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Comparative linguistics

Index Comparative linguistics

Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness. [1]

73 relations: Abrahamic religions, Altaic languages, Archaeology, Areal feature, August Schleicher, Éloi Johanneau, Berthold Delbrück, Biblical Hebrew, British Israelism, Cheikh Anta Diop, Cognate, Comparative literature, Comparative method, Consonant, Contrastive analysis, Contrastive linguistics, Duala language, Edward Tregear, Etymology, Falsifiability, Ferdinand de Saussure, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Glottochronology, Grundriß der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen, Herbert W. Armstrong, Historical linguistics, History, Hittite language, Hugo Grotius, Indo-European languages, Intercontinental Dictionary Series, Internal reconstruction, Jean-Pierre Brisset, Johannes Goropius Becanus, Joseph Greenberg, Karl Brugmann, Language acquisition, Language contact, Language family, Larry Trask, Laryngeal theory, Leibnitz, Lexical similarity, Lexicostatistics, Linguistic typology, Linguistic universal, Lithuania, Loanword, Lyle Campbell, Marija Gimbutas, ..., Mass comparison, Mohawk people, Mongolian language, Morris Swadesh, Old Europe (archaeology), Philology, Phylogenetics, Pictish language, Proto-language, Pseudoscience, Pseudoscientific language comparison, Quantitative comparative linguistics, Racism, Sami languages, Scaliger, Sound change, Sun Language Theory, Turkey, Turkic languages, Ural–Altaic languages, Uralic languages, Winfred P. Lehmann, Wolof language. Expand index (23 more) »

Abrahamic religions

The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.

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Altaic languages

Altaic is a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia, now widely seen as discredited.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Areal feature

In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.

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August Schleicher

August Schleicher (19 February 1821 – 6 December 1868) was a German linguist.

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Éloi Johanneau

Éloi Johanneau (2 October 1770 – 24 July 1851) was a French philologist.

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Berthold Delbrück

Berthold Gustav Gottlieb Delbrück (26 July 1842 – 3 January 1922) was a German linguist who devoted himself to the study of the comparative syntax of the Indo-European languages.

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Biblical Hebrew

Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

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British Israelism

British Israelism (also called Anglo-Israelism) is a movement which holds the view that the people of England (or more broadly, the people of United Kingdom) are "genetically, racially, and linguistically the direct descendants" of the Ten Lost Tribes of ancient Israel.

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Cheikh Anta Diop

Cheikh Anta Diop (29 December 1923 – 7 February 1986) was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, physicist, and politician who studied the human race's origins and pre-colonial African culture.

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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Comparative literature

Comparative literature is an academic field dealing with the study of literature and cultural expression across linguistic, national, and disciplinary boundaries.

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Comparative method

In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Contrastive analysis

Contrastive analysis is the systematic study of a pair of languages with a view to identifying their structural differences and similarities.

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Contrastive linguistics

Contrastive linguistics is a practice-oriented linguistic approach that seeks to describe the differences and similarities between a pair of languages (hence it is occasionally called "differential linguistics").

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Duala language

Duala (also spelt Douala, Diwala, Dwela, Dualla and Dwala) is a dialect cluster spoken by the Duala and Mungo peoples of Cameroon.

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Edward Tregear

Edward Robert Tregear (1846–1931) was a New Zealand public servant and scholar.

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EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".

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A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.

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Ferdinand de Saussure

Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.

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Genetic relationship (linguistics)

In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.

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Glottochronology (from Attic Greek γλῶττα "tongue, language" and χρóνος "time") is the part of lexicostatistics dealing with the chronological relationship between languages.

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Grundriß der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen

Grundriß der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen (German for "Outline of the comparative grammar of the Indo-Germanic languages") is a major work of historical linguistics by Karl Brugmann and Berthold Delbrück, published in two editions between 1886 and 1916.

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Herbert W. Armstrong

Herbert W. Armstrong (July 31, 1892 – January 16, 1986) founded the Radio Church of God which was incorporated October 21, 1933 and was renamed Worldwide Church of God on June 1, 1968, as well as starting Ambassador College (later Ambassador University) October 8, 1947.

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Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.

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History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.

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Hittite language

Hittite (natively " of Neša"), also known as Nesite and Neshite, is an Indo-European-language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire, centred on Hattusa.

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Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Intercontinental Dictionary Series

The Intercontinental Dictionary Series is a large database of topical vocabulary lists in various world languages.

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Internal reconstruction

Internal reconstruction is a method of recovering information about a language's past from the characteristics of the language at a later date.

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Jean-Pierre Brisset

Jean-Pierre Brisset (30 October 1837 – 2 September 1919) was a French writer.

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Johannes Goropius Becanus

Johannes Goropius Becanus (23 June 1519 – 28 June 1572), born Jan Gerartsen, was a Dutch physician, linguist, and humanist.

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Joseph Greenberg

Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915 – May 7, 2001) was an American linguist, known mainly for his work concerning linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages.

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Karl Brugmann

Karl Brugmann (16 March 1849 – 29 June 1919) was a German linguist.

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Language acquisition

Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.

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Language contact

Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.

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Language family

A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.

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Larry Trask

Robert Lawrence "Larry" Trask (November 10, 1944 – March 27, 2004) was an American–British professor of linguistics at the University of Sussex, and an authority on the Basque language and field of historical linguistics.

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Laryngeal theory

The laryngeal theory aims to produce greater regularity in the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) phonology than from the reconstruction that is produced by the comparative method.

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Leibnitz (Slovenian: Lipnica) is a city in the Austrian state of Styria and on 1 Jan.

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Lexical similarity

In linguistics, lexical similarity is a measure of the degree to which the word sets of two given languages are similar.

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Lexicostatistics is a method of comparative linguistics that involves comparing the percentage of lexical cognates between languages to determine their relationship.

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Linguistic typology

Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.

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Linguistic universal

A linguistic universal is a pattern that occurs systematically across natural languages, potentially true for all of them.

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Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Lyle Campbell

Lyle Richard Campbell (born October 22, 1942) is an American scholar and linguist known for his studies of indigenous American languages, especially those of Central America, and on historical linguistics in general.

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Marija Gimbutas

Marija Gimbutas (Marija Gimbutienė; January 23, 1921 – February 2, 1994) was a Lithuanian-American archaeologist and anthropologist known for her research into the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of "Old Europe" and for her Kurgan hypothesis, which located the Proto-Indo-European homeland in the Pontic Steppe.

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Mass comparison

Mass comparison is a method developed by Joseph Greenberg to determine the level of genetic relatedness between languages.

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Mohawk people

The Mohawk people (who identify as Kanien'kehá:ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.

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Mongolian language

The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.

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Morris Swadesh

Morris Swadesh (January 22, 1909 – July 20, 1967) was an American linguist who specialized in comparative and historical linguistics.

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Old Europe (archaeology)

Old Europe is a term coined by archaeologist Marija Gimbutas to describe what she perceived as a relatively homogeneous pre-Indo-European Neolithic culture in southeastern Europe located in the Danube River valley, also known as Danubian culture.

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Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Pictish language

Pictish is the extinct language, or dialect, spoken by the Picts, the people of eastern and northern Scotland from the late Iron Age to the Early Middle Ages.

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A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.

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Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Pseudoscientific language comparison

Pseudoscientific language comparison is a form of pseudo-scholarship that has the objective of establishing historical associations between languages by naive postulations of similarities between them.

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Quantitative comparative linguistics

Statistical methods have been used in comparative linguistics since at least the 1950s (see Swadesh list).

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Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.

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Sami languages

Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).

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The noble family of the Scaliger (also Scaligeri, from de Scalis or della Scala) were Lords of Verona.

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Sound change

Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).

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Sun Language Theory

The Sun Language Theory (Güneş Dil Teorisi) was a Turkish nationalist pseudoscientific linguistic hypothesis developed in Turkey in the 1930s that proposed that all human languages are descendants of one proto-Turkic primal language.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Ural–Altaic languages

Ural–Altaic, Uralo-Altaic or Uraltaic, also known as Turanian, is an obsolete language-family proposal uniting the Uralic and the widely discredited Altaic languages.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

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Winfred P. Lehmann

Winfred Philip Lehmann (23 June 1916, Surprise, Nebraska – 1 August 2007, Austin, Texas) was an American linguist noted for his work in historical linguistics, particularly Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Germanic, as well as for pioneering work in machine translation.

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Wolof language

Wolof is a language of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people.

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Comparative Linguistics, Comparative Philology, Comparative grammar, Comparative philology, Genetic Linguistics, Genetic linguistics.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_linguistics

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