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Compact disc

Index Compact disc

Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. [1]

171 relations: ABBA, An Alpine Symphony, Apple Inc., Audio Engineering Society, Audio Home Recording Act, Audiophile, AutoPlay, Backward compatibility, BBC, Bee Gees, Berlin Philharmonic, Best Buy, Betamax, Billy Joel, Binary data, Blu-ray, Blue Book (CD standard), Bluetooth, Brothers in Arms (album), Brussels, CD player, CD+G, CD-i Ready, CD-R, CD-ROM, CD-RW, CD-Text, Classical music, Compact Cassette, Compact Disc + Extended Graphics, Compact disc bronzing, Compact Disc Digital Audio, Compact Disc subcode, Compressed audio optical disc, Computer data storage, Consignment, Constant linear velocity, Copy protection, Cross-interleaved Reed–Solomon coding, Data storage, David Bowie, Device driver, Diffraction grating, Digipak, Digital data, Digital distribution, Digital media, Digital rights management, Dire Straits, Disc rot, ..., Discman, Display resolution, DualDisc, DVD, DVD-Audio, DVD-Video, Ecma International, Eight-to-fourteen modulation, Eindhoven, Error detection and correction, Executable, Extended Resolution Compact Disc, FLAC, Foil (metal), Format war, Four-channel Compact Disc Digital Audio, Geotrichum candidum, Germany, Gold compact disc, Grammy Award, Green Book (CD standard), Hanover, Hard disk drive, HD DVD, Heitaro Nakajima, Herbert von Karajan, High Definition Compatible Digital, High fidelity, Industrial processes, Infrared, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, International Electrotechnical Commission, James Russell (inventor), Japan, Joseph Braat, JVC, K2 High Definition, Karaoke, Kees Schouhamer Immink, Kibibit, Kilobit, Kodak, Langenhagen, Laser, Laser diode, LaserDisc, Living Eyes (Bee Gees album), Longbox, Lossy compression, Manufacturing, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Maxim (magazine), Mebibyte, Micrometre, MIDI, Mini CD, Monaural, MP3, Nanometre, Netherlands, NHK, Non-return-to-zero, Norio Ohga, Offset printing, Operating system, Optical disc, Optical disc authoring, Optical disc drive, Panasonic, PCM adaptor, Personal computer, Philips, Philips CD-i, Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium, Phone connector (audio), Phonograph record, Photo CD, Photodiode, Picture CD, Polycarbonate, Pulse-code modulation, Rainbow Books, RCA Records, Red, Richard Strauss, Run-length limited, Sampling (signal processing), Screen printing, Serial Copy Management System, Simon & Schuster, Sony, Sony CDP-101, Sound recording and reproduction, Source Input Format, SPARS code, Spin coating, Super Audio CD, Super Video CD, Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven), Taiyo Yuden, Target Corporation, The Beatles, The Verge, The Visitors (ABBA album), Timeline of audio formats, Tomorrow's World, Toshitada Doi, Townsquare Media, Track (optical disc), Transparency and translucency, VHS, Video CD, Video Single Disc, Visible spectrum, Vorbis, Wavelength, White Book (CD standard), Worm drive, 44,100 Hz, 5.1 Music Disc, 52nd Street (album). Expand index (121 more) »


ABBA are a Swedish pop group, formed in Stockholm in 1972 by Agnetha Fältskog, Björn Ulvaeus, Benny Andersson, and Anni-Frid Lyngstad.

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An Alpine Symphony

An Alpine Symphony (Eine Alpensinfonie), Op.

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Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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Audio Engineering Society

Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from engineers, scientists, other individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry.

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Audio Home Recording Act

The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA) amended the United States copyright law by adding Chapter 10, "Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media".

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An audiophile is a person who is enthusiastic about high-fidelity sound reproduction.

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AutoPlay, a feature introduced in Windows 98, examines newly discovered removable media and devices and, based on content such as pictures, music or video files, launches an appropriate application to play or display the content.

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Backward compatibility

Backward compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Bee Gees

The Bee Gees --> were a pop music group formed in 1958.

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Berlin Philharmonic

The Berlin Philharmonic (Berliner Philharmoniker) is a German orchestra based in Berlin.

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Best Buy

Best Buy Co., Inc. is an American multinational consumer electronics retailer headquartered in Richfield, Minnesota.

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Betamax (also called Beta, as in its logo) is a consumer-level analog-recording and cassette format of magnetic tape for video.

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Billy Joel

William Martin Joel (born May 9, 1949) is an American singer-songwriter, composer and pianist.

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Binary data

Binary data is data whose unit can take on only two possible states, traditionally termed 0 and +1 in accordance with the binary numeral system and Boolean algebra.

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Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.

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Blue Book (CD standard)

The Blue Book is a compact disc standard developed in 1995 by Philips and Sony.

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Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs).

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Brothers in Arms (album)

Brothers in Arms is the fifth studio album by the British rock band Dire Straits, released on 13 May 1985 by Vertigo Records internationally, and by Warner Bros. Records in the United States.

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Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.

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CD player

A CD player is an electronic device that plays audio compact discs, which are a digital optical disc data storage format.

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CD+G (also known as CD-G, CD+Graphics and TV-Graphics) is an extension of the compact disc standard that can present low-resolution graphics alongside the audio data on the disc when played on a compatible device.

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CD-i Ready

CD-i Ready is a compact disc format for mixing audio and data content on a CD.

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CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) is a digital optical disc storage format.

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A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.

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CD-RW (Compact Disc-ReWritable) is a digital optical disc storage format.

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CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book Compact Disc specifications standard for audio CDs.

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Classical music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Compact Cassette

The Compact Audio Cassette (CAC) or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback.

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Compact Disc + Extended Graphics

Compact Disc + Extended Graphics (CD+EG, also known as CD+XG and Extended TV-Graphics) is an improved variant of the Compact Disc + Graphics (CD+G) format.

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Compact disc bronzing

Compact disc bronzing, or CD bronzing, is a specific variant of disc rot, a type of corrosion that affects the reflective layer of CDs and renders them unreadable over time.

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Compact Disc Digital Audio

Compact Disc Digital Audio (CDDA or CD-DA) is the standard format for audio compact discs.

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Compact Disc subcode

Subcode or subchannel data (called "control bytes" in the CD-ROM specification) refers to data contained in a compact disc (CD) in addition to digital audio or user data, which is used for control and playback of the CD.

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Compressed audio optical disc

A compressed audio optical disc, MP3 CD, or MP3 CD-ROM or MP3 DVD is an optical disc (usually a CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R or DVD-RW) that contains digital audio in the MP3 file format.

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Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

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Consignment is the act of consigning, the act of giving over to another person or agent's charge, custody or care any material or goods but retaining legal ownership until the material or goods are sold.

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Constant linear velocity

In optical storage, constant linear velocity (CLV) is a qualifier for the rated speed of an optical disc drive, and may also be applied to the writing speed of recordable discs.

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Copy protection

Copy protection, also known as content protection, copy prevention and copy restriction, is any effort designed to prevent the reproduction of software, films, music, and other media, usually for copyright reasons.

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Cross-interleaved Reed–Solomon coding

In the compact disc system, cross-interleaved Reed–Solomon code (CIRC) provides error detection and error correction.

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Data storage

Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.

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David Bowie

David Robert Jones (8 January 1947 – 10 January 2016), known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer-songwriter and actor.

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Device driver

In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.

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Diffraction grating

In optics, a diffraction grating is an optical component with a periodic structure that splits and diffracts light into several beams travelling in different directions.

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Digipak is a registered trademark for a patented style of optical disc packaging.

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Digital data

Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.

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Digital distribution

Digital distribution (also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution (ESD), among others) is the delivery or distribution of media content such as audio, video, software and video games.

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Digital media

Digital media are any media that are encoded in machine-readable formats.

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Digital rights management

Digital rights management (DRM) is a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works.

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Dire Straits

Dire Straits were a British rock band formed in London in 1977 by Mark Knopfler (lead vocals and lead guitar), David Knopfler (rhythm guitar and backing vocals), John Illsley (bass guitar and backing vocals), and Pick Withers (drums and percussion).

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Disc rot

Disc rot is a phrase describing the tendency of CD or DVD or other optical discs to become unreadable due to physical or chemical deterioration.

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The Discman was Sony's first portable CD player, the D-5 (North America and various other countries)/D-50, which was the first on the market in 1984, and adopted for Sony's entire portable CD player line.

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Display resolution

The display resolution or display modes of a digital television, computer monitor or display device is the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed.

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DualDisc was a type of double-sided optical disc product developed by a group of record companies including MJJ Productions Inc, EMI Music, Universal Music Group, Sony/BMG Music Entertainment, Warner Music Group, and 5.1 Entertainment Group and later under the aegis of the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).

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DVD (an abbreviation of "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.

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DVD-Audio (commonly abbreviated as DVD-A) is a digital format for delivering high-fidelity audio content on a DVD.

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DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD discs, and is the dominant consumer video format in Asia, North America, Europe, and Australia.

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Ecma International

Ecma is a standards organization for information and communication systems.

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Eight-to-fourteen modulation

Eight-to-fourteen modulation (EFM) is a data encoding technique – formally, a line code – used by compact discs (CD), laserdiscs (LD) and pre-Hi-MD MiniDiscs.

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Eindhoven is a municipality and city in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams.

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Error detection and correction

In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.

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In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful.

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Extended Resolution Compact Disc

eXtended Resolution Compact Disc (XRCD) is a mastering and manufacture process patented by JVC (Victor Company of Japan, Ltd) for producing redbook Compact Discs.

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FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) is an audio coding format for lossless compression of digital audio, and is also the name of the free software project producing the FLAC tools, the reference software package that includes a codec implementation.

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Foil (metal)

A foil is a very thin sheet of metal, usually made by hammering or rolling.

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Format war

A format war describes competition between mutually incompatible proprietary formats that compete for the same market, typically for data storage devices and recording formats for electronic media.

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Four-channel Compact Disc Digital Audio

Compact Disc recordings contain two channels of 44.1-kHz 16-bit linear PCM audio.

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Geotrichum candidum

Geotrichum candidum is a fungus which is a member of the human microbiome, notably associated with skin, sputum and feces where it occurs in 25-30% of specimens.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gold compact disc

A gold compact disc is one in which gold is used in place of the super pure aluminium commonly used as the reflective coating on ordinary CDs or silver on ordinary CD-Rs Gold CDs can be played in any CD player.

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Grammy Award

A Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievement in the music industry.

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Green Book (CD standard)

The "Green Book", formally known as the "CD-i Full Functional Specification", is a CD standard announced in 1986 by Philips and Sony that defines the format for interactive, multimedia compact discs designed for CD-i players.

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Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).

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Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

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HD DVD (short for High Definition Digital Versatile Disc) is a discontinued high-density optical disc format for storing data and playback of high-definition video.

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Heitaro Nakajima

was a Japanese digital audio pioneer, who led Sony's Compact Disc project in the 1970s.

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Herbert von Karajan

Herbert von Karajan (born Heribert Ritter von Karajan; 5 April 1908 – 16 July 1989) was an Austrian conductor.

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High Definition Compatible Digital

High Definition Compatible Digital, or HDCD is a Microsoft proprietary audio encode-decode process that claims to provide increased dynamic range over that of standard Redbook audio CDs, while retaining backward compatibility with existing Compact disc players.

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High fidelity

High fidelity (often shortened to hi-fi or hifi) is a term used by listeners, audiophiles and home audio enthusiasts to refer to high-quality reproduction of sound.

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Industrial processes

Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical, physical, electrical or mechanical steps to aid in the manufacturing of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale.

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.

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International Electrotechnical Commission

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".

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James Russell (inventor)

James T. Russell (born 1931 in Bremerton, Washington) is an American inventor.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Joseph Braat

Joseph J.M. Braat (born 5 November 1946) is a Dutch optical engineer.

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,, usually referred to as JVC or The Japan Victor Company, is a Japanese international professional and consumer electronics corporation based in Yokohama.

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K2 High Definition

K2 technology is an audio mastering technology developed by JVC Kenwood Victor Entertainment Corporation.

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Karaoke, is a form of interactive entertainment or video game developed in Japan in which an amateur singer sings along with recorded music (a music video) using a microphone.

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Kees Schouhamer Immink

Kornelis Antonie "Kees" Schouhamer Immink (born 18 December 1946) is a Dutch scientist, inventor, and entrepreneur, who pioneered and advanced the era of digital audio, video, and data recording, including popular digital media such as Compact Disc, DVD and Blu-ray Disc.

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The kibibit is a multiple of the bit, a unit of digital information storage, using the standard binary prefix kibi, which has the symbol Ki, meaning 210.

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The kilobit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage.

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The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak) is an American technology company that produces imaging products with its historic basis on photography.

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Langenhagen is a town in the Hanover district of Lower Saxony, Germany.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Laser diode

A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.

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LaserDisc (abbreviated as LD) is a home video format and the first commercial optical disc storage medium, initially licensed, sold and marketed as MCA DiscoVision in the United States in 1978.

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Living Eyes (Bee Gees album)

Living Eyes is the Bee Gees' sixteenth original album (fourteenth internationally), released in 1981.

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A longbox is a form of exterior paperboard packaging for musical compact discs in widespread use in the 1980s and early 1990s in North America.

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Lossy compression

In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content.

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Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Maxim (magazine)

Maxim is an international men's magazine, devised and launched in the UK in 1995, but based in New York City since 1997, and prominent for its photography of actresses, singers, and female models whose careers are at a current peak.

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The mebibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, and electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers, and related music and audio devices.

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Mini CD

Mini CDs, or pocket CDs, are CDs with a smaller diameter and one third the storage capacity of a standard 120 mm disc.

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Monaural or monophonic sound reproduction (often shortened to mono) is sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position.

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MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is an audio coding format for digital audio.

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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is Japan's national public broadcasting organization.

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In telecommunication, a non-return-to-zero (NRZ) line code is a binary code in which ones are represented by one significant condition, usually a positive voltage, while zeros are represented by some other significant condition, usually a negative voltage, with no other neutral or rest condition.

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Norio Ohga

, otherwise spelled Norio Oga (January 29, 1930 – April 23, 2011), was the former president and chairman of Sony Corporation, credited with spurring the development of the compact disc as a commercially viable audio format.

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Offset printing

Offset printing is a commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Optical disc

In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc (OD) is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium) on one of its flat surfaces.

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Optical disc authoring

Optical disc authoring, including DVD and Blu-ray Disc authoring is the process of assembling source material—video, audio or other data—into the proper logical volume format to then be recorded ("burned") onto an optical disc (typically a compact disc or DVD).

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Optical disc drive

In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is a disc drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs.

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, formerly known as, is a Japanese multinational electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Japan.

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PCM adaptor

A PCM adaptor is a device used for recording digital audio in the PCM format, which in turn connects to a video cassette recorder (acting as a transport) for storage and playback of the digital audio information.

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Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

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Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam currently focused in the area of healthcare.

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Philips CD-i

The Philips CD-i (an abbreviation of Compact Disc Interactive) is an interactive multimedia CD player developed and marketed by Royal Philips Electronics N.V., who supported it from December 1991 into the late 1990s.

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Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium

The Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium (English translation: Philips Physics Laboratory) or NatLab was the Dutch section of the Philips research department, which did research for the product divisions of that company.

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Phone connector (audio)

A phone connector, also known as phone jack, audio jack, headphone jack or jack plug, is a family of electrical connectors typically used for analog audio signals.

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Phonograph record

A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English, or record) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.

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Photo CD

Photo CD is a system designed by Kodak for digitizing and saving photos onto a CD.

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A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current.

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Picture CD

Picture CD is a product by Kodak, following on from the earlier Photo CD product.

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Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.

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Pulse-code modulation

Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals.

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Rainbow Books

The Rainbow Books are a collection of Compact Disc format specifications.

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RCA Records

RCA Records (formerly legally traded as the RCA Records Label) is an American record label owned by Sony Music, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America.

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Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.

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Richard Strauss

Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.

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Run-length limited

Run-length limited or RLL coding is a line coding technique that is used to send arbitrary data over a communications channel with bandwidth limits.

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Sampling (signal processing)

In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.

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Screen printing

Screen printing is a printing technique whereby a mesh is used to transfer ink onto a substrate, except in areas made impermeable to the ink by a blocking stencil.

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Serial Copy Management System

The Serial Copy Management System (SCMS) is a copy protection scheme that was created in response to the digital audio tape (DAT) invention, in order to prevent DAT recorders from making second-generation or serial copies.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.

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Sony CDP-101

The Sony CDP-101 is the world's first commercially released compact disc player.

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Sound recording and reproduction

Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.

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Source Input Format

Source Input Format (SIF) defined in MPEG-1, is a video format that was developed to allow the storage and transmission of digital video.

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SPARS code

The SPARS code is a three-position alphabetic classification system developed in the early 1980s by the Society of Professional Audio Recording Services (SPARS) for commercial compact disc releases to denote aspects of the sound recording and reproduction process, distinguishing between the use of analog equipment and digital equipment.

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Spin coating

Spin coating is a procedure used to deposit uniform thin films to flat substrates.

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Super Audio CD

Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical disc for audio storage, introduced in 1999.

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Super Video CD

Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a digital format for storing video on standard compact discs.

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Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven)

The Symphony No.

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Taiyo Yuden

is a Japanese materials and electronics company, situated in Kyobashi, Chuo, Tokyo, that helped pioneer recordable CD technology (CD-R) along with Sony and Philips in 1988.

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Target Corporation

Target Corporation is the second-largest department store retailer in the United States, behind Walmart, and is a component of the S&P 500 Index.

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The Beatles

The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.

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The Verge

The Verge is an American technology news and media network operated by Vox Media.

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The Visitors (ABBA album)

The Visitors is the eighth and final studio album by Swedish pop group ABBA, released on 30 November 1981.

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Timeline of audio formats

An audio format is a medium for sound recording and reproduction.

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Tomorrow's World

Tomorrow's World was a long-running BBC television series on new developments in science and technology.

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Toshitada Doi

is a Japanese electrical engineer, who played a significant role in the digital audio revolution.

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Townsquare Media

Townsquare Media, Inc. (formerly Regent Communications until 2010) is an American radio network and media company based in Greenwich, Connecticut.

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Track (optical disc)

On an optical disc, a track (CD) or title (DVD) is a subdivision of its content.

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Transparency and translucency

In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.

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The Video Home System (VHS) is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes.

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Video CD

Video CD (abbreviated as VCD, and also known as Compact Disc digital video) is a home video format and the first format for distributing films on standard optical discs.

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Video Single Disc

Video Single Disc (VSD) was a disc-based format that carried the same analog video information as a LaserDisc, but on a 12-centimetre (4.75 inch) diameter CD-DA-sized disc.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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Vorbis is a free and open-source software project headed by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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White Book (CD standard)

The White Book refers to a standard of compact disc that stores not only sound but also still pictures and motion video.

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Worm drive

A worm drive is a gear arrangement in which a worm (which is a gear in the form of a screw) meshes with a worm gear (which is similar in appearance to a spur gear).

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44,100 Hz

In digital audio, 44,100 Hz (alternately represented as 44.1 kHz) is a common sampling frequency.

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5.1 Music Disc

The DTS Music Disc (official name), DTS Audio CD or 5.1 Music Disc is an audio Compact Disc that contains music in one of various possible surround sound configurations.

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52nd Street (album)

52nd Street is the sixth studio album by American singer-songwriter Billy Joel, released in 1978.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compact_disc

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