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The al-Assad family (عائِلَة الأَسَد) has ruled Syria since Hafez al-Assad became President of Syria in 1971 and established an authoritarian government under the control of the Ba'ath Party.
The All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) is the nationalised organisation federation of the People's Republic of China.
The All-China Women's Federation (Chinese:中华全国妇女联合会, pinyin: Zhōnghuá Quánguó Fùnǚ Liánhéhuì), also known as the ACWF, is a women's rights organization established in China on 24 March 1949.
The All-China Youth Federation (ACYF) is an organization founded in 1949 that represents many youth groups in China, including the Communist Youth League of China.
Anarchism in China was a strong, perhaps predominant, intellectual force in the reform and revolutionary movements in early 20th century China, insisting that the overthrow of the Qing dynasty was not sufficient, but that a true revolution had to overthrow traditional culture and social practices.
Anti-Americanism, anti-American sentiment, or sometimes Americanophobia, is dislike of or opposition to the governmental policies of the United States, especially regarding the foreign policy, or the American people in general.
Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism.
The Arab Socialist Bath Party – Syria Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي – قطر سوريا Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi Al-Ishtiraki – Qutr Suriya), officially the Syrian Regional Branch (Syria being a "region" of the Arab nation in Ba'ath ideology), is a neo-Ba'athist organisation founded on 7 April 1947 by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar and followers of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
Authoritarian socialism refers to a collection of political-economic systems describing themselves as socialist and rejecting the liberal democratic concepts of multi-party politics, freedom of assembly, habeas corpus and freedom of expression.
Autonomous counties and autonomous banners are autonomous administrative divisions of China.
Autonomous prefectures are one type of autonomous administrative divisions of China, existing at the prefectural level, with either ethnic minorities forming over 50% of the population or being the historic home of significant minorities.
An autonomous region (AR) is a first-level administrative division of China.
The Autumn Harvest Uprising was an insurrection that took place in Hunan and Jiangxi provinces, China, on September 7, 1927, led by Mao Zedong, who established a short-lived Hunan Soviet.
Đổi Mới (Renovation) is the name given to the economic reforms initiated in Vietnam in 1986 with the goal of creating a "socialist-oriented market economy".
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (meaning "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabī Al-Ishtirākī), also referred to as the pro-Syrian Ba'ath movement, is a neo-Ba'athist political party with branches across the Arab world.
A banner is an administrative division of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China, corresponding to the county level.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
Big government is a term used to describe a government or public sector that is excessively large and unconstitutionally involved in certain areas of public policy or the private sector.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Cai Hesen (March 30, 1895 – August 4, 1931) was an early leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), and a friend and comrade of Mao Zedong.
In Karl Marx's critique of political economy and subsequent Marxian analyses, the capitalist mode of production refers to the systems of organizing production and distribution within capitalist societies.
The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI) is the highest internal control institution of the Communist Party of China (CPC), tasked with enforcing internal rules and regulations and combating corruption and malfeasance in the Party.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is a political body that comprises the top leaders of the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Central Military Commission (CMC) refers to the parallel national defense organizations of the Communist Party of China and the People's Republic of China: the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China, a Party organ under the CPC Central Committee, and the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China, a central state organ under the National People's Congress, being the military branch of the national government.
The Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in Beijing, also known as the Central Party School, is the higher education institution which specifically trains officials for the Communist Party of China.
The Central Policy Research Office is an institution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China responsible for providing policy recommendations and insights to matters of governance, spanning political, social, and economic realms.
The Chairman of the Central Military Commission has overall responsibility for the Central Military Commission, serving as the commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army.
The Chairman of the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK) is the head of the Workers' Party of Korea, the ruling party of North Korea.
Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) was a Chinese revolutionary socialist, educator, philosopher, and author, who co-founded the Chinese Communist Party (with Li Dazhao) in 1921, serving from 1921 to 1927 as its first General Secretary.
Chen Yun (pronounced; 13 June 1905 – 10 April 1995) was one of the most influential leaders of the People's Republic of China during the 1980s and 1990s.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.
China Radio International (CRI) is a state-owned international radio broadcaster of the People's Republic of China.
Cuban–Chinese relations are the interstate relations between the People's Republic of China and Republic of Cuba, which are both communist states.
China–North Korea relations (中朝关系, zhōngcháo guānxi 조중 관계, chojung kwangye) are bilateral between China and North Korea.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Chinese Communist Revolution started from 1946, after the end of Second Sino-Japanese War, and was the second part of the Chinese Civil War.
The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" in the People's Republic of China (PRC) that was started in December 1978 by reformists within the Communist Party of China, led by Deng Xiaoping.
The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), also known as the People's PCC (人民政协) or just the PCC (政协), is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China.
Collective leadership is a distribution of power within an organisational structure.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
A communist party is a political party that advocates the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy.
The Communist Party of Australia (CPA) was founded in 1920 and dissolved in 1991.
Bangladesher Samyabadi Dal (Marksbadi-Leninbadi) (Communist Party of Bangladesh (Marxist-Leninist)) (বাংলাদেশের সাম্যবাদী দল (মার্কসবাদী-লেনিনবাদী)) is a political party in Bangladesh.
The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (Komunistická strana Čech a Moravy, KSČM) is a communist party in the Czech Republic.
The Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Comunista do Brasil, PCdoB) is a communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Brazil.
The Communist Party of Cuba is the political party that rules in Republic of Cuba, although others exist without legal recognition or incorporation.
The Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) (नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (एकीकृत मार्क्सवादी-लेनिनवादी)) was one of the two major communist parties in Nepal.
The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España; PCE) is a historically Marxist-Leninist party that, since 1986, is part of the United Left coalition.
The Communist Party of Sri Lanka (Sri Lankavay Komiyunist Pakshaya இலங்கை கம்யூனிஸ்ட் கட்சி) is a communist party in Sri Lanka.
The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF; Коммунистическая Партия Российской Федерации; КПРФ; Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, KPRF) is a communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Russia.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Communist Youth League of China, also known as the Young Communist League of China or simply the Communist Youth League, is a youth movement of the People's Republic of China for youth between the ages of fourteen and twenty-eight, run by the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Central Compilation and Translation Bureau is an organ under the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China established in 1953.
The Constitution of the Communist Party of China (CPC) has 53 Articles and includes contents of General Program, Membership, Organization System, Central Organizations, Local Organizations, Primary Organizations, Party Cadres, Party Discipline, Party Organs for Discipline Inspection, Leading Party Members' Groups, Relationship Between the Party and the Communist Youth League, Party Emblem and Flag.
Corruption in Mexico has permeated several segments of society – political, economic, and social – and has greatly affected the country’s legitimacy, transparency, accountability, and effectiveness.
Counties, formally county-level divisions, are found in the third level of the administrative hierarchy in Provinces and Autonomous regions, and the second level in municipalities and Hainan, a level that is known as "county level" and also contains autonomous counties, county-level cities, banners, autonomous banner, and City districts.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
David Shambaugh (，born January 18, 1953) is a professor of political science and international affairs at the George Washington University in Washington DC,Elliott School of International Affairs, as well as a non-resident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Democratic centralism is a method of leadership in which political decisions reached by the party through its democratically elected bodies are binding upon all members of the party.
Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.
Deng Xiaoping Theory, also known as Dengism, is the series of political and economic ideologies first developed by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping.
In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.
A municipality, also translated as direct-controlled municipality (informally, municipality directly under the central government, or province-level municipality), is the highest level of classification for cities used by the People's Republic of China.
Discipline is action or inaction that is regulated to be in accordance (or to achieve accord) with a system of governance.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organisations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future."Suttner, R. (2006), "Party dominance 'theory': Of what value?", Politikon 33 (3), pp.
The Dominican Workers Party (Partido de los Trabajadores Dominicanos, or PTD) is a communist party of the Dominican Republic.
The socialist market economy of the People's Republic of China is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's largest economy by purchasing power parity according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), although China's National Bureau of Statistics denies the latter assessment.
The economy of Mexico is the 15th largest in the world in nominal terms and the 11th largest by purchasing power parity, according to the International Monetary Fund. Since the 1994 crisis, administrations have improved the country's macroeconomic fundamentals. Mexico was not significantly influenced by the 2002 South American crisis, and maintained positive, although low, rates of growth after a brief period of stagnation in 2001. However, Mexico was one of the Latin American nations most affected by the 2008 recession with its Gross Domestic Product contracting by more than 6% in that year. The Mexican economy has had an unprecedented macroeconomic stability, which has reduced inflation and interest rates to record lows and has increased per capita income. In spite of this, enormous gaps remain between the urban and the rural population, the northern and southern states, and the rich and the poor. Some of the unresolved issues include the upgrade of infrastructure, the modernization of the tax system and labor laws, and the reduction of income inequality. Tax revenues, all together 19.6 percent of GDP in 2013, are the lowest among the 34 OECD countries. The economy contains rapidly developing modern industrial and service sectors, with increasing private ownership. Recent administrations have expanded competition in ports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution and airports, with the aim of upgrading infrastructure. As an export-oriented economy, more than 90% of Mexican trade is under free trade agreements (FTAs) with more than 40 countries, including the European Union, Japan, Israel, and much of Central and South America. The most influential FTA is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which came into effect in 1994, and was signed in 1992 by the governments of the United States, Canada and Mexico. In 2006, trade with Mexico's two northern partners accounted for almost 90% of its exports and 55% of its imports.. The World Factbook. CIA. Recently, the Congress of the Union approved important tax, pension and judicial reforms, and reform to the oil industry is currently being debated. Mexico had 15 companies in the Forbes Global 2000 list of the world's largest companies in 2016. Mexico's labor force is 52.8 million as of 2015. The OECD and WTO both rank Mexican workers as the hardest-working in the world in terms of the amount of hours worked yearly, although profitability per man-hour remains low.
The economy of North Korea is a centrally planned system, where the role of market allocation schemes is limited, though increasing.
El Universal is a major Venezuelan newspaper, headquartered in Caracas with an average daily circulation of about 150,000.
Far-left politics are political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba (Primer Secretario del Comité Central del Partido Comunista de Cuba.) is the highest office within the Communist Party of Cuba and is ranked first in the Politburo, the highest decision-making body in Cuba, which makes the office holder the most powerful person in Cuban government.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français, PCF) is a communist party in France.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
The General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, often referred to as the Central Office (中办), is an office directly under the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in charge of the routine administrative affairs of the Central Committee and its Politburo.
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest-ranking official within the People's Republic of China.
Gennady Andreyevich Zyuganov (Генна́дий Андре́евич Зюга́нов; born 26 June 1944) is a Russian communist politician who has been the leader of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation since 1993.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
The central government of the People's Republic of China is divided among several state organs.
The Green Gang was a Chinese secret society and criminal organization, which was prominent in criminal, social and political activity in Shanghai during the early to mid 20th century.
Guided democracy, also called managed democracy, is a formally democratic government that functions as a de facto autocracy.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
The hammer and sickle (☭) or sickle and hammer (translit) is a communist symbol that was adopted during the Russian Revolution.
Han Zheng (born April 1954) is a Chinese politician, and a member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, serving as First Vice Premier of the State Council since March 2018.
The Harmonious Society has been a socioeconomic vision in China.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
---- Hu Jintao (born 21 December 1942) is a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012.
Hua Guofeng (born Su Zhu; 16 February 1921 – 20 August 2008) was a Chinese politician who served as Chairman of the Communist Party of China and Premier of the People's Republic of China.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
The Hungarian Workers' Party (Magyar Munkáspárt) is a communist party in Hungary led by Gyula Thürmer.
The ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was Marxism–Leninism, an ideology of a centralised, planned economy and a vanguardist one-party state, which was the dictatorship of the proletariat.
The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI) is a Mexican political party founded in 1929 that held power uninterruptedly in the country for 71 years from 1929 to 2000, first as the National Revolutionary Party (Partido Nacional Revolucionario, PNR), then as the Party of the Mexican Revolution (Partido de la Revolución Mexicana, PRM), and finally renaming itself as the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1946.
The International Liaison Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (ILD), better known by its former name International Department (ID), is an agency under the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in charge of conducting its foreign relations with other political parties.
The International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties (IMCWP) is an annual conference attended by communist and workers' parties from several nations.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jerónimo Carvalho de Sousa (born 13 April 1947) is a Portuguese politician who has been General Secretary of the Portuguese Communist Party since the 17th Congress of the Party in November 2004.
Jiang Zemin (born 17 August 1926) is a retired Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2004, and as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
The Jinggang Mountains are a mountain range of the Luoxiao Mountains System (罗霄山), in the remote border region of Jiangxi and Hunan Provinces.
Kang Sheng (c. 1898 – December 16, 1975) was a Communist Party of China (CPC) official best known for having overseen the work of the CPC's internal security and intelligence apparatus during the early 1940s and again at the height of the Cultural Revolution in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The Kim dynasty, referred to in North Korea as the Mount Paektu Bloodline, is a three-generation lineage of North Korean leadership descended from the country's first leader, Kim Il-sung, in 1948.
Kim Jong-il (or Kim Jong Il) (16 February 1941 – 17 December 2011) was the second Supreme Leader of North Korea, from the death of his father Kim Il-sung, the first Supreme Leader of North Korea, in 1994 until his own death in 2011.
The Korean People's Army (KPA) is an institution of the Workers' Party of Korea, and constitutes the de facto military force of North Korea.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The leader, now officially the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of China (CPC), is by right of office the Chairman of the Central Military Commission and the President of the People's Republic of China.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
Li Dazhao (October 29, 1888 – April 28, 1927) was a Chinese intellectual who co-founded the Communist Party of China with Chen Duxiu and other early communists in 1921.
Li Keqiang (Mandarin:; born 1 July 1955) is the current Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China.
Lǐ Lìsān (November 18, 1899 – June 22, 1967) was an early leader of the Chinese communists, and the top leader of the Chinese Communist Party from 1928 to 1930, member of the Politburo, and later a member of the Central Committee.
Li Xiannian (pronounced; 23 June 1909 – 21 June 1992) was a President of the People's Republic of China between 1983 and 1988 and then Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference until his death.
Li Zhanshu (born August 30, 1950) is a Chinese politician, and the current chairman of National People's Congress.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
The, frequently abbreviated to LDP or, is a conservative political party in Japan.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
China, officially the People's Republic of China, is formally a multi-party state under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in a United Front similar to the popular fronts of former Communist-era Eastern European countries such as the National Front of Democratic Germany.
Liu Qibao (born January 1953) is a Chinese politician.
Liu Yunshan (born July 1947) is a retired Chinese politician.
Machismo ((from Spanish and Portuguese "macho", male) is the sense of being 'manly' and self-reliant, the concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride: an exaggerated masculinity." It is associated with "a man’s responsibility to provide for, protect, and defend his family." In American political usage, William Safire said that it refers to the... "condescension of the swaggering male; the trappings of manliness used to dominate women and keep them 'in their place....'" The word macho has a long history in both Spain and Portugal as well as in Spanish and Portuguese languages. It was originally associated with the ideal societal role men were expected to play in their communities, most particularly, Iberian language-speaking societies and countries. Macho in Portuguese and Spanish is a strictly masculine term, derived from the Latin mascŭlus meaning male (today hombre or varón, c.f. Portuguese homem and now-obsolete for humans varão; macho and varão, in their most common sense, are used for males of non-human animal species). Machos in Iberian-descended cultures are expected to possess and display bravery, courage and strength as well as wisdom and leadership, and ser macho (literally, "to be a macho") was an aspiration for all boys. During the women's liberation movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the term began to be used by Latin American feminists to describe male aggression and violence. The term was used by Latina feminists and scholars to criticize the patriarchal structure of gendered relations in Latino communities. Their goal was to describe a particular Latin American brand of patriarchy.Opazo, R. M (2008). Latino Youth and Machismo: Working Towards a More Complex Understanding of Marginalized Masculinities. Retrieved From Ryerson University Digital Commons Thesis Dissertation Paper 108. http://digitalcommons.ryerson.ca/dissertations/108 The English word "machismo" derives from the identical Spanish and Portuguese word. Portuguese and Spanish machismo refers to the assumption that masculinity is superior to femininity in males, a concept similar to R. W. Connell's hegemonic masculinity.Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Los Angeles, California, United States: University of California Press Gender roles make an important part of human identity as we conduct our identities through our historical and current social actions. Machismo's attitudes and behaviours may be frowned upon or encouraged at various degrees in various societies or subcultures – albeit it is frequently associated with more patriarchial undertones, primarily in present views on the past.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Marketization or marketisation is a restructuring process that enables state enterprises to operate as market-oriented firms by changing the legal environment in which they operate.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
The Militia, Article 22: "The armed forces of the People’s Republic of China are composed of the active and reserve forces of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, the Chinese People's Armed Police Force and the Militia.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China (MOFA or MFA) under the State Council of the Government of the People's Republic of China is an executive agency responsible for foreign relations between the People's Republic of China and other countries in the world.
Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China.
The Nanchang Uprising was the first major Kuomintang–Communist engagement of the Chinese Civil War, begun by the Communists to counter the anti-communist purges by the Nationalist Party of China.
The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (NCCPC;; literally: Chinese Communist Party National Representatives Congress) is a party congress that is held every five years.
The National People's Congress (usually abbreviated NPC) is the national legislature of the People's Republic of China. With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parliamentary body in the world. Under China's Constitution, the NPC is structured as a unicameral legislature, with the power to legislate, the power to oversee the operations of the government, and the power to elect the major officers of state. However, the NPC has been described as a "rubber stamp," having "never rejected a government proposal" in its history. The NPC is elected for a term of five years. It holds annual sessions every spring, usually lasting from 10 to 14 days, in the Great Hall of the People on the west side of Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The NPC's sessions are usually timed to occur with the meetings of the National Committee of the People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a consultative body whose members represent various social groups. As the NPC and the CPPCC are the main deliberative bodies of China, they are often referred to as the Lianghui (Two Assemblies). According to the NPC, its annual meetings provide an opportunity for the officers of state to review past policies and present future plans to the nation.
The Central National Security Commission (abbreviated CNSC) of the Communist Party of China (CPC) was established at the 3rd Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee in November 2013, and was considered a "major regrouping of the top CCP power structure." The factors driving the establishment of the CNSC were security challenges faced by the Chinese Party-State, and the deficiencies of the current system The CNSC aims to consolidate political leadership of all components of the security apparatus controlled by the Communist Party, including those headed formerly by former Politburo Standing Committee member Zhou Yongkang.
The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 to 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party).
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912 to address China’s problems.
News Corporation (officially referred to and trading as News Corp) is an American multinational mass media company, formed as a spin-off of the former News Corporation (as founded by Rupert Murdoch in 1979) focusing on newspapers and publishing.
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The North Korean cult of personality surrounding its ruling family, the Kim family, has existed in North Korea for decades and can be found in many examples of North Korean culture.
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of persons.
The Organization Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is a department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China that controls staffing positions within the CPC.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In modern Chinese politics, the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the State is an informal term that refers to the most prominent political leader in the People's Republic of China.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Party for the Transformation of Honduras (in Spanish: Partido para la Transformación de Honduras) was a political party in Honduras.
Peking University (abbreviated PKU or Beida; Chinese: 北京大学, pinyin: běi jīng dà xué) is a major Chinese research university located in Beijing and a member of the C9 League.
The People's Action Party (abbreviation: PAP) is a major right-wingPartido de Ação Popular political party in Singapore.
The Chinese People's Armed Police Force (abbreviated: PAP) is a Chinese paramilitary police (Gendarmerie) force primarily responsible for internal security, law enforcement and maritime rights protection in China, as well as providing support to the PLA Ground Force during wartime.
The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
Pierre Laurent (born 1 July 1957) is a French politician and journalist.
"Pink tide" (marea rosa, onda rosa) and "turn to the Left" (Sp.: vuelta hacia la izquierda, Pt.: Guinada à Esquerda) are phrases used in contemporary 21st century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to describe the perception of a turn towards left wing governments in Latin American democracies straying away from the neo-liberal economic model.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
The Central Politburo of the Communist Party of China, formally known as the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and known as Central Bureau (中央局) before 1927, is a group of 25 people who oversee the Communist Party of China.
The Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China, usually known as the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), is a committee consisting of the top leadership of the Communist Party of China.
The politics of the People's Republic of China takes place in a framework of a socialist republic run by a single party, the Communist Party of China, headed by General Secretary.
The politics of Japan are conducted in a framework of a multi-party bicameral parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy whereby the Emperor is the ceremonial head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government and the head of the Cabinet, which directs the executive branch.
The Politics of Mexico take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic whose government is based on a congressional system, whereby the President of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system.
The politics of Singapore takes the form of a parliamentary representative democratic republic whereby the President of Singapore is the head of state, the Prime Minister of Singapore is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.
The Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Português,, PCP) is a major political party in Portugal.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The primary stage of socialism (sometimes referred to as the preliminary stage of socialism),Properly Understand Theories Concerning Preliminary Stage of Socialism, by Wei Xinghua and Sang Baichuan.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions.
The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.
The Publicity Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, or CCPPD, is an internal division of the Communist Party of China in charge of ideology-related work, as well as its information dissemination system.
Qiushi is a bi-monthly political theory periodical published by the Central Party School and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
In economics, resource allocation is the assignment of available resources to various uses.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Richard McGregor (born 1958) is a journalist, writer, and author.
Robert Lawrence Kuhn (born 1944) is a public intellectual, international corporate strategist and investment banker.
The ruling party or governing party in a democratic parliamentary system is the incumbent political party or coalition of the majority in parliament, that administers the affairs of state.
The Scientific Outlook on Development, sometimes translated to either the scientific development concept, or as the scientific development perspective, is one of the guiding socio-economic principles of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the central feature of former Party General Secretary Hu Jintao's attempts to create a "harmonious society.".
The Second International (1889–1916), the original Socialist International, was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.
The Central Secretariat of the Communist Party of China is a body serving the Politburo of the Communist Party of China and its Standing Committee.
"Seek truth from facts" is a historically established expression (chengyu) that first appeared in the Book of Han.
"Serve the People" or "Service for the People" is a political slogan which first appeared in Mao-era China.
The Shanghai French Concession (Concession française de Changhaï) was a foreign concession in Shanghai, China from 1849 until 1943, which progressively expanded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Shanghai massacre of April 12, 1927, known commonly as the April 12 Incident, was the violent suppression of Communist Party of China (CPC) organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party, or KMT).
Shantou, formerly romanized as Swatow and sometimes known as Santow, is a prefecture-level city on the eastern coast of Guangdong, China, with a total population of 5,391,028 as of 2010 and an administrative area of.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Social issues in China are varied and wide-ranging, and are a combined result of the Chinese economic reforms set in place in the late 1970s, China's political and cultural history, and an immense population.
The theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics (hp) is a broad term for political theories and polices that are seen by their proponents as representing Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese circumstances and specific time periods.
The socialist market economy (SME) is the economic system and model of economic development employed in the People’s Republic of China.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
The South China Morning Post (also known as SCMP or The Post), with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is a Hong Kong English-language newspaper and Hong Kong's newspaper of record.
South Lake is a lake in the South of Jiaxing, Zhejiang, China, and covers an area of 0.54 km².
The informal term "Soviet Empire" is used by critics of the Soviet Union and Russian nationalists"The borders of the Russian World extend significantly farther than borders of Russian Federation.
In journalism, a staff writer byline indicates that the author of the article is an employee of the periodical, as opposed to being an independent freelance writer.
The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) is a committee of about 150 members of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which is convened between plenary sessions of the NPC.
The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China.
State socialism is a classification for any socialist political and economic perspective advocating state ownership of the means of production either as a temporary measure in the transition from capitalism to socialism, or as characteristic of socialism itself.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
The succession of power in the People's Republic of China (PRC) takes place in the context of a single party system.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
The Syrian Arab Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة العربية السورية, Forces armées syriennes) are the military forces of the Syrian Arab Republic.
The Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council is an administrative agency under the State Council of the People's Republic of China.
In various East Asian languages, the phrase "ten thousand years" is used to wish long life, and is typically translated as "Live long!" in English.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
In Marxism, a theoretician is an individual who observes and writes about the condition or dynamics of society, history, or economics, making use of the main principles of Marxian socialism in the analysis.
A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
The Three Represents or the important thought of Three Represents is a guiding socio-political theory credited to Jiang Zemin, which was ratified by the Communist Party of China at the Sixteenth Party Congress in 2002.
The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件), were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, in 1989.
The United Front in China is a popular front of the legally permitted parties in the country, led by the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The United Front Work Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (UFWD) is an agency of the Communist Party of China.
The United Malays National Organisation (Malay: Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu; Jawi: ڤرتوبوهن کبڠساءن ملايو برساتو, abbreviated UMNO or lesser known as PEKEMBAR) is Malaysia's main opposition political party.
The United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela, PSUV) is a socialist political party in Venezuela which resulted from the fusion of some of the political and social forces that support the Bolivarian Revolution led by the late President Hugo Chávez.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
In the context of the theory of Marxist–Leninist revolutionary struggle, vanguardism is a strategy whereby the most class-conscious and politically advanced sections of the proletariat or working class, described as the revolutionary vanguard, form organizations in order to draw larger sections of the working class towards revolutionary politics and serve as manifestations of proletarian political power against its class enemies.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Wang Huning (born October 6, 1955) is Chinese political theorist and one of the top leaders of the Communist Party of China, a current member of the party's Politburo Standing Committee (China's top decision-making body) and secretary of the party's Secretariat.
Wang Yang (born 12 March 1955) is a Chinese politician.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
The Workers Party of Bangladesh (Bengali: বাংলাদেশের ওয়ার্কার্স পার্টি) is a communist party in Bangladesh.
The Workers' Party of Belgium (Partij van de Arbeid van België, PVDA; Parti du Travail de Belgique, PTB; stylized as PVDA+/PTB-GO!) is a far-left political party in Belgium that operates as a single Belgian party, in contrast to most other Belgian political parties, which are either Flemish or Francophone.
The Workers' Party of Korea (WPK) is the founding and ruling political party of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the largest party represented in the Supreme People's Assembly.
World revolution is the far-left Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class.
Wu Guanzheng (born August 1938) is a former Chinese politician and one of the major leaders of the Communist Party of China during the administration of Hu Jintao.
Xi Jinping (born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, simply known as Xi Jinping Thought, is a political theory derived from the Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Xi Jinping.
Xicheng District (lit. "West City District") is a district of Beijing.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Yan'an is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China, bordering Shanxi to the east and Gansu to the west.
Ye Ting (September 10, 1896 – April 8, 1946), born in Huiyang, Guangdong, was a Chinese military leader.
Ye Xiaowen (born August 1950) is a Chinese politician who held various top posts relating to state regulation of religion in China from 1995 to 2009.
The Young Pioneers of China (abbr.) is a mass youth organization for children aged six to fourteen in the People's Republic of China.
A youth wing is a subsidiary, autonomous, or independently allied front of a larger organization that is formed in order to rally support for that organization from members and potential members of a younger age, as well as to focus on subjects and issues more widely relevant among that organization's youth.
Zhang Wentian (30 August 1900 – 1 July 1976), also known as Luo Fu, was a high-ranking leader of the Communist Party of China.
Zhang Zuolin (19 March 1875Xiao, Lin, and Li 1184 June 1928) was the warlord of Manchuria from 1916–28, during the Warlord Era in China.
Zhao Leji (born 8 March 1957) is a senior leader of the Communist Party of China and the Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, the party's top anti-corruption body.
Zhongnanhai is a former imperial garden in the Imperial City, Beijing, adjacent to the Forbidden City; it serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the State Council (Central government) of China.
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.
Zhu De ((also Chu Teh; 1 December 1886 – 6 July 1976) was a Chinese general, warlord, politician, revolutionary and one of the pioneers of the Communist Party of China. Born poor in 1886 in Sichuan, he was adopted by a wealthy uncle at age nine; this prosperity provided him a superior early education that led to his admission into a military academy. After his time at the academy, he joined a rebel army and soon became a warlord. It was after this period that he adopted communism. He ascended through the ranks of the Chinese Red Army as it closed in on securing the nation. By the time China was under Mao's control, Zhu was a high-ranking official within the Communist Party of China. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Eighth Route Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1955 he became one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army, of which he is regarded as the principal founder. Zhu remained a prominent political figure until his death in 1976. As the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1975-76, Zhu was the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
The 13th National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China was elected from October 2017 to February 2018 and is in session from 2018 to 2023.
The 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 2002 to 2007.
The 18th Central Committee (18th CC) was elected by the 18th National Congress on 15 November 2012, and sat in session until the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 2017.
The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China began on November 8, 2012 in Beijing, China, at the Great Hall of the People.
The 1st National Congress of the Communist Party of China was held in Shanghai and Jiaxing between July 23 and August 2, 1921.
The 6th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam (Đại hội Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam VI) (CPV) was held in Ba Đình Hall, Hanoi, between 15 and 18 December 1986.
The 9th National Congress of the Communist Party of China was a pivotal Communist Party Congress in China during the height of the Cultural Revolution.
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