107 relations: Adolf Hitler, Anti-communism, Association for Solidarity Perspectives (Germany), August Thalheimer, Berlin, Berlin Wall, Bundestag, Central Committee, Clara Zetkin, Cold War, Communism, Communist International, Communist Party of Germany (1990), Communist Party of Germany (Opposition), Communist Party of Germany/Marxists–Leninists, Communist state, Communist Workers' Party of Germany, Congress, Council communism, Democratic centralism, Die Rote Fahne, East Germany, Erich Honecker, Erich Mielke, Ernst Meyer (German politician), Ernst Thälmann, Federal Constitutional Court, Franz Mehring, Freies Volk, Freikorps, German Communist Party, German federal election, 1920, German federal election, 1928, German federal election, 1930, German federal election, December 1924, German federal election, July 1932, German federal election, March 1933, German federal election, May 1924, German federal election, November 1932, German resistance to Nazism, German reunification, German Revolution of 1918–19, Germany, Great Purge, Grigory Zinoviev, Gulag, Gustav Noske, Gustav von Wangenheim, Heinrich Brandler, Heinz Neumann, ..., Hermann Remmele, Hotel Lux, Hugo Eberlein, Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany, International Communists of Germany (1918), Joseph Stalin, Karl Liebknecht, Karl Radek, Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative, Leninism, Leo Jogiches, Maoism, Margarete Buber-Neumann, Marinus van der Lubbe, Marxism–Leninism, Merger of the KPD and SPD into the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Nazi Germany, Nazism, New York City, NKVD, October Revolution, Party of Democratic Socialism (Germany), Paul Frölich, Paul Levi, Penguin Group, Prussia, Reichstag (Weimar Republic), Reichstag fire, Reichstag Fire Decree, Revolutionäre Gewerkschafts Opposition, Richard Müller (socialist), Rosa Luxemburg, Roter Frontkämpferbund, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social fascism, Socialism, Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Socialist Unity Party of West Berlin, Socialist Workers' Party of Germany, Soviet Military Administration in Germany, Soviet Union, Spartacist uprising, Spartacus League, Stalinism, The Left (Germany), Trade union, Union of Manual and Intellectual Workers, Walter Ulbricht, Weimar paramilitary groups, Weimar Republic, West German federal election, 1949, West German federal election, 1953, West Germany, Wilhelm Pieck, Willi Münzenberg, World War I, Young Communist League of Germany. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
The Association for Solidarity Perspectives (Verein für solidarische Perspektiven, VsP) is a far-left political organization in Germany.
August Thalheimer (18 March 1884 – 19 September 1948) was a German Marxist activist and theoretician.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
Central Committee was the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, whether ruling or non-ruling in the 20th century and of the surviving communist states in the 21st century.
Clara Zetkin (née Eissner; 5 July 1857 – 20 June 1933) was a German Marxist theorist, activist, and advocate for women's rights.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, abbreviated KPD) is a minor political party in Germany.
The Communist Party of Germany (Opposition) (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (Opposition) or KPD (Opposition), generally abbreviated as KPO or KPDO) was a communist opposition organisation established at the end of 1928 and maintaining its existence until 1939 or 1940.
The Communist Party of Germany/Marxist–Leninist (German: Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands/Marxisten-Leninisten, KPD/ML), established on December 31, 1968, was an anti-revisionist pro-China party in West Germany that was later supportive of communist leader of Albania Enver Hoxha after the Sino-Albanian Split.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
The Communist Workers' Party of Germany (Kommunistische Arbeiter-Partei Deutschlands; KAPD) was an anti-parliamentarian and left communist party that was active in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic.
A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different nations, constituent states, organizations (such as trade unions, and political parties), or groups.
Council communism (also councilism) is a current of socialist thought that emerged in the 1920s.
Democratic centralism is a method of leadership in which political decisions reached by the party through its democratically elected bodies are binding upon all members of the party.
Die Rote Fahne (The Red Flag) was a German newspaper created on 9 November 1918 by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg in Berlin, most famously as organ of the Spartacus League.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Erich Honecker (25 August 1912 – 29 May 1994) was a German politician who, as the General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until the weeks preceding the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. From 1976 onward he was also the country's official head of state as chairman of the State Council following Willi Stoph's relinquishment of the post. Honecker's political career began in the 1930s when he became an official of the Communist Party of Germany, a position for which he was imprisoned during the Nazi era. Following World War II, he was freed and soon relaunched his political activities, founding the youth organisation the Free German Youth in 1946 and serving as the group's chairman until 1955. As the Security Secretary of the Party’s Central Committee in the new East German state, he was the prime organiser of the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 and, in this function, bore responsibility for the "order to fire" along the Inner German border. In 1971, he initiated a political power struggle that led, with Soviet support, to his replacing Walter Ulbricht as First Secretary of the Central Committee and as chairman of the state's National Defense Council. Under his command, the country adopted a programme of "consumer socialism" and moved toward the international community by normalising relations with West Germany and also becoming a full member of the UN, in what is considered one of his greatest political successes. As Cold War tensions eased in the late 1980s under perestroika and glasnost, the liberal reforms of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Honecker refused all but cosmetic changes to the East German political system, citing the continual hardliner attitudes of Kim Il-sung and Fidel Castro, whose respective regimes of North Korea and Cuba had been critical of reforms, leaders who ruthlessly suppressed opposition. As anticommunist protests grew, Honecker begged the USSR to intervene and suppress the protests to maintain communist rule in East Germany like the Prague Spring of 1968 and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; Gorbachev refused. Honecker was forced to resign by his party in October 1989 in a bid to improve the government's image before the public. Honecker's eighteen years at the helm of the soon-to-collapse German Democratic Republic came to an end. Following German reunification, he sought asylum in the Chilean embassy in Moscow in 1991 but was extradited back to Germany a year later to stand trial for his role in the human rights abuses committed by the East German government. However, the proceedings were abandoned due to illness and he was freed from custody to travel to join his family in exile in Chile, where he died in May 1994 from liver cancer.
Erich Fritz Emil Mielke (28 December 1907 – 21 May 2000) was a German communist official who served as head of the East German Ministry for State Security (Ministerium für Staatsicherheit), better known as the Stasi, from 1957 until shortly after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
Ernst Meyer (10 July 1887, Prostken – 2 February 1930, Potsdam) was a German Communist political activist and politician.
Ernst Thälmann (16 April 1886 – 18 August 1944) was the leader of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) during much of the Weimar Republic.
The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany.
Franz Erdmann Mehring (27 February 1846 – 28 January 1919), was a German Communist and a Revolutionary Socialist Politician who was a senior member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany during the German Revolution in 1918–19.
Freies Volk ('Free People') was a newspaper published daily from Düsseldorf, West Germany 1949-1956.
Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.
The German Communist Party (Deutsche Kommunistische Partei, DKP) is a minor communist party in Germany.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 6 June 1920.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 20 May 1928.
The German federal election occurred on 14 September 1930.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 7 December 1924, the second that year.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 31 July 1932, following the premature dissolution of the Reichstag.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 5 March 1933, after the Nazi seizure of power and just six days after the Reichstag fire.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 4 May 1924.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 6 November 1932.
German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus) was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (– August 25, 1936), born Hirsch Apfelbaum, known also under the name Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician.
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
Gustav Noske (9 July 1868 – 30 November 1946) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
Gustav von Wangenheim (born Ingo Clemens Gustav Adolf Freiherr von Wangenheim; 18 February 1895 – 5 August 1975) was a German nobleman, actor, screenwriter and director.
Heinrich Brandler (3 July 1881 – 26 September 1967) was a German communist trade unionist, politician, revolutionary activist, and writer.
Heinz Neumann (6 July 1902 – 26 November 1937) was a German politician from the Communist Party (KPD) and a journalist.
Hermann Remmele (November 15, 1880 – March 7, 1939) was a German socialist politician (SPD, USPD, KPD).
The former Hotel Lux in Moscow. Hotel Lux (Люксъ) was a hotel in Moscow that, during the early years of the Soviet Union, housed many leading exiled Communists.
Hugo Eberlein (May 4, 1887 – October 16, 1941) was a German Communist politician.
The Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, USPD) was a short-lived political party in Germany during the German Empire and the Weimar Republic.
International Communists of Germany (Internationalen Kommunisten Deutschlands) (IKD) was a Communist political grouping founded in November 1918 during the German Revolution.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Karl Liebknecht (13 August 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder with Rosa Luxemburg of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany.
Karl Berngardovich Radek (31 October 1885 – 19 May 1939) was a Marxist active in the Polish and German social democratic movements before World War I and an international Communist leader in the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution.
Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative (Arbeit und soziale Gerechtigkeit – Die Wahlalternative, WASG) was a left-wing German political party founded in 2005 by activists disenchanted with the ruling Red-Green coalition government.
Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
Leon "Leo" Jogiches (German: Leo Jogiches; Russian: Лев "Лео" Йогихес; 1867 – 1919), also commonly known by the party name Jan Tyszka, was a Marxist revolutionary of Polish-Jewish descent active in Poland, Lithuania and Germany.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
Margarete Buber-Neumann (1901–1989), a German communist, wrote the memoir Under Two Dictators about her imprisonment in concentration camps during World War II in both the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany and testified in the so-called "trial of the century" about the Kravchenko Affair in France.
Marinus (Rinus) van der Lubbe (13 January 1909 – 10 January 1934) was a Dutch council communist tried, convicted and executed for setting fire to the German Reichstag building on 27 February 1933, an event known as the Reichstag fire.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
The merger of the Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) into the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED) occurred on 21 April 1946 in the territory of the Soviet occupation zone: it is also called the forced merger of the KPD and SPD.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Party of Democratic Socialism (Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus, PDS) was a democratic socialist political party in Germany active between 1989 and 2007.
Paul Frölich (7 August 1884 – 16 March 1953) was a journalist and left wing political activist who was a founding member of the Communist Party of Germany and founder of the party's paper, Die Rote Fahne. A Communist Party deputy in the Reichstag on two occasions, Frölich was expelled from the Party in 1928, after which he joined the organized German Communist Opposition movement.
Paul Levi (March 11, 1883 – February 9, 1930) was a German Communist and Social Democratic political leader.
The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher and part of Penguin Random House.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Reichstag (English: Diet of the Realm) was the Lower house of the Weimar Republic's Legislature from 1919, with the creation of the Weimar constitution, to 1933, with the Reichstag fire.
The Reichstag fire (Reichstagsbrand) was an arson attack on the Reichstag building (home of the German parliament) in Berlin on 27 February 1933, just one month after Adolf Hitler had been sworn in as Chancellor of Germany.
The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung) is the common name of the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State (Verordnung des Reichspräsidenten zum Schutz von Volk und Staat) issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg on the advice of Chancellor Adolf Hitler on 28 February 1933 in immediate response to the Reichstag fire.
The Revolutionäre Gewerkschafts Opposition (Revolutionary Union Opposition) was the communist union in Germany during the Weimar Republic.
Richard Müller (9 December 1880 – 11 May 1943) was a German socialist and historian.
Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.
The Roter Frontkämpferbund, "Alliance of Red Front-Fighters"), usually called Rotfrontkämpferbund, abbreviated RFB, was officially a non-partisan and legally registered association, but in practice a paramilitary organization under the leadership of the Communist Party of Germany during the Weimar Republic. The first local groups of the RFB were established in July 1924 and Ernst Thälmann was elected the first leader of the federal committee during the first nationwide meeting in February 1925 in Berlin. Die Rote Front (The Red Front) was the newspaper of the RFB. The greeting of “Rot Front!” (Red Front!) while rising a clenched fist was responsible for the expression Rotfront, often used among friends and foes to refer to the organization instead of using the entire title of the alliance. The clenched fist "protecting the friend, fighting off the enemy" ("schützend den Freund, abwehrend den Feind") was the symbol of the RFB used on all its insignias and its registered trademark since March 1, 1926. In May 1926, during a flag parade, activists use it as a sign of rallying to the movement and as an oath to defend the USSR.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Social fascism was a theory supported by the Communist International (Comintern) during the early 1930s, which held that social democracy was a variant of fascism because—in addition to a shared corporatist economic model—it stood in the way of a dictatorship of the proletariat.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.
The Socialist Unity Party of West Berlin (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Westberlins, SEW) was a communist party in West Berlin.
The Socialist Workers' Party of Germany (Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SAPD) was a centrist Marxist political party in Germany.
The Soviet Military Administration in Germany (Советская военная администрация в Германии, СВАГ; Sovyetskaya Voyennaya Administratsya v Germanii, SVAG; Sowjetische Militäradministration in Deutschland, SMAD) was the Soviet military government, headquartered in Berlin-Karlshorst, that directly ruled the Soviet occupation zone of Germany from the German surrender in May 1945 until after the establishment of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in October 1949.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spartacist uprising (Spartakusaufstand), also known as the January uprising (Januaraufstand), was a general strike (and the armed battles accompanying it) in Germany from 4 to 15 January 1919.
The Spartacus League (Spartakusbund) was a Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during World War I. The League was named after Spartacus, leader of the largest slave rebellion of the Roman Republic.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The Union of Manual and Intellectual Workers (Union der Hand- und Kopfarbeiter) was a German trade union that was politically close to the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).
Walter Ernst Paul Ulbricht (30 June 18931 August 1973) was a German Communist politician.
Paramilitary groups were formed throughout the Weimar Republic in the wake of Germany's defeat in World War I and the ensuing German Revolution.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Federal elections were held in West Germany on 14 August 1949 to elect the first Bundestag, with a further eight seats elected in West Berlin between 1949 and January 1952 and another eleven between February 1952 and 1953.
Federal elections were held in West Germany on 6 September 1953 to elect the second Bundestag.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Friedrich Wilhelm Reinhold Pieck (3 January 1876 – 7 September 1960) was a German politician and Communist.
Wilhelm "Willi" Münzenberg (14 August 1889, Erfurt, Germany – June 1940, Saint-Marcellin, France) was a communist political activist.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Young Communist League of Germany (Kommunistischer Jugendverband Deutschlands, abbreviated KJVD) was a political youth organization in Germany.