158 relations: Accusative case, Algonquian languages, Algonquian peoples, Ancient Greek, Arabic, Arapaho language, Areal feature, Aspirated consonant, Athabaskan languages, Attested language, August Schleicher, Bilabial nasal, Blackfoot language, Brazil, Celtic languages, Chinese language, Classical Armenian, Cognate, Comparative linguistics, Complementary distribution, Cook Islands Māori, Cree language, Dative case, Declension, Dental consonant, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals, Dialect, Ejective consonant, English language, False cognate, Family tree, Finnic languages, Finnish language, Finno-Ugric languages, Fox language, Franz Bopp, French language, Genetic relationship (linguistics), German language, Germanic languages, Glottalic theory, Glottalization, Glottochronology, Gothic language, Grammar, Grammatical conjugation, Grassmann's law, Grimms' Fairy Tales, Gustaf Kossinna, Hawaiian language, ..., Hermann Grassmann, Hermann Osthoff, Historical linguistics, Hungarian language, Implosive consonant, India, Indo-European languages, Internal reconstruction, Isogloss, Italian language, Italic languages, Jacob Grimm, János Sajnovics, Judah ibn Kuraish, Karl Brugmann, Karl Verner, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, Labial consonant, Labialized velar consonant, Lambert ten Kate, Languages of East Asia, Latin, Leipzig University, Leonard Bloomfield, Lexeme, Lexical diffusion, Lexicon, Lexicostatistics, Linguistic reconstruction, Linguistic typology, Linguistics, Loanword, Lyle Campbell, Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn, Mass comparison, Māori language, Menominee language, Metathesis (linguistics), Mi'kmaq language, Morpheme, Munsee language, Mura language, Murmured voice, Mycenaean Greece, Neogrammarian, Nheengatu, Occam's razor, Ojibwe language, Old High German, Old Latin, Old Norse, Old Persian, Palatal consonant, Pāṇini, Persian language, Philology, Phoneme, Phonology, Pirahã language, Plains Cree, Polynesian languages, Portuguese language, Pronoun, Proto-Algonquian language, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-Iranian language, Proto-language, Proto-Slavic, Rapa Nui language, Rasmus Rask, Romance languages, Root (linguistics), Russian language, Sami languages, Samoan language, Sanskrit, Sámuel Gyarmathi, Slavey language, Sound change, Spanish language, Sprachbund, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Swadesh list, Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze, Terry Crowley (linguist), Thai language, Thomas Young (scientist), Tongan language, Tree model, V. Gordon Childe, Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Verner's law, Vietnamese language, Vocabulary, Voice (phonetics), Voiced bilabial stop, Voicelessness, Vulgar Latin, Vyacheslav Ivanov (philologist), Vyākaraṇa, Wave model, William Jones (philologist), William Labov, William Wotton. Expand index (108 more) » « Shrink index
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.
The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arapaho (Arapahoe) language (in Arapaho: Hinónoʼeitíít) is one of the Plains Algonquian languages, closely related to Gros Ventre and other Arapahoan languages.
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).
In linguistics, attested languages are languages (living or dead) that have been documented and for which the evidence has survived to the present day.
August Schleicher (19 February 1821 – 6 December 1868) was a German linguist.
The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages.
The Blackfoot language, also called Siksiká (ᓱᖽᐧᖿ, its denomination in ISO 639-3), (Siksiká siksiká, syllabics ᓱᖽᐧᖿ), often anglicised as Siksika, is an Algonquian language spoken by the Niitsitapi people, who currently live in the northwestern plains of North America.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Classical Armenian (grabar, Western Armenian krapar, meaning "literary "; also Old Armenian or Liturgical Armenian) is the oldest attested form of the Armenian language.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.
Cook Islands Māori is an Eastern Polynesian language.
Cree (also known as Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi) is a dialect continuum of Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Alberta to Labrador.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
False cognates are pairs of words that seem to be cognates because of similar sounds and meaning, but have different etymologies; they can be within the same language or from different languages.
A family tree, or pedigree chart, is a chart representing family relationships in a conventional tree structure.
The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finno-Ugric, Finno-Ugrian or Fenno-Ugric is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic language family except the Samoyedic languages.
Fox (known by a variety of different names, including Mesquakie (Meskwaki), Mesquakie-Sauk, Mesquakie-Sauk-Kickapoo, Sauk-Fox, and Sac and Fox) is an Algonquian language, spoken by a thousand Meskwaki, Sauk, and Kickapoo in various locations in the Midwestern United States and in northern Mexico.
Franz Bopp (14 September 1791 – 23 October 1867) was a German linguist known for extensive and pioneering comparative work on Indo-European languages.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The glottalic theory is that Proto-Indo-European had ejective stops,, instead of the plain voiced ones,, hypothesized by the usual Proto-Indo-European phonological reconstructions.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
Glottochronology (from Attic Greek γλῶττα "tongue, language" and χρóνος "time") is the part of lexicostatistics dealing with the chronological relationship between languages.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
Grassmann's law, named after its discoverer Hermann Grassmann, is a dissimilatory phonological process in Ancient Greek and Sanskrit which states that if an aspirated consonant is followed by another aspirated consonant in the next syllable, the first one loses the aspiration.
The Grimms' Fairy Tales, originally known as the Children's and Household Tales (lead), is a collection of fairy tales by the Grimm brothers or "Brothers Grimm", Jacob and Wilhelm, first published on 20 December 1812.
Gustaf Kossinna (28 September 1858 – 20 December 1931) was a German linguist and professor of German archaeology at the University of Berlin.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
Hermann Günther Grassmann (Graßmann; April 15, 1809 – September 26, 1877) was a German polymath, known in his day as a linguist and now also as a mathematician.
Hermann Osthoff (18 April 1847, Billmerich – 7 May 1909, Heidelberg) was a German linguist.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Internal reconstruction is a method of recovering information about a language's past from the characteristics of the language at a later date.
An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some morphological or syntactic feature.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.
János Sajnovics de Tordas et Káloz (Tordas, 12 May 1733 – Pest, 4 May 1785) was a Hungarian linguist and member of the Jesuit order.
Judah ibn Kuraish (יהודה אבן קריש, يهوذا بن قريش), was a North African Jewish grammarian and lexicographer.
Karl Brugmann (16 March 1849 – 29 June 1919) was a German linguist.
Karl Adolph Verner (7 March 1846 in Århus – 5 November 1896 in Copenhagen) was a Danish linguist.
Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (after 1814: von) Schlegel (10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829), usually cited as Friedrich Schlegel, was a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist and Indologist.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
A labialized velar or labiovelar is a velar consonant that is labialized, with a /w/-like secondary articulation.
Lambert ten Kate (23 January 1674 – 14 December 1731) was a Dutch linguist.
The languages of East Asia belong to several distinct language families, with many common features attributed to interaction.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leipzig University (Universität Leipzig), in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the world's oldest universities and the second-oldest university (by consecutive years of existence) in Germany.
Leonard Bloomfield (April 1, 1887 – April 18, 1949) was an American linguist who led the development of structural linguistics in the United States during the 1930s and the 1940s.
A lexeme is a unit of lexical meaning that exists regardless of the number of inflectional endings it may have or the number of words it may contain.
In historical linguistics, lexical diffusion is both a phenomenon and a theory.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
Lexicostatistics is a method of comparative linguistics that involves comparing the percentage of lexical cognates between languages to determine their relationship.
Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Lyle Richard Campbell (born October 22, 1942) is an American scholar and linguist known for his studies of indigenous American languages, especially those of Central America, and on historical linguistics in general.
The Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) linguistic area is a linguistic area that stretches from Thailand to China and is home to speakers of languages of the Sino-Tibetan, Hmong–Mien (or Miao–Yao), Kra–Dai, Austronesian (represented by Chamic) and Austroasiatic families.
Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn (August 28, 1612 – October 3, 1653) was a Dutch scholar (his Latinized name was Marcus Zuerius Boxhornius).
Mass comparison is a method developed by Joseph Greenberg to determine the level of genetic relatedness between languages.
Māori, also known as te reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.
Menominee (also spelled Menomini) is an Algonquian language spoken by the historic Menominee people of what is now northern Wisconsin in the United States.
Metathesis (from Greek, from "I put in a different order"; Latin: trānspositiō) is the transposition of sounds or syllables in a word or of words in a sentence.
The Mi'kmaq language (spelled and pronounced Micmac historically and now always Migmaw or Mikmaw in English, and Míkmaq, Míkmaw or Mìgmao in Mi'kmaq) is an Eastern Algonquian language spoken by nearly 11,000 Mi'kmaq in Canada and the United States out of a total ethnic Mi'kmaq population of roughly 20,000.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Munsee (also known as Munsee Delaware, Delaware, Ontario Delaware) is an endangered language of the Eastern Algonquian subgroup of the Algonquian language family, itself a branch of the Algic language family.
Mura is a language of Amazonas, Brazil.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
The Neogrammarians (also Young Grammarians; German: Junggrammatiker) were a German school of linguists, originally at the University of Leipzig, in the late 19th century who proposed the Neogrammarian hypothesis of the regularity of sound change.
The Nheengatu language, often spelled Nhengatu, is an indigenous language of the Americas from the Tupi–Guarani language family.
Occam's razor (also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, the simplest explanation tends to be the right one.
Ojibwe, also known as Ojibwa, Ojibway, Chippewa, or Otchipwe,R.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC: before the age of Classical Latin.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Pirahã (also spelled Pirahá, Pirahán), or Múra-Pirahã, is the indigenous language of the isolated Pirahã of Amazonas, Brazil.
Plains Cree (native name: ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ nēhiyawēwin) is a dialect of the Algonquian language, Cree, which is the most populous Canadian indigenous language.
The Polynesian languages are a language family spoken in geographical Polynesia and on a patchwork of outliers from south central Micronesia to small islands off the northeast of the larger islands of the southeast Solomon Islands and sprinkled through Vanuatu.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
Proto-Algonquian (commonly abbreviated PA) is the proto-language from which the various Algonquian languages are descended.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Iranic branch of Indo-European.
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
Rapa Nui or Rapanui also known as Pascuan, or Pascuense, is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken on the island of Rapa Nui, also known as Easter Island.
Rasmus Kristian Rask (born Rasmus Christian Nielsen Rasch; 22 November 1787 – 14 November 1832) was a Danish linguist and philologist.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).
Samoan (Gagana faʻa Sāmoa or Gagana Sāmoa – IPA) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the Independent State of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sámuel Gyarmathi (Gyarmathi Sámuel) (July 15, 1751, Kolozsvár — March 4, 1830, Kolozsvár) was a Hungarian linguist, born in Cluj (then Kolozsvár, Transylvania).
Slavey (also Slave, Slavé) is an Athabaskan language spoken among the Slavey and Sahtu people of Canada in the Northwest Territories where it also has official status.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
The Swadesh list is a classic compilation of basic concepts for the purposes of historical-comparative linguistics.
Tamaz (Thomas) Valerianis dze Gamkrelidze (Georgian: თამაზ ვალერიანის ძე გამყრელიძე, Тама́з Валериа́нович Гамкрели́дзе; born 23 October 1929) is a distinguished Georgian linguist, orientalist public benefactor and Hittitologist, Academic (since 1974) and President (since February, 2005) of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (GAS), Doctor of Sciences (1963), Professor (1964).
Terence Michael "Terry" Crowley (1 April 1953 – 14/15 January 2005) was a linguist specializing in Oceanic languages as well as Bislama, the English-lexified Creole recognized as a national language in Vanuatu.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
Tongan (lea fakatonga) is an Austronesian language of the Polynesian branch spoken in Tonga.
In historical linguistics, the tree model (also Stammbaum, genetic, or cladistic model) is a model of the evolution of languages analogous to the concept of a family tree, particularly a phylogenetic tree in the biological evolution of species.
Vere Gordon Childe (14 April 1892 – 19 October 1957), better known as V. Gordon Childe, was an Australian archaeologist and philologist who specialized in the study of European prehistory.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Verner's law, stated by Karl Verner in 1875, describes a historical sound change in the Proto-Germanic language whereby voiceless fricatives *f, *þ, *s, *h, *hʷ, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing and became the fricatives *β, *ð, *z, *ɣ, *ɣʷ respectively.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov (Вячесла́в Все́володович Ива́нов, 21 August 1929 – 7 October 2017) was a prominent Soviet/Russian philologist, semiotician and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Armenian Highlands and Lake Urmia.
Vyākaraṇa (Sanskrit: "explanation, analysis") refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, ancillary science connected with the Vedas, which are scriptures in Hinduism.
In historical linguistics, the wave model or wave theory (German Wellentheorie) is a model of language change in which a new language feature (innovation) or a new combination of language features spreads from a central region of origin in continuously weakening concentric circles, similar to the waves created when a stone is thrown into a body of water.
Sir William Jones FRS FRSE (28 September 1746 – 27 April 1794) was an Anglo-Welsh philologist, a puisne judge on the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal, and a scholar of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among European and Indian languages, which would later be known as Indo-European languages.
William "Bill" Labov (born December 4, 1927) is an American linguist, widely regarded as the founder of the discipline of variationist sociolinguistics.
William Wotton (13 August 1666 – 13 February 1727) was an English theologian, classical scholar and linguist.
Comparative Historical, Comparative method (linguistics), Comparative reconstruction, Comparative-historical, Regular correspondence, Regular sound correspondence, Shared innovation, Sound correspondence.