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Composite material

Index Composite material

A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. [1]

211 relations: Adhesive, Adobe, Advanced composite materials (engineering), Aerospace, Airbus A350 XWB, Aircraft, Airplane, Alloy, Aluminium, American Composites Manufacturers Association, Anisotropy, Aramid, Arborite, Arecaceae, Asphalt, Asphalt concrete, Aspirator (pump), Atmosphere (unit), Atmospheric entry, Auto racing, Autoclave (industrial), Automated fiber placement, Bakelite, Bamboo, Bathtub, Bending, Bicycle, Binder (material), Boat building, Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Bone mineral, Brick, Bridge, Building, Burt Rutan, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carbon fibers, Cartonnage, Casting, Cellulose fiber, Cement, Ceramic engineering, Ceramic matrix composite, Cermet, Chemical property, Chemical vapor infiltration, Chobham armour, Cob (material), Collagen, Composite, ..., Composite armour, Composite baseball bat, Composite laminate, Composite material, Compression molding, Concrete, Construction, Continuous casting, Curing (chemistry), De architectura, Death mask, Delamination, Density, Dental composite, Disc brake, Ductility, DuPont, Empennage, Engineered stone, Engineered wood, Epoxy, Epoxy granite, Fiber, Fiber pull-out, Fiberglass, Fiberglass spray lay-up process, Fibre-reinforced plastic, Filament winding, Finite element method, First Intermediate Period of Egypt, Fishing rod, Foam, Formica (plastic), Fracture toughness, Fuselage, Glass fiber, Glass transition, Grain boundary strengthening, Granite, Heat shield, Helmet, Hemicellulose, High strain composite structure, Honeycomb structure, Humvee, Hybrid material, Hydroxylapatite, Imitation, Invar, Isotropy, Kevlar, Lanxide process, Launch vehicle, Lignin, Lime mortar, Long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic, Luxury vehicle, Macroscopic scale, Mallite, Masonry, Materials science, Matrix (biology), Metal foam, Metal matrix composite, Micarta, Microscopic scale, Military vehicle, Mixture, Mold, Molding (process), Mortise and tenon, Mud, Nacre, Nanocomposite, Naples, Natural rubber, Nickel, Nondestructive testing, Numerical control, Ochroma, Oriented strand board, Orthopedic surgery, Out of autoclave composite manufacturing, Paper composite panels, Papier-mâché, Phenol formaldehyde resin, Physical property, Plant, Plastic-coated paper, Plywood, Poisson's ratio, Polyamide, Polyester, Polyether ether ketone, Polyethylene, Polyimide, Polymer, Polymer concrete, Polymerization, Polypropylene, Polystyrene, Polyurethane, Polyvinyl chloride, Portland cement, Pozzolana, Pozzuoli, Pre-preg, Precipitation hardening, Propeller (aeronautics), Pultrusion, Pykrete, Racket (sports equipment), Reinforced carbon–carbon, Reinforced concrete, Robotic materials, Rome, Rule of mixtures, Sandwich panel, Sandwich-structured composite, Scaled Composites, Sculling, Shape-memory polymer, Shear modulus, Shellac, Short fiber reinforced blends, Short fiber thermoplastics, Shower, Silicon carbide, Silicone rubber, Sink, Slip forming, Solid solution, Space Shuttle Columbia, Spacecraft, Sports car, Stiffness, Storage tank, Straw, Structure, Syntactic foam, Tailored fiber placement, Textile, Thermal expansion, Thermoplastic, Thermoset polymer matrix, Thermosetting polymer, Transfer molding, Tree, Tufting (composites), United States Geological Survey, Vacuum pump, Vinyl ester resin, Vitruvius, Void (composites), Wattle and daub, Wing, Wood, Wood-plastic composite, Work hardening, Young's modulus, Z-pinning. Expand index (161 more) »


An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.

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Adobe is a building material made from earth and other organic materials.

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Advanced composite materials (engineering)

Advanced composite materials (ACMs) are also known as advanced polymer matrix composites.

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Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).

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Airbus A350 XWB

The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, twin-engine wide-body jet airliners developed by European aerospace manufacturer Airbus.

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An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.

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An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.

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An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.

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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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American Composites Manufacturers Association

The American Composites Manufacturers Association (ACMA) is the world's largest trade association serving the composites industry.

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Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.

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Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers.

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Arborite is the leading Canadian manufacturer of high-pressure decorative plastic laminates (HPL).

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The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).

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Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.

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Asphalt concrete

Asphalt concrete (commonly called asphalt, blacktop, or pavement in North America, and tarmac, bitumen macadam or rolled asphalt in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland) is a composite material commonly used to surface roads, parking lots, airports, as well as the core of embankment dams.

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Aspirator (pump)

An aspirator is a type of ejector-jet pump, which produces vacuum by means of the Venturi effect.

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Atmosphere (unit)

The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.

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Atmospheric entry

Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.

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Auto racing

Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.

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Autoclave (industrial)

Industrial autoclaves are pressure vessels used to process parts and materials which require exposure to elevated pressure and temperature.

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Automated fiber placement

Automated fiber placement (AFP), also known as advanced fiber placement, is an advanced method of manufacturing composite materials.

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Bakelite (sometimes spelled Baekelite), or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, is the first plastic made from synthetic components.

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The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.

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A bathtub, bath, or tub (informal) is a large or small container for holding water in which a person or animal may bathe.

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In applied mechanics, bending (also known as flexure) characterizes the behavior of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element.

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A bicycle, also called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.

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Binder (material)

A binder or binding agent is any material or substance that holds or draws other materials together to form a cohesive whole mechanically, chemically, by adhesion or cohesion.

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Boat building

Boat building, one of the oldest branches of engineering, is concerned with constructing the hulls of boats and, for sailboats, the masts, spars and rigging.

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Boeing 787 Dreamliner

The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is an American long-haul, mid-size widebody, twin-engine jet airliner made by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.

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Bone mineral

Bone mineral (also called inorganic bone phase, bone salt, or bone apatite) is the inorganic component of bone tissue.

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A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.

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A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.

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A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.

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Burt Rutan

Elbert Leander "Burt" Rutan (born June 17, 1943) is a retired American aerospace engineer noted for his originality in designing light, strong, unusual-looking, energy-efficient aircraft.

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Carbon fiber reinforced polymer

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.

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Carbon fibers

Carbon fibers or carbon fibres (alternatively CF, graphite fiber or graphite fibre) are fibers about 5–10 micrometers in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms.

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Cartonnage is a type of material used in Ancient Egyptian funerary masks from the First Intermediate Period to the Roman era.

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Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify.

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Cellulose fiber

Cellulose fibres are fibres made with ether or esters of cellulose, which can be obtained from the bark, wood or leaves of plants, or from a plant-based material.

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A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.

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Ceramic engineering

Ceramic engineering is the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials.

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Ceramic matrix composite

Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a subgroup of composite materials as well as a subgroup of ceramics.

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A cermet is a composite material composed of ceramic (cer) and metal (met) materials.

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Chemical property

A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.

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Chemical vapor infiltration

Chemical vapour infiltration (CVI) is a ceramic engineering process whereby matrix material is infiltrated into fibrous preforms by the use of reactive gases at elevated temperature to form fiber-reinforced composites.

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Chobham armour

Chobham armour is the informal name of a composite armour developed in the 1960s at the British tank research centre on Chobham Common, Surrey.

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Cob (material)

Cob, cobb or clom (in Wales) is a natural building material made from subsoil, water, fibrous organic material (typically straw), and sometimes lime.

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.

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Composite or compositing may refer to.

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Composite armour

Composite armour is a type of vehicle armour consisting of layers of different material such as metals, plastics, ceramics or air.

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Composite baseball bat

Composite baseball bats, opposed to aluminum or wood baseball bats, incorporate a reinforced carbon fiber polymer, or composite, into the bat's construction.

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Composite laminate

In materials science, a composite laminate is an assembly of layers of fibrous composite materials which can be joined to provide required engineering properties, including in-plane stiffness, bending stiffness, strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion.

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Composite material

A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.

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Compression molding

Compression Molding is a method of molding in which the moulding material, generally preheated, is first placed in an open, heated mould cavity.

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Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.

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Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.

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Continuous casting

Continuous casting, also called strand casting, is the process whereby molten metal is solidified into a "semifinished" billet, bloom, or slab for subsequent rolling in the finishing mills.

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Curing (chemistry)

Curing is a term in polymer chemistry and process engineering that refers to the toughening or hardening of a polymer material by cross-linking of polymer chains, brought about by electron beams, heat, or chemical additives.

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De architectura

De architectura (On architecture, published as Ten Books on Architecture) is a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect and military engineer Marcus Vitruvius Pollio and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus, as a guide for building projects.

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Death mask

A death mask is an image, typically in wax or plaster cast made of a person's face following death, often by taking a cast or impression directly from the corpse.

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Delamination is a mode of failure for composite materials and steel.

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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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Dental composite

Dental composite resins (better referred to as "resin-based composites" or simply "filled resins") are types of synthetic resins which are used in dentistry as restorative material or adhesives.

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Disc brake

A disc brake is a type of brake that uses calipers to squeeze pairs of pads against a disc or "rotor" to create friction.

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Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.

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The empennage, also known as the tail or tail assembly, is a structure at the rear of an aircraft that provides stability during flight, in a way similar to the feathers on an arrow.

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Engineered stone

Engineered stone is a composite material made of crushed stone bound together by an adhesive, (most commonly polymer resin, with some newer versions using cement mix).

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Engineered wood

Engineered wood, also called composite wood, man-made wood, or manufactured board, includes a range of derivative wood products which are manufactured by binding or fixing the strands, particles, fibres, or veneers or boards of wood, together with adhesives, or other methods of fixation to form composite materials.

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Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.

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Epoxy granite

Epoxy granite, also known as synthetic granite, is a mixture of epoxy and granite commonly used as an alternative material for machine tool bases.

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Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.

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Fiber pull-out

Fiber pull-out is one of the failure mechanisms in fiber-reinforced composite materials.

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Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.

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Fiberglass spray lay-up process

Spray-Up also known as chop method of creating fiberglass objects by spraying short strands of glass out of a pneumatic gun.

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Fibre-reinforced plastic

Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) (also called fiber-reinforced polymer, or fiber-reinforced plastic) is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres.

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Filament winding

Filament winding is a fabrication technique mainly used for manufacturing open (cylinders) or closed end structures (pressure vessels or tanks).

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Finite element method

The finite element method (FEM), is a numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics.

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First Intermediate Period of Egypt

The First Intermediate Period, often described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximately one hundred and twenty-five years, from c. 2181–2055 BC, after the end of the Old Kingdom. It comprises the seventh (although it is mostly considered spurious by Egyptologists), eighth, ninth, tenth, and part of the eleventh dynasties. Very little monumental evidence survives from this period, especially towards the beginning of the era. The First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time in history where rule of Egypt was roughly divided between two competing power bases. One of those bases resided at Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt, a city just south of the Faiyum region. The other resided at Thebes in Upper Egypt. It is believed that during this time, the temples were pillaged and violated, their existing artwork was vandalized, and the statues of kings were broken or destroyed as a result of this alleged political chaos. These two kingdoms would eventually come into conflict, with the Theban kings conquering the north, resulting in reunification of Egypt under a single ruler during the second part of the eleventh dynasty.

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Fishing rod

A fishing rod is a long, flexible rod used to catch fish.

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Foam is a substance formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid.

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Formica (plastic)

Formica laminate is a laminated composite material invented at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in the United States in 1912.

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Fracture toughness

In materials science, fracture toughness is a property which describes the ability of a material to resist fracture, and is one of the most important properties of any material for many design applications.

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The fuselage (from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body section.

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Glass fiber

Glass fiber (or glass fibre) is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.

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Glass transition

The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.

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Grain boundary strengthening

Grain-boundary strengthening (or Hall–Petch strengthening) is a method of strengthening materials by changing their average crystallite (grain) size.

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Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Heat shield

A heat shield is designed to shield a substance from absorbing excessive heat from an outside source by either dissipating, reflecting or simply absorbing the heat.

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A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the head from injuries.

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A hemicellulose (also known as polyose) is any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides), such as arabinoxylans, present along with cellulose in almost all plant cell walls.

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High strain composite structure

High Strain Composite Structures (HSC Structures) are a class of composite material structures designed to perform in a high deformation setting.

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Honeycomb structure

Honeycomb structures are natural or man-made structures that have the geometry of a honeycomb to allow the minimization of the amount of used material to reach minimal weight and minimal material cost.

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The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV; colloquial: Humvee) is a family of light, four-wheel drive, military trucks and utility vehicles produced by AM General.

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Hybrid material

Hybrid materials are composites consisting of two constituents at the nanometer or molecular level.

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Hydroxylapatite, also called hydroxyapatite (HA), is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two entities.

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Imitation (from Latin imitatio, "a copying, imitation") is an advanced behavior whereby an individual observes and replicates another's behavior.

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Invar, also known generically as FeNi36 (64FeNi in the US), is a nickel–iron alloy notable for its uniquely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE or α).

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Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").

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Kevlar is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora.

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Lanxide process

The Lanxide process, also known as pressureless metal infiltration, is a way of producing metal-matrix composite materials by a process of partial reaction; the process involves a careful choice of initial alloy (usually aluminium with about 3% magnesium and about 10% silicon), and then the maintenance of conditions in which the polycrystalline reaction product has a mechanical composition such that metal is drawn up through it towards the oxidiser by capillary action, so the composite material grows downwards.

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Launch vehicle

A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).

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Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.

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Lime mortar

Lime mortar is composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand, mixed with water.

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Long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic

Long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (LFRTs) is a type of easily mouldable thermoplastic used to create a variety of components used primarily in the automotive industry.

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Luxury vehicle

Luxury vehicle is a marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury—pleasant or desirable features beyond strict necessity—at increased expense.

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Macroscopic scale

The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.

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Mallite is a type of laminate composite material, formerly manufactured by the William Mallinson & Sons company.

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Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.

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Materials science

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

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Matrix (biology)

In biology, matrix (plural: matrices) is the material (or tissue) in animal or plant cells, in which more specialized structures are embedded, and a specific part of the mitochondrion.

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Metal foam

Regular foamed aluminium A metal foam is a cellular structure consisting of a solid metal (frequently aluminium) with gas-filled pores comprising a large portion of the volume.

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Metal matrix composite

A metal matrix composite (MMC) is composite material with at least two constituent parts, one being a metal necessarily, the other material may be a different metal or another material, such as a ceramic or organic compound.

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Micarta is a brand name for composites of linen, canvas, paper, fiberglass, carbon fiber or other fabric in a thermosetting plastic.

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Microscopic scale

The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.

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Military vehicle

A military vehicle is a type of vehicle that includes all land combat and transportation vehicles, which are designed for or are significantly used by military forces.

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In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.

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A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.

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Molding (process)

Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.

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Mortise and tenon

A mortise (or mortice) and tenon joint is a type of joint that connects two pieces of wood or other material.

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Mud is a liquid or semi-liquid mixture of water and any combination of different kinds of soil (loam, silt, and clay).

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Nacre (also), also known as mother of pearl, is an organic-inorganic composite material produced by some molluscs as an inner shell layer; it also makes up the outer coating of pearls.

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Nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometers (nm), or structures having nano-scale repeat distances between the different phases that make up the material.

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Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.

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Natural rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.

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Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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Nondestructive testing

Nondestructive testing or non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage.

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Numerical control

Computer numerical control (CNC) is the automation of machine tools by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands.

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Ochroma is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae, containing the sole species Ochroma pyramidale, commonly known as the balsa tree.

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Oriented strand board

Oriented strand board (OSB), also known as flakeboard, sterling board and aspenite in British English, is a type of engineered wood similar to particle board, formed by adding adhesives and then compressing layers of wood strands (flakes) in specific orientations.

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Orthopedic surgery

Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.

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Out of autoclave composite manufacturing

Out of autoclave composite manufacturing is an alternative to the traditional high pressure autoclave (industrial) curing process commonly used by the aerospace manufacturers for manufacturing composite material.

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Paper composite panels

Paper composite panels are a phenolic resin/cellulose composite material made from partially recycled paper and phenolic resin.

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Papier-mâché (literally "chewed paper") is a composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste.

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Phenol formaldehyde resin

Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde.

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Physical property

A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plastic-coated paper

Plastic-coated paper is a coated or laminated composite material made of paper or paperboard with a plastic layer or treatment on a surface.

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Plywood is a sheet material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another.

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Poisson's ratio

Poisson's ratio, denoted by the Greek letter 'nu', \nu, and named after Siméon Poisson, is the negative of the ratio of (signed) transverse strain to (signed) axial strain.

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A polyamide is a macromolecule with repeating units linked by amide bonds.

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Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.

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Polyether ether ketone

Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) is a colourless organic thermoplastic polymer in the polyaryletherketone (PAEK) family, used in engineering applications.

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Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.

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Polyimide (sometimes abbreviated PI) is a polymer of imide monomers.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Polymer concrete

Polymer concretes are a type of concrete that use polymers to replace lime-type cements as a binder.

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In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

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Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.

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Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.

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Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.

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Polyvinyl chloride

Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.

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Portland cement

Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.

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Pozzolana, also known as pozzolanic ash (pulvis puteolanus in Latin), is a natural siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which reacts with calcium hydroxide in the presence of water at room temperature (cf. pozzolanic reaction).

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Pozzuoli is a city and comune of the Metropolitan City of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania.

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Pre-preg is "pre-impregnated" composite fibers where a thermoset polymer matrix material, such as epoxy, is already present.

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Precipitation hardening

Precipitation hardening, also called age hardening or particle hardening, is a heat treatment technique used to increase the yield strength of malleable materials, including most structural alloys of aluminium, magnesium, nickel, titanium, and some steels and stainless steels.

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Propeller (aeronautics)

An aircraft propeller, or airscrew,Beaumont, R.A.; Aeronautical Engineering, Odhams, 1942, Chapter 13, "Airscrews".

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Pultrusion is a continuous process for manufacture of composite materials with constant cross-section.

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Pykrete is a frozen composite material, originally made of approximately 14 percent sawdust or some other form of wood pulp (such as paper) and 86 percent ice by weight (6 to 1 by weight).

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Racket (sports equipment)

A racket or racquet is a sports implement consisting of a handled frame with an open hoop across which a network of strings or catgut is stretched tightly.

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Reinforced carbon–carbon

Carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFRC), carbon–carbon (C/C), or reinforced carbon–carbon (RCC) is a composite material consisting of carbon fiber reinforcement in a matrix of graphite.

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Reinforced concrete

Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility.

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Robotic materials

Robotic materials are composite materials that combine sensing, actuation, computation, and communication in a repeatable or amorphous pattern.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Rule of mixtures

In materials science, a general rule of mixtures is a weighted mean used to predict various properties of a composite material made up of continuous and unidirectional fibers.

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Sandwich panel

A sandwich panel is any structure made of three layers: a low-density core, and a thin skin-layer bonded to each side.

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Sandwich-structured composite

A sandwich-structured composite is a special class of composite materials that is fabricated by attaching two thin but stiff skins to a lightweight but thick core.

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Scaled Composites

Scaled Composites (often called simply Scaled) is an American aerospace company founded by Burt Rutan and currently owned by Northrop Grumman that is located at the Mojave Air and Space Port, Mojave, California, United States.

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Sculling is the use of oars to propel a boat by moving the oars through the water on both sides of the craft, or moving a single oar over the stern.

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Shape-memory polymer

Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are polymeric smart materials that have the ability to return from a deformed state (temporary shape) to their original (permanent) shape induced by an external stimulus (trigger), such as temperature change.

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Shear modulus

In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain: where The derived SI unit of shear modulus is the pascal (Pa), although it is usually expressed in gigapascals (GPa) or in thousands of pounds per square inch (ksi).

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Shellac is a resin secreted by the female lac bug, on trees in the forests of India and Thailand.

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Short fiber reinforced blends

Short Fiber Reinforced Blends are partial case of ternary composites, i.e. composites prepared of three ingredients.

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Short fiber thermoplastics

Thermoplastics containing short fiber reinforcements were first introduced commercially in the 1960s.

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A shower is a place in which a person bathes under a spray of typically warm or hot water.

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Silicon carbide

Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.

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Silicone rubber

Silicone rubber is an elastomer (rubber-like material) composed of silicone—itself a polymer—containing silicon together with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

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A sink — also known by other names including sinker, washbowl, hand basin and wash basin—is a bowl-shaped plumbing fixture used for washing hands, dishwashing, and other purposes.

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Slip forming

Slip forming, continuous poured, continuously formed, or slipform construction is a construction method in which concrete is poured into a continuously moving form.

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Solid solution

A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.

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Space Shuttle Columbia

Space Shuttle Columbia (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space-rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.

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A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.

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Sports car

A sports car, or sportscar, is a small, usually two-seater, two-door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling.

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Stiffness is the rigidity of an object — the extent to which it resists deformation in response to an applied force.

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Storage tank

Storage tanks are containers that hold liquids, compressed gases (gas tank; or in U.S.A "pressure vessel", which is not typically labeled or regulated as a storage tank) or mediums used for the short- or long-term storage of heat or cold.

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Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed.

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Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.

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Syntactic foam

Syntactic foams are composite materials synthesized by filling a metal, polymer, or ceramic matrix with hollow spheres called microballoons or cenospheres or non-hollow spheres (e.g. perlite).

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Tailored fiber placement

Tailored fiber placement or TFP is a textile manufacturing technique based on the principle of sewing for a continuous placement of fibrous material for composite components.

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A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.

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A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.

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Thermoset polymer matrix

A thermoset polymer matrix is a synthetic polymer reinforcement first developed for structural applications, such as glass-reinforced plastic radar domes on aircraft and graphite-epoxy payload bay doors on the space shuttle.

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Thermosetting polymer

A thermoset, also called a thermosetting plastic, is a plastic that is irreversibly cured from a soft solid or viscous liquid, prepolymer or resin.

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Transfer molding

Transfer molding (BrE moulding) is a manufacturing process where casting material is forced into a mold.

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In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.

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Tufting (composites)

In the field of composite materials, tufting is an experimental technology to locally reinforce continuous fibre-reinforced plastics along the z-direction, with the objective of enhancing the shear and delamination resistance of the structure.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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Vacuum pump

A vacuum pump is a device that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum.

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Vinyl ester resin

Vinyl ester resin, or often just vinyl ester, is a resin produced by the esterification of an epoxy resin with acrylic or methacrylic acids.

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Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.

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Void (composites)

A void is a pore that remains unoccupied in a composite material.

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Wattle and daub

Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw.

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A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.

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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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Wood-plastic composite

Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) are composite materials made of wood fiber/wood flour and thermoplastic(s) (includes PE, PP, PVC, PLA etc.). In addition to wood fiber and plastic, WPCs can also contain other ligno-cellulosic and/or inorganic filler materials.

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Work hardening

Work hardening, also known as strain hardening, is the strengthening of a metal or polymer by plastic deformation.

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Young's modulus

Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material.

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Z-pinning is a technique to insert reinforcing fibres (also called Z-pins or Z-fibres) along the Z-direction of continuous fibre-reinforced plastics.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_material

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