156 relations: Algorithm, Application software, Ars Technica, Automatic differentiation, Bachelor's degree, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, Bioinformatics, Biomineralization, Biotechnology, Branch and bound, Branch and cut, C (programming language), Cell (biology), Chapman & Hall, Cheminformatics, Chemometrics, Cholesky decomposition, Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling, Complex adaptive system, Computation, Computational archaeology, Computational biology, Computational chemistry, Computational criminology, Computational economics, Computational electromagnetics, Computational engineering, Computational finance, Computational fluid dynamics, Computational geophysics, Computational history, Computational informatics, Computational intelligence, Computational law, Computational linguistics, Computational mathematics, Computational mechanics, Computational model, Computational neuroscience, Computational particle physics, Computational physics, Computational scientist, Computational sociology, Computational statistics, Computational sustainability, Computer, Computer algebra, Computer algebra system, Computer engineering, Computer hardware, ..., Computer network, Computer program, Computer science, Computer simulation, Computing, CT scan, Data management, Discrete Fourier transform, Distributed computing, DNA sequencing, Doctorate, Embryogenesis, Engineering, Experiment, Financial market, Financial modeling, Finite difference, Finite element method, Floating-point arithmetic, Fortran, Gaussian elimination, Gene regulatory network, Geographic information system, GitHub, GNU Octave, Grid computing, Haskell (programming language), Humanities, In situ hybridization, Information and computer science, Information theory, Institute of Physics, Integral, Interval arithmetic, Julia (programming language), LAPACK, Light sheet fluorescence microscopy, Linear programming, List of computer algebra systems, List of numerical analysis software, List of statistical packages, LU decomposition, Machine learning, Maple (software), Master's degree, Materials science, Mathematical model, MATLAB, Medical research, Molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo method, Multiscale modeling, Network theory, Neuroinformatics, Newton's method, Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, Numerical analysis, Numerical linear algebra, Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations, Numerical weather prediction, Observation, Optical projection tomography, Organic compound, Parallel computing, Partition of an interval, Pattern recognition, Perl, Perl Data Language, Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton University Press, Programming language, Python (programming language), R (programming language), Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Regulation of gene expression, Richardson extrapolation, Riemann sum, Runge–Kutta methods, Science, Scientific visualization, Scilab, SciPy, Simpson's rule, Simulated reality, Simulation, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Software, Space mapping, Spatial scale, Supercomputer, System, Taylor series, Temporal scales, Theoretical computer science, Theory, Timeline of scientific computing, TK Solver, Trapezoidal rule, University of Amsterdam, Urban area, Urbanization, VU University Amsterdam, Wolfram Mathematica, World Scientific. Expand index (106 more) » « Shrink index
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
Ars Technica (a Latin-derived term that the site translates as the "art of technology") is a website covering news and opinions in technology, science, politics, and society, created by Ken Fisher and Jon Stokes in 1998.
In mathematics and computer algebra, automatic differentiation (AD), also called algorithmic differentiation or computational differentiation, is a set of techniques to numerically evaluate the derivative of a function specified by a computer program.
A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) is a specification that prescribes a set of low-level routines for performing common linear algebra operations such as vector addition, scalar multiplication, dot products, linear combinations, and matrix multiplication.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Branch and bound (BB, B&B, or BnB) is an algorithm design paradigm for discrete and combinatorial optimization problems, as well as mathematical optimization.
Branch and cut is a method of combinatorial optimization for solving integer linear programs (ILPs), that is, linear programming (LP) problems where some or all the unknowns are restricted to integer values.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Chapman & Hall was a British publishing house in London, founded in the first half of the 19th century by Edward Chapman and William Hall.
Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics, chemioinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry.
Chemometrics is the science of extracting information from chemical systems by data-driven means.
In linear algebra, the Cholesky decomposition or Cholesky factorization (pronounced /ʃ-/) is a decomposition of a Hermitian, positive-definite matrix into the product of a lower triangular matrix and its conjugate transpose, which is useful for efficient numerical solutions, e.g. Monte Carlo simulations.
This is a list of computer programs that are predominantly used for molecular mechanics calculations.
A complex adaptive system is a system in which a perfect understanding of the individual parts does not automatically convey a perfect understanding of the whole system's behavior.
Computation is any type of calculation that includes both arithmetical and non-arithmetical steps and follows a well-defined model, for example an algorithm.
Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution.
Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.
Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.
Computational criminology is an interdisciplinary field which uses computing science methods to formally define criminology concepts, improve our understanding of complex phenomena, and generate solutions for related problems.
Computational economics is a research discipline at the interface of computer science, economics, and management science.
Computational electromagnetics, computational electrodynamics or electromagnetic modeling is the process of modeling the interaction of electromagnetic fields with physical objects and the environment.
Not to be confused with computer engineering. Computational science and engineering (CSE) is a relatively new discipline that deals with the development and application of computational models and simulations, often coupled with high-performance computing, to solve complex physical problems arising in engineering analysis and design (computational engineering) as well as natural phenomena (computational science).
Computational finance is a branch of applied computer science that deals with problems of practical interest in finance.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows.
Computational geophysics entails rapid numerical computations that help analyses of geophysical data and observations.
Computational history (not to be confused with computation history) is a multidisciplinary field that studies history through machine learning and other data-driven, computational approaches.
Computational informatics is a subfield of informatics that emphasizes issues in the design of computing solutions rather than its underlying infrastructure.
The expression computational intelligence (CI) usually refers to the ability of a computer to learn a specific task from data or experimental observation.
Computational law is a branch of legal informatics concerned with the mechanization of legal reasoning (whether done by humans or by computers).
Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.
Computational mathematics may refer to two different aspect of the relation between computing and mathematics.
Computational mechanics is the discipline concerned with the use of computational methods to study phenomena governed by the principles of mechanics.
A computational model is a mathematical model in computational science that requires extensive computational resources to study the behavior of a complex system by computer simulation.
Computational neuroscience (also known as theoretical neuroscience or mathematical neuroscience) is a branch of neuroscience which employs mathematical models, theoretical analysis and abstractions of the brain to understand the principles that govern the development, structure, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.
Computational particle physics refers to the methods and computing tools developed in and used by particle physics research.
Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists.
A computational scientist is a person skilled in scientific computing.
Computational sociology is a branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena.
Computational statistics, or statistical computing, is the interface between statistics and computer science.
Computational sustainability is a broad field that attempts to optimize societal, economic, and environmental resources using methods from mathematics and computer science fields.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
In computational mathematics, computer algebra, also called symbolic computation or algebraic computation, is a scientific area that refers to the study and development of algorithms and software for manipulating mathematical expressions and other mathematical objects.
A computer algebra system (CAS) is any mathematical software with the ability to manipulate mathematical expressions in a way similar to the traditional manual computations of mathematicians and scientists.
Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of computer science and electronics engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Data management comprises all disciplines related to managing data as a valuable resource.
In mathematics, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) converts a finite sequence of equally-spaced samples of a function into a same-length sequence of equally-spaced samples of the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), which is a complex-valued function of frequency.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives such as futures and options at low transaction costs.
Financial modeling is the task of building an abstract representation (a model) of a real world financial situation.
A finite difference is a mathematical expression of the form.
The finite element method (FEM), is a numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
In linear algebra, Gaussian elimination (also known as row reduction) is an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations.
A gene (or genetic) regulatory network (GRN) is a collection of molecular regulators that interact with each other and with other substances in the cell to govern the gene expression levels of mRNA and proteins.
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
GitHub Inc. is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git.
GNU Octave is software featuring a high-level programming language, primarily intended for numerical computations.
Grid computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.
Haskell is a standardized, general-purpose compiled purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
In situ hybridization (ISH) is a type of hybridization that uses a labeled complementary DNA, RNA or modified nucleic acids strand (i.e., probe) to localize a specific DNA or RNA sequence in a portion or section of tissue (in situ), or, if the tissue is small enough (e.g., plant seeds, Drosophila embryos), in the entire tissue (whole mount ISH), in cells, and in circulating tumor cells (CTCs).
Information and computer science (ICS) or computer and information science (CIS) (plural forms, i.e., sciences, may also be used) is a field that emphasizes both computing and informatics, upholding the strong association between the fields of information sciences and computer sciences and treating computers as a tool rather than a field.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
The Institute of Physics (IOP) is a scientific charity that works to advance physics education, research and application.
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.
Interval arithmetic, interval mathematics, interval analysis, or interval computation, is a method developed by mathematicians since the 1950s and 1960s, as an approach to putting bounds on rounding errors and measurement errors in mathematical computation and thus developing numerical methods that yield reliable results.
Julia is a high-level dynamic programming language designed to address the needs of high-performance numerical analysis and computational science, without the typical need of separate compilation to be fast, while also being effective for general-purpose programming, web use or as a specification language.
LAPACK (Linear Algebra Package) is a standard software library for numerical linear algebra.
Light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) is a fluorescence microscopy technique with an intermediate-to-high optical resolution, but good optical sectioning capabilities and high speed.
Linear programming (LP, also called linear optimization) is a method to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a mathematical model whose requirements are represented by linear relationships.
The following tables provide a comparison of computer algebra systems (CAS).
Listed here are end-user computer applications intended for use with numerical or data analysis.
Statistical software are specialized computer programs for analysis in statistics and econometrics.
In numerical analysis and linear algebra, LU decomposition (where "LU" stands for "lower–upper", and also called LU factorization) factors a matrix as the product of a lower triangular matrix and an upper triangular matrix.
Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.
Maple is a symbolic and numeric computing environment, and is also a multi-paradigm programming language.
A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation method for studying the physical movements of atoms and molecules.
Monte Carlo methods (or Monte Carlo experiments) are a broad class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to obtain numerical results.
In engineering, mathematics, physics, chemistry, bioinformatics, computational biology, meteorology and computer science, multiscale modeling or multiscale mathematics is the field of solving problems which have important features at multiple scales of time and/or space.
Network theory is the study of graphs as a representation of either symmetric relations or asymmetric relations between discrete objects.
Neuroinformatics is a research field concerned with the organization of neuroscience data by the application of computational models and analytical tools.
In numerical analysis, Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method), named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson, is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function.
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with physical systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium but can be described in terms of variables (non-equilibrium state variables) that represent an extrapolation of the variables used to specify the system in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
Numerical linear algebra is the study of algorithms for performing linear algebra computations, most notably matrix operations, on computers.
Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are methods used to find numerical approximations to the solutions of ordinary differential equations (ODEs).
Numerical weather prediction (NWP) uses mathematical models of the atmosphere and oceans to predict the weather based on current weather conditions.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
Optical projection tomography is a form of tomography involving optical microscopy.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.
In mathematics, a partition of an interval on the real line is a finite sequence of real numbers such that In other terms, a partition of a compact interval is a strictly increasing sequence of numbers (belonging to the interval itself) starting from the initial point of and arriving at the final point of.
Pattern recognition is a branch of machine learning that focuses on the recognition of patterns and regularities in data, although it is in some cases considered to be nearly synonymous with machine learning.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
Perl Data Language (abbreviated PDL) is a set of free software array programming extensions to the Perl programming language.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) is a Polish state-sponsored institution of higher learning.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
R is a programming language and free software environment for statistical computing and graphics that is supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
A real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR), also known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), is a laboratory technique of molecular biology based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
In numerical analysis, Richardson extrapolation is a sequence acceleration method, used to improve the rate of convergence of a sequence.
In mathematics, a Riemann sum is a certain kind of approximation of an integral by a finite sum.
In numerical analysis, the Runge–Kutta methods are a family of implicit and explicit iterative methods, which include the well-known routine called the Euler Method, used in temporal discretization for the approximate solutions of ordinary differential equations.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific visualization (also spelled scientific visualisation) is an interdisciplinary branch of science.
Scilab is a free and open-source, cross-platform numerical computational package and a high-level, numerically oriented programming language.
SciPy (pronounced /ˈsaɪpaɪ'/ "Sigh Pie") is a free and open-source Python library used for scientific computing and technical computing.
In numerical analysis, Simpson's rule is a method for numerical integration, the numerical approximation of definite integrals.
Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by quantum computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality.
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.
The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) is an academic association dedicated to the use of mathematics in industry.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
The space mapping methodology for modeling and design optimization of engineering systems was first discovered by John Bandler in 1993.
In sciences such as physics, geography, astronomy, meteorology and statistics, the term scale or spatial scale is used for describing or classifying with large approximation the extent or size of a length, distance or area studied or described.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
In mathematics, a Taylor series is a representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point.
In reptiles, the temporal scales are located on the side of the head between the parietal scales and the supralabial scales, and behind the postocular scales.
Theoretical computer science, or TCS, is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on more mathematical topics of computing and includes the theory of computation.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
The following is a timeline of scientific computing, also known as computational science.
TK Solver (originally TK!Solver) is a mathematical modeling and problem solving software system based on a declarative, rule-based language, commercialized by Universal Technical Systems, Inc.
In mathematics, and more specifically in numerical analysis, the trapezoidal rule (also known as the trapezoid rule or trapezium rule) is a technique for approximating the definite integral The trapezoidal rule works by approximating the region under the graph of the function f(x) as a trapezoid and calculating its area.
The University of Amsterdam (abbreviated as UvA, Universiteit van Amsterdam) is a public university located in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
The Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (abbreviated as VU, VU University Amsterdam, "Free University Amsterdam") is a university in Amsterdam, Netherlands, founded in 1880.
Wolfram Mathematica (usually termed Mathematica) is a modern technical computing system spanning most areas of technical computing — including neural networks, machine learning, image processing, geometry, data science, visualizations, and others.
World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.
Applications of computational science, Computational Science, Computational sciences, Open research computation, Scientific Computation, Scientific Computing, Scientific computation, Scientific computer, Scientific computing.