying to the movement and as an oath to defend the USSR.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
Sebald Justinus Rutgers (1879–1961) was a Dutch Marxist theoretician and journalist who played an important role in the Left Wing section of the Socialist Party of America.
The Second International (1889–1916), the original Socialist International, was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889.
Sen Katayama (片山 潜 Katayama Sen, December 26, 1859 – November 5, 1933), born Yabuki Sugataro (藪木 菅太郎 Yabuki Sugatarō), was an early member of the American Communist Party and co-founder, in 1922, of the Japanese Communist Party.
Serafima Hopner (Серафима Ильинична Гопнер; 1880–1966) was a Bolshevik politician, a Hero of Socialist Labor (1960), and a Doctor of Historical Sciences (1934).
The 7th World Congress of the Communist International (Comintern) was a multinational conference held in Moscow from July 25 through August 20, 1935 by delegated representatives of ruling and non-ruling communist parties from around the world and invited guests representing other political and organized labor organizations.
Shop stewards are representatives of labour unions.
Social chauvinism can be described as aggressive or fanatical patriotism, particularly during time of war, in support of one's own nation (e.g., government, culture, etc.) versus other nation(s), displayed by those who are socialists or social democrats.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Swiss Socialist Party; Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz, SP; Parti socialiste suisse, PS; Partito Socialista Svizzero; Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra) is a political party in Switzerland.
Social fascism was a theory supported by the Communist International (Comintern) during the early 1930s, which held that social democracy was a variant of fascism because—in addition to a shared corporatist economic model—it stood in the way of a dictatorship of the proletariat.
Socialism in one country (sotsializm v odnoi strane) was a theory put forth by Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Bukharin in 1924 which was eventually adopted by the Soviet Union as state policy.
The Socialist Labor Party"The name of this organization shall be Socialist Labor Party".
The Socialist Labour Party was a socialist political party in the United Kingdom.
The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a multi-tendency democratic socialist and social democratic political party in the United States formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party of America which had split from the main organization in 1899.
The Socialist Party of Romania (Partidul Socialist din România, commonly known as Partidul Socialist, PS) was a Romanian socialist political party, created on December 11, 1918 by members of the Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSDR), after the latter emerged from clandestinity.
The Socialist Propaganda League of America was established in 1915, apparently by C.W. Fitzgerald of Beverly, Massachusetts.
The Socialist Workers' Party(), was a political party, formed by Chinese workers in Russia in January 1919.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; PSOE) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources.
The Spartacist uprising (Spartakusaufstand), also known as the January uprising (Januaraufstand), was a general strike (and the armed battles accompanying it) in Germany from 4 to 15 January 1919.
The Spartacus League (Spartakusbund) was a Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during World War I. The League was named after Spartacus, leader of the largest slave rebellion of the Roman Republic.
A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Syndicalism is a proposed type of economic system, considered a replacement for capitalism.
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a 1997 book by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Andrzej Paczkowski and several other European academics documenting a history of political repressions by Communist states, including genocides, extrajudicial executions, deportations, killing population in labor camps and artificially created famines.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Third Period is an ideological concept adopted by the Communist International (Comintern) at its Sixth World Congress, held in Moscow in the summer of 1928.
The Tours Congress was the 18th National Congress of the French Section of the Workers' International, or SFIO, which took place in Tours on 25–30 December 1920.
The Triple Alliance was a secret agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Twenty-one Conditions, officially the Conditions of Admission to the Communist International, refer to the conditions, most of which were suggested by Vladimir Lenin, to the adhesion of the socialist parties to the Third International (Comintern) created in 1919.
The term ultra-leftism has two overlapping uses.
A united front is an alliance of groups against their common enemies, figuratively evoking unification of previously separate geographic fronts and/or unification of previously separate armies into a front—the name often refers to a political and/or military struggle carried out by revolutionaries, especially in revolutionary socialism, communism or anarchism.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Valerian Obolensky-Ossinsky (1887 – 1 September 1938) was a Russian revolutionary Marxist and Professor of the Agricultural Academy of Moscow.
Vatslav Vatslavovich Vorovsky (Russian: Ва́цлав Ва́цлавович Воро́вский; Polish: Wacław Worowski) (1871 – 1923) was a Marxist revolutionary, literary critic, and Soviet Russian diplomat.
Victor Serge, born Victor Lvovich Kibalchich (Ви́ктор Льво́вич Киба́льчич; December 30, 1890 – November 17, 1947), was a Russian revolutionary and writer.
Virendranath Chattopadhyaya (বীরেন্দ্রনাথ চট্টোপাধ্যায়), alias Chatto, (1880 – 2 September 1937, Moscow), was a prominent Indian revolutionary who worked to overthrow the British Raj in India by using the force of arms as a tool.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
The Wafd Party ("Delegation Party"; حزب الوفد, Hizb al-Wafd) was a nationalist liberal political party in Egypt.
War communism or military communism (Военный коммунизм, Voyennyy kommunizm) was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1921.
What Is To Be Done? Burning Questions of Our Movement (Chto delat'?), is a political pamphlet written by the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin (credited as "N. Lenin") in 1901 and published in 1902.
Friedrich Wilhelm Reinhold Pieck (3 January 1876 – 7 September 1960) was a German politician and Communist.
Wilhelm "Willi" Münzenberg (14 August 1889, Erfurt, Germany – June 1940, Saint-Marcellin, France) was a communist political activist.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Workers International Relief (WIR) — also known as Internationale Arbeiter-Hilfe (IAH) in German and as Международная рабочая помощь (Mezhdunarodny Rabochy Komitet Pomoshchi Golodayushchim Rossii − Mezhrabpom) in Russian — was an adjunct of the Communist International initially formed to channel relief from international working class organizations and communist parties to famine-stricken Soviet Russia.
The political slogan "Workers of the world, unite!" is one of the most famous rallying cries from The Communist Manifesto (1848) by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Proletarier aller Länder vereinigt Euch!, literally "Proletarians of all countries, unite!", but soon popularised in English as "Workers of the world, unite! You have nothing to lose but your chains!").
The Workers' International Industrial Union (WIIU) was a Revolutionary Industrial Union headquartered in Detroit in 1908 by radical trade unionists closely associated with the Socialist Labor Party of America, headed by Daniel DeLeon.
World communism (also international communism and global communism) is a form of communism of international scope.
World revolution is the far-left Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class.
World Revolution, 1917–1936: The Rise and Fall of the Communist International was written by the black Trinidadian Marxist C. L. R. James and published in 1937 by Secker and Warburg.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
, literally "Port to the side" or "Beside the port", is the second largest city in Japan by population, after Tokyo, and the most populous municipality of Japan.
The Young Communist International was the parallel international youth organization affiliated with the Communist International (Comintern).
Yrjö Elias Sirola (born Yrjö Elias Sirén, 1876–1936) was a Finnish socialist politician, teacher, and newspaper editor.
Zimmerwald was an independent municipality in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland until 31 December 2003.
The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from 5 to 8 September 1915.
The Zimmerwald Left was a revolutionary minority faction at the Zimmerwald Peace Conference of 1915, headed by Lenin.
The Attempted coup of 1924 in Estonia (1.),Estonia and the Estonians, Hoover Institution Press, p.15 conducted by the Comintern, was a failed coup attempt in Estonia staged by Communists (mostly infiltrated from Soviet Union) on December 1, 1924.
The 1st Congress of the Comintern was an international gathering of communist, revolutionary socialist, and syndicalist delegates held in Moscow which established the Communist International (Comintern).
The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during the period 14–25 February 1956.
The 2nd World Congress of the Comintern was a gathering of approximately 220 voting and non-voting representatives of Communist and revolutionary socialist political parties from around the world, held in Petrograd and Moscow from July 19 to August 7, 1920.
The 4th World Congress of the Communist International was an assembly of delegates to the Communist International held in Petrograd and Moscow, Soviet Russia, between November 5 and December 5, 1922.
3rd international, COMINTERN, ComIntern, Cominterm, Comintern, Communist movements, Second Congress of Comintern, Second Congress of the Third International, The third international, Third (Communist) International, Third International, Third International (Comintern), Third International (politics), Сomintern.