118 relations: Amdahl's law, Amsterdam, Apache Hadoop, Application checkpointing, ARCNET, Automatic parallelization, Beowulf cluster, Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing, Burroughs large systems, C (programming language), CDC 6600, Cluster Shared Volumes, Clustered file system, Commercial off-the-shelf, Compile farm, Computer, Computer simulation, Cray-1, DARPA, Datapoint, DEGIMA, Degree of parallelism, Digital Equipment Corporation, Distcc, Distributed computing, Distributed data store, Distributed memory, Distributed operating system, Distributed shared memory, European Grid Infrastructure, Failover, Fencing (computing), Fibre Channel, File system, Flash mob computing, Fortran, Free software, Gene Amdahl, Georgia Institute of Technology College of Computing, GLite, Grid computing, Heartbeat network, High-availability cluster, IBM, IBM Sequoia, IBM Spectrum Scale, Input/output, Internet protocol suite, K computer, Kernel (operating system), ..., Kerrighed, Linux, Linux Virtual Server, Linux-HA, Load balancing (computing), Local area network, MapReduce, Message Passing Interface, Microsoft, Microsoft Cluster Server, Microsoft Windows, MOSIX, MPICH, National Science Foundation, Netherlands, Network block device, Node (computer science), Node (networking), Nvidia Tesla Personal Supercomputer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, OCFS2, Open MPI, Open Source Cluster Application Resources, OpenMosix, OpenSSI, OpenVMS, Operating system, Parallel programming model, Parallel SCSI, Parallel Virtual Machine, Peer-to-peer, Peripheral, PlayStation 3 cluster, Python (programming language), RAID, Red Hat cluster suite, Render farm, Rocks Cluster Distribution, Rogue Wave Software, Round-robin scheduling, Scheduling (computing), Scientific American, Server farm, Shared memory, Single point of failure, Single system image, Slurm Workload Manager, Solaris Cluster, Stack Overflow, Stone Soupercomputer, STONITH, Supercomputer, Symmetric multiprocessing, Tandem Computers, Task parallelism, Thomas Sterling (computing), TOP500, University of California, Berkeley, Vector processor, Veritas Cluster Server, Video game console, Virtual machine, Virtualization, VMScluster, Volunteer computing, Windows Server, Xbox (console), Xen. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
In computer architecture, Amdahl's law (or Amdahl's argument) is a formula which gives the theoretical speedup in latency of the execution of a task at fixed workload that can be expected of a system whose resources are improved.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Apache Hadoop is a collection of open-source software utilities that facilitate using a network of many computers to solve problems involving massive amounts of data and computation.
Checkpointing is a technique to add fault tolerance into computing systems.
Attached Resource Computer NETwork (ARCNET or ARCnet) is a communications protocol for local area networks.
Automatic parallelization, also auto parallelization, autoparallelization, or parallelization, the last one of which implies automation when used in context, refers to converting sequential code into multi-threaded or vectorized (or even both) code in order to utilize multiple processors simultaneously in a shared-memory multiprocessor (SMP) machine.
A Beowulf cluster is a computer cluster of what are normally identical, commodity-grade computers networked into a small local area network with libraries and programs installed which allow processing to be shared among them.
The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC, pronounced – rhymes with "oink"), an open-source middleware system, supports volunteer and grid computing.
In the 1970s, Burroughs Corporation was organized into three divisions with very different product line architectures for high-end, mid-range, and entry-level business computer systems.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
The CDC 6600 was the flagship of the 6000 series of mainframe computer systems manufactured by Control Data Corporation.
Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV) is a feature of Failover Clustering first introduced in Windows Server 2008 R2 for use with the Hyper-V role.
A clustered file system is a file system which is shared by being simultaneously mounted on multiple servers.
Commercial off-the-shelf or commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) satisfy the needs of the purchasing organization, without the need to commission custom-made, or bespoke, solutions.
A compile farm is a server farm, a collection of one or more servers, which has been set up to compile computer programs remotely for various reasons.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
The Cray-1 was a supercomputer designed, manufactured and marketed by Cray Research.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
Datapoint Corporation, originally known as Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC), was a computer company based in San Antonio, Texas, United States.
The DEGIMA (DEstination for Gpu Intensive MAchine) is a high performance computer cluster used for hierarchical N-body simulations at the Nagasaki Advanced Computing Center, Nagasaki University.
The degree of parallelism (DOP) is a metric which indicates how many operations can be or are being simultaneously executed by a computer.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
In software development, distcc is a tool for speeding up compilation of source code by using distributed computing over a computer network.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
A distributed data store is a computer network where information is stored on more than one node, often in a replicated fashion.
In computer science, distributed memory refers to a multiprocessor computer system in which each processor has its own private memory.
A distributed operating system is a software over a collection of independent, networked, communicating, and physically separate computational nodes.
In computer science, distributed shared memory (DSM) is a form of memory architecture where physically separated memories can be addressed as one logically shared address space.
European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) is a series of efforts to provide access to high-throughput computing resources across Europe using grid computing techniques.
In computing and related technologies such as networking, failover is switching to a redundant or standby computer server, system, hardware component or network upon the failure or abnormal termination of the previously active application, server, system, hardware component, or network.
Fencing is the process of isolating a node of a computer cluster or protecting shared resources when a node appears to be malfunctioning.
Fibre Channel, or FC, is a high-speed network technology (commonly running at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 128 gigabit per second rates) providing in-order, lossless delivery of raw block data, primarily used to connect computer data storage to servers.
In computing, a file system or filesystem controls how data is stored and retrieved.
Flash mob computing or flash mob computer is a temporary ad hoc computer cluster running specific software to coordinate the individual computers into one single supercomputer.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.
Gene Myron Amdahl (November 16, 1922 – November 10, 2015) was an American computer architect and high-tech entrepreneur, chiefly known for his work on mainframe computers at IBM and later his own companies, especially Amdahl Corporation.
The College of Computing at the Georgia Institute of Technology has roots stretching back to an Information Science degree established in 1964.
gLite (pronounced "gee-lite") is a middleware computer software project for grid computing used by the CERN LHC experiments and other scientific domains.
Grid computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.
In computer clusters, heartbeat network is a private network which is shared only by the cluster nodes, and is not accessible from outside the cluster.
High-availability clusters (also known as HA clusters or fail-over clusters) are groups of computers that support server applications that can be reliably utilized with a minimum amount of down-time.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
IBM Sequoia is a petascale Blue Gene/Q supercomputer constructed by IBM for the National Nuclear Security Administration as part of the Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC).
IBM Spectrum Scale is a high-performance clustered file system developed by IBM.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
The K computer named for the Japanese word, meaning 10 quadrillion (1016)See Japanese numbers is a supercomputer manufactured by Fujitsu, currently installed at the Riken Advanced Institute for Computational Science campus in Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan.
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
Kerrighed is an open source single-system image (SSI) cluster software project.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
Linux Virtual Server (LVS) is load balancing software for Linux kernel–based operating systems.
The Linux-HA (High-Availability Linux) project provides a high-availability (clustering) solution for Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris and Mac OS X which promotes reliability, availability, and serviceability (RAS).
In computing, load balancing improves the distribution of workloads across multiple computing resources, such as computers, a computer cluster, network links, central processing units, or disk drives.
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.
MapReduce is a programming model and an associated implementation for processing and generating big data sets with a parallel, distributed algorithm on a cluster.
Message Passing Interface (MPI) is a standardized and portable message-passing standard designed by a group of researchers from academia and industry to function on a wide variety of parallel computing architectures.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) is a computer program that allows server computers to work together as a computer cluster, to provide failover and increased availability of applications, or parallel calculating power in case of high-performance computing (HPC) clusters (as in supercomputing).
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
MOSIX is a proprietary distributed operating system.
MPICH, formerly known as MPICH2, is a freely available, portable implementation of MPI, a standard for message-passing for distributed-memory applications used in parallel computing.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
On some operating systems, a network block device is a device node whose content is provided by a remote machine.
A node is a basic unit used in computer science.
In telecommunications networks, a node (Latin nodus, ‘knot’) is either a redistribution point or a communication endpoint.
The Tesla Personal Supercomputer is a desktop computer (personal supercomputer) that is backed by Nvidia and built by various hardware vendors.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
The Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS, in its second version OCFS2) is a shared disk file system developed by Oracle Corporation and released under the GNU General Public License.
Open MPI is a Message Passing Interface (MPI) library project combining technologies and resources from several other projects (FT-MPI, LA-MPI, LAM/MPI, and PACX-MPI).
Open Source Cluster Application Resources (OSCAR) is a Linux-based software installation for high-performance cluster computing.
openMosix is a free cluster management system that provided single-system image (SSI) capabilities, e.g. automatic work distribution among nodes.
OpenSSI is an open source single-system image clustering system.
OpenVMS is a closed-source, proprietary computer operating system for use in general-purpose computing.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
In computing, a parallel programming model is an abstraction of parallel computer architecture, with which it is convenient to express algorithms and their composition in programs.
Parallel SCSI (formally, SCSI Parallel Interface, or SPI) is the earliest of the interface implementations in the SCSI family.
Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) is a software tool for parallel networking of computers.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.
The considerable computing capability of the PlayStation 3's ''Cell'' microprocessors has raised interest in using multiple, networked PS3s for various tasks that require affordable high-performance computing.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks, originally Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) is a data storage virtualization technology that combines multiple physical disk drive components into one or more logical units for the purposes of data redundancy, performance improvement, or both.
The Red Hat Cluster includes software to create a high availability and load balancing cluster.
A render farm is a high-performance computer system, e.g. a computer cluster, built to render computer-generated imagery (CGI), typically for film and television visual effects.
Rocks Cluster Distribution (originally called NPACI Rocks) is a Linux distribution intended for high-performance computing clusters.
Rogue Wave Software is a United States software development company, now based in Louisville, Colorado.
Round-robin (RR) is one of the algorithms employed by process and network schedulers in computing.
In computing, scheduling is the method by which work specified by some means is assigned to resources that complete the work.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
A server farm or server cluster is a collection of computer servers – usually maintained by an organization to supply server functionality far beyond the capability of a single machine.
In computer science, shared memory is memory that may be simultaneously accessed by multiple programs with an intent to provide communication among them or avoid redundant copies.
A single point of failure (SPOF) is a part of a system that, if it fails, will stop the entire system from working.
In distributed computing, a single system image (SSI) cluster is a cluster of machines that appears to be one single system.
The Slurm Workload Manager (formerly known as Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management or SLURM), or Slurm, is a free and open-source job scheduler for Linux and Unix-like kernels, used by many of the world's supercomputers and computer clusters.
Oracle Solaris Cluster (sometimes Sun Cluster or SunCluster) is a high-availability cluster software product for Solaris, originally created by Sun Microsystems, which was acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2010.
Stack Overflow is a privately held website, the flagship site of the Stack Exchange Network, created in 2008 by Jeff Atwood and Joel Spolsky.
The Stone Soupercomputer was a Beowulf-style computer cluster built at the US Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the late 1990s.
STONITH ("Shoot The Other Node In The Head" or "Shoot The Offending Node In The Head"), sometimes called STOMITH ("Shoot The Other Member/Machine In The Head"), is a technique for fencing in computer clusters.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) involves a multiprocessor computer hardware and software architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single, shared main memory, have full access to all input and output devices, and are controlled by a single operating system instance that treats all processors equally, reserving none for special purposes.
Tandem Computers, Inc. was the dominant manufacturer of fault-tolerant computer systems for ATM networks, banks, stock exchanges, telephone switching centers, and other similar commercial transaction processing applications requiring maximum uptime and zero data loss.
Task parallelism (also known as function parallelism and control parallelism) is a form of parallelization of computer code across multiple processors in parallel computing environments.
Thomas Sterling is Professor of Computer Science at Indiana University, a Faculty Associate at California Institute of Technology, and a Distinguished Visiting Scientist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
In computing, a vector processor or array processor is a central processing unit (CPU) that implements an instruction set containing instructions that operate on one-dimensional arrays of data called vectors, compared to scalar processors, whose instructions operate on single data items.
Veritas Cluster Server (rebranded as Veritas Infoscale Availabilty and also known as VCS and also sold bundled in the SFHA product) is a high-availability cluster software for Unix, Linux and Microsoft Windows computer systems, created by Veritas Technologies.
A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.
In computing, a virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a computer system.
In computing, virtualization refers to the act of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, including virtual computer hardware platforms, storage devices, and computer network resources.
A VMScluster is a computer cluster involving a group of computers running the OpenVMS operating system.
Volunteer computing is a type of distributed computing, "an arrangement in which people, so-called volunteers, provide computing resources to projects, which use the resources to do distributed computing and/or storage".
Windows Server is a brand name for a group of server operating systems released by Microsoft.
The Xbox is a home video game console and the first installment in the Xbox series of consoles manufactured by Microsoft.
Xen Project (pronounced) is a hypervisor using a microkernel design, providing services that allow multiple computer operating systems to execute on the same computer hardware concurrently.
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