85 relations: Abelian group, Addition, Anticommutativity, Associative property, Binary function, Binary operation, Binary relation, Centralizer and normalizer, Commutation (neurophysiology), Commutative diagram, Commutative magma, Commutative ring, Commutator, Complementarity (physics), Complex number, Concatenation, Cross product, Division (mathematics), Dot product, Duncan Gregory, Egypt, Equality (mathematics), Erwin Schrödinger, Euclid, Euclid's Elements, Expression (mathematics), Field (mathematics), Formal proof, Francois-Joseph Servois, Function (mathematics), Function composition, Group (mathematics), Group theory, Identity element, If and only if, Intersection (set theory), Introduction to quantum mechanics, Józef Maria Bocheński, Linear algebra, Linear map, Logical biconditional, Logical connective, Logical equivalence, Mathematical analysis, Mathematical logic, Mathematical proof, Mathematics, Matrix (mathematics), Metalogic, Momentum, ..., Monoid, Multiplication, Operand, Oxford University Press, Parallelogram law, Particle statistics, Physics, Planck constant, Product (mathematics), Propositional calculus, Propositional variable, Quasi-commutative property, Real number, Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, Ring (mathematics), Royal Society of Edinburgh, Rubik's Cube, Rule of replacement, Set (mathematics), Set theory, Special classes of semigroups, Subtraction, Symbol (formal), Symmetric relation, Tautology (logic), Trace monoid, Truth function, Truth table, Uncertainty principle, Union (set theory), Validity, Vector space, Wave function, Well-formed formula, Werner Heisenberg. Expand index (35 more) » « Shrink index
In abstract algebra, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written.
Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic; the others are subtraction, multiplication and division.
In mathematics, anticommutativity is a specific property of some non-commutative operations.
In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations.
In mathematics, a binary function (also called bivariate function, or function of two variables) is a function that takes two inputs.
In mathematics, a binary operation on a set is a calculation that combines two elements of the set (called operands) to produce another element of the set.
In mathematics, a binary relation on a set A is a set of ordered pairs of elements of A. In other words, it is a subset of the Cartesian product A2.
In mathematics, especially group theory, the centralizer (also called commutant) of a subset S of a group G is the set of elements of G that commute with each element of S, and the normalizer of S are elements that satisfy a weaker condition.
In neurophysiology, commutation is the process of how the brain's neural circuits exhibit non-commutativity.
The commutative diagram used in the proof of the five lemma. In mathematics, and especially in category theory, a commutative diagram is a diagram such that all directed paths in the diagram with the same start and endpoints lead to the same result.
In mathematics, there exist magmas that are commutative but not associative.
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a commutative ring is a ring in which the multiplication operation is commutative.
In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative.
In physics, complementarity is both a theoretical and an experimental result of quantum mechanics, also referred to as principle of complementarity.
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.
In formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character strings end-to-end.
In mathematics and vector algebra, the cross product or vector product (occasionally directed area product to emphasize the geometric significance) is a binary operation on two vectors in three-dimensional space \left(\mathbb^3\right) and is denoted by the symbol \times.
Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the others being addition, subtraction, and multiplication.
In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term scalar product is often also used more generally to mean a symmetric bilinear form, for example for a pseudo-Euclidean space.
Duncan Farquharson Gregory (13 April 181323 February 1844) was a Scottish mathematician.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value, or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object.
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.
Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".
The Elements (Στοιχεῖα Stoicheia) is a mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt c. 300 BC.
In mathematics, an expression or mathematical expression is a finite combination of symbols that is well-formed according to rules that depend on the context.
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.
A formal proof or derivation is a finite sequence of sentences (called well-formed formulas in the case of a formal language), each of which is an axiom, an assumption, or follows from the preceding sentences in the sequence by a rule of inference.
François-Joseph Servois (born 19 July 1767 in Mont-de-Laval, Doubs, France; died 17 April 1847 in Mont-de-Laval, Doubs, France) was a French priest, military officer and mathematician.
In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.
In mathematics, function composition is the pointwise application of one function to the result of another to produce a third function.
In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.
In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups.
In mathematics, an identity element or neutral element is a special type of element of a set with respect to a binary operation on that set, which leaves other elements unchanged when combined with them.
In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if (shortened iff) is a biconditional logical connective between statements.
In mathematics, the intersection A ∩ B of two sets A and B is the set that contains all elements of A that also belong to B (or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A), but no other elements.
Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small.
Józef Maria Bocheński (Czuszów, Congress Poland, Russian Empire, 30 August 1902 – 8 February 1995, Fribourg, Switzerland) was a Polish Dominican, logician and philosopher.
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.
In mathematics, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation or, in some contexts, linear function) is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves (in the sense defined below) the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.
In logic and mathematics, the logical biconditional (sometimes known as the material biconditional) is the logical connective of two statements asserting "P if and only if Q", where P is an antecedent and Q is a consequent.
In logic, a logical connective (also called a logical operator, sentential connective, or sentential operator) is a symbol or word used to connect two or more sentences (of either a formal or a natural language) in a grammatically valid way, such that the value of the compound sentence produced depends only on that of the original sentences and on the meaning of the connective.
In logic, statements p and q are logically equivalent if they have the same logical content.
Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
In mathematics, a proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.
Metalogic is the study of the metatheory of logic.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
In abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics, a monoid is an algebraic structure with a single associative binary operation and an identity element.
Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.
In mathematics an operand is the object of a mathematical operation, i.e. it is the quantity that is operated on.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In mathematics, the simplest form of the parallelogram law (also called the parallelogram identity) belongs to elementary geometry.
Particle statistics is a particular description of multiple particles in statistical mechanics.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
In mathematics, a product is the result of multiplying, or an expression that identifies factors to be multiplied.
Propositional calculus is a branch of logic.
In mathematical logic, a propositional variable (also called a sentential variable or sentential letter) is a variable which can either be true or false.
In mathematics, the quasi-commutative property is an extension or generalization of the general commutative property.
In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.
The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (RMP; also designated as papyrus British Museum 10057 and pBM 10058) is one of the best known examples of Egyptian mathematics.
In mathematics, a ring is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.
The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters.
Rubik's Cube is a 3-D combination puzzle invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik.
In logic, a rule of replacement is a transformation rule that may be applied to only a particular segment of an expression.
In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.
Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
In mathematics, a semigroup is a nonempty set together with an associative binary operation.
Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.
A logical symbol is a fundamental concept in logic, tokens of which may be marks or a configuration of marks which form a particular pattern.
In mathematics and other areas, a binary relation R over a set X is symmetric if it holds for all a and b in X that a is related to b if and only if b is related to a. In mathematical notation, this is: Symmetry, along with reflexivity and transitivity, are the three defining properties of an equivalence relation.
In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.
In computer science, a trace is a set of strings, wherein certain letters in the string are allowed to commute, but others are not.
In logic, a truth function is a function that accepts truth values as input and produces a truth value as output, i.e., the input and output are all truth values.
A truth table is a mathematical table used in logic—specifically in connection with Boolean algebra, boolean functions, and propositional calculus—which sets out the functional values of logical expressions on each of their functional arguments, that is, for each combination of values taken by their logical variables (Enderton, 2001).
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.
In set theory, the union (denoted by ∪) of a collection of sets is the set of all elements in the collection.
In logic, an argument is valid if and only if it takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false.
A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.
In mathematical logic, propositional logic and predicate logic, a well-formed formula, abbreviated WFF or wff, often simply formula, is a finite sequence of symbols from a given alphabet that is part of a formal language.
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.
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