395 relations: A. Michael Noll, Academy, Adobe After Effects, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems, Advanced Micro Devices, Advertising, Aesthetics, Algorithm, Aliasing, Alumnus, Alvy Ray Smith, Amiga, Andries van Dam, Animation, Apple II, Arcade game, Arcade system board, Assassin's Creed, Association for Computing Machinery, Atari, ATI Technologies, Auguste and Louis Lumière, Autodesk, Autodesk 3ds Max, Aviation, Battle Arena Toshinden, Béla Julesz, Bézier curve, Bell Labs, Bell-Northern Research, Bendix Corporation, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bioinformatics, Biological data visualization, BioShock, Bit plane, Bitcoin, Bitmap, Blinn–Phong shading model, Bob Sproull, Boeing, Brian A. Barsky, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bui Tuong Phong, Bump mapping, Camera, Car, Cartoon, Cathode ray tube, ..., Central processing unit, Charles Csuri, Chart, Chroma key, Clipping (computer graphics), Computational biology, Computational photography, Computational physics, Computational science, Computer, Computer animation, Computer graphics (computer science), Computer graphics lighting, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, Computer hardware, Computer monitor, Computer science, Computer simulation, Computer vision, Computer-aided design, Computer-generated imagery, Control panel (engineering), Crowd simulation, CT scan, Daniel J. Sandin, Daniel Thalmann, Darkness, DARPA, Data, Data set, Data storage, David C. Evans, David Pearson (computer scientist), Design, Desktop computer, Digital art, Digital camera, Digital data, Digital Equipment Corporation, Digital image, Digital image processing, Dire Straits, Direct memory access, DirectX, Donald P. Greenberg, Doom (1993 video game), Douglas T. Ross, Drawing, Drug design, Education, Edwin Catmull, Electrical engineering, Electrical network, Electron gun, Electronics, Engineering drawing, Expression (mathematics), Fighting game, Film, Final Fantasy, Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within, Finding Nemo, First-person shooter, François Schuiten, Franklin C. Crow, Frederic Parke, Frieder Nake, Fujitsu, Game Developers Conference, GameCube, GameSpot, GeForce, GeForce 256, General Electric, General-purpose computing on graphics processing units, Geometry, Georg Nees, Global illumination, Glossary of computer graphics, Golden age (metaphor), Gouraud shading, Grand Theft Auto, Graphic design, Graphical user interface, Graphics, Graphics hardware, Graphics pipeline, Graphics processing unit, Graphing calculator, Gun Fight, Hardware acceleration, Hatching, Head-mounted display, Henri Gouraud (computer scientist), Henry Fuchs, Hewlett-Packard, Hidden surface determination, Hierarchy, High-Level Shading Language, Home computer, Human–computer interaction, IBM, IBM 2250, IBM 7090, Ice Age (2002 film), Id Software, Image, Image editing, Image file formats, Image plane, Implicit surface, Industrial Light & Magic, Infographic, Information visualization, Input device, Intel 8080, Intensity (physics), Isosurface, Ivan Sutherland, Jack Elton Bresenham, Jaggies, James D. Foley, Japan, Jim Blinn, Jim Kajiya, John Carmack, John F. Hughes, John Warnock, Ken Knowlton, Key frame, Khronos Group, Kingdom Hearts, Knight, Laboratory, Lance Williams (graphics researcher), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lens (optics), Light, Light pen, Lighting, Linear map, Liquid-crystal display, List of 3D modeling software, List of animated feature films of the 2010s, List of Sega arcade system boards, Lockheed Corporation, Loop subdivision surface, Lucasfilm, Macintosh, Madagascar (2005 film), Magnavox, Magnavox Odyssey, Magnetic resonance imaging, Map, Marc Levoy, Martin Newell (computer scientist), Matte (filmmaking), Maurice Benayoun, Michael Friendly, Microprocessor, Microscope, Microsoft, Microsoft Windows, Microsoft XNA, Minicomputer, Mipmap, Mirror, Mirror's Edge, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Mobile phone, Molecular biology, Money for Nothing (song), MS-DOS, Multimedia, Museum of Modern Art, Nadia Magnenat Thalmann, Namco System 21, Newton's laws of motion, Nintendo, Nintendo 64, Nintendo Switch, Non-uniform rational B-spline, Normal mapping, Nvidia, Ohio State University, OpenGL, OpenGL Shading Language, Optics, Osaka University, Oscilloscope, Parallel computing, Parametrization, Particle system, Paul de Casteljau, PDP-1, Peter Shirley, Photography, Photon mapping, Photorealism, Physically based rendering, Physics, Pierre Bézier, Pixar, Pixel, Planetarium, Plastic arts, Platform game, PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Polygon mesh, Polygonal modeling, Pong, PostScript, Printing, Procedural animation, Procedural texture, Quake (video game), Quarxs, Racing video game, Radar, Ralph H. Baer, Raster graphics, Raster graphics editor, Ray casting, Ray tracing (graphics), Real time (media), Real-time computer graphics, Reflection (computer graphics), Reflection mapping, Renault, Rendering (computer graphics), Rendering equation, RGB color model, Robert L. Cook, Rocket, Sampling (signal processing), San Francisco Bay Area, Sanders Associates, Scanline rendering, Scientific visualization, Scrolling, Sculpture, Sega, Sega Saturn, Semi-Automatic Ground Environment, Shader, Shading, Shadow volume, Short film, SIGGRAPH, Silicon Graphics, Silicon Valley, Simulation, Skeletal animation, Sketchpad, Smithsonian (magazine), Software, Solar cell, Sony, Space Invaders, Spacewar!, Special effect, Special Interest Group, Specular highlight, Sperry Corporation, Sprite (computer graphics), Stanford University, Star Wars, Stereoscopy, Steve Russell (computer scientist), Steven K. Feiner, Subdivision surface, Subsurface scattering, Super Mario 64, Supercomputer, Supercomputing in Japan, Supersampling, Taito, Technology, Tekken, Telescope, Television, Television advertisement, Tennis for Two, Texture (visual arts), Texture filtering, Texture mapping, The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, The Polar Express, The Walt Disney Company, Three-dimensional space, Time complexity, Tomohiro Nishikado, Toy Story, Transformation matrix, Triangle, Triangle mesh, TRW Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki, TX-2, Typography, Ultra-high-definition television, Uncanny valley, United States Armed Forces, Universe, University, University of Utah, User interface design, UV mapping, Vector graphics, Vertex (computer graphics), Video card, Video display controller, Video game, Video game industry, Virtua Fighter, Virtua Racing, Virtual reality, Visual arts, Visual system, Visualization (graphics), Volume rendering, Voxel, Wayne Lytle, Web design, Whirlwind I, William Fetter, William Higinbotham, Wire-frame model, Wolfenstein 3D, World War II, Xbox, Xbox One, Young Sherlock Holmes, Zilog Z8000, 16-bit, 2D computer graphics, 3D computer graphics, 3D Core Graphics System, 3D modeling, 3D printing, 3D projection, 3D rendering. 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An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Adobe After Effects is a digital visual effects, motion graphics, and compositing application developed by Adobe Systems and used in the post-production process of film making and television production.
Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems for macOS and Windows.
Adobe Systems Incorporated, commonly known as Adobe, is an American multinational computer software company.
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
In signal processing and related disciplines, aliasing is an effect that causes different signals to become indistinguishable (or aliases of one another) when sampled.
An alumnus ((masculine), an alumna ((feminine), or an alumnum ((gender-neutral) of a college, university, or other school is a former student. The word is Latin and simply means student. The plural is alumni for men and mixed groups and alumnae for women. The term is often mistakenly thought of as synonymous with "graduate," but they are not synonyms; one can be an alumnus without graduating. (Burt Reynolds, alumnus but not graduate of Florida State, is an example.) An alumnus can also be a former member, employee, contributor, or inmate.
Alvy Ray Smith III is an American computer scientist who cofounded Lucasfilm's Computer Division, and Pixar, participating in the 1980s and 1990s expansion of computer animation into feature film.
The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985.
Andries "Andy" van Dam (born December 8, 1938) is a Dutch-born American professor of computer science and former vice-president for research at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island.
Animation is a dynamic medium in which images or objects are manipulated to appear as moving images.
The Apple II (stylized as Apple.
An arcade game or coin-op is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades.
An arcade system board is a dedicated computer system created for the purpose of running video arcade games.
Assassin's Creed is a franchise centered on an action-adventure video game series developed by Ubisoft.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
Atari is a corporate and brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972, currently by Atari Interactive, a subsidiary of the French publisher Atari, SA.
ATI Technologies Inc. (commonly called ATI) was a semiconductor technology corporation based in Markham, Ontario, Canada, that specialized in the development of graphics processing units and chipsets.
The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.
Autodesk, Inc. is an American multinational software corporation that makes software for the architecture, engineering, construction, manufacturing, media, and entertainment industries.
Autodesk 3ds Max, formerly 3D Studio and 3D Studio Max, is a professional 3D computer graphics program for making 3D animations, models, games and images.
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
is a weapons-based fighting game developed by Tamsoft and published by Takara and Sony Computer Entertainment in 1995-1996 for the PlayStation, Sega Saturn, Game Boy, and PC.
Béla Julesz (also Bela Julesz in English; February 19, 1928 – December 31, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American visual neuroscientist and experimental psychologist in the fields of visual and auditory perception.
A Bézier curve (pronounced in French) is a parametric curve frequently used in computer graphics and related fields.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Bell-Northern Research (BNR) was a telecommunications research and development company established In 1971 when Bell Canada and Northern Electric combined their R&D organizations.
The Bendix Corporation was an American manufacturing and engineering company which during various times in its 60-year existence (1924–1983) made automotive brake shoes and systems, vacuum tubes, aircraft brakes, aeronautical hydraulics and electric power systems, avionics, aircraft and automobile fuel control systems, radios, televisions and computers.
Benoit B.  Mandelbrot  (20 November 1924 – 14 October 2010) was a Polish-born, French and American mathematician and polymath with broad interests in the practical sciences, especially regarding what he labeled as "the art of roughness" of physical phenomena and "the uncontrolled element in life".
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Biology data visualization is a branch of bioinformatics concerned with the application of computer graphics, scientific visualization, and information visualization to different areas of the life sciences.
BioShock is a first-person shooter video game developed by 2K Boston (later Irrational Games) and 2K Australia, and published by 2K Games.
A bit plane of a digital discrete signal (such as image or sound) is a set of bits corresponding to a given bit position in each of the binary numbers representing the signal.
Bitcoin (₿) is the world's first cryptocurrency, a form of electronic cash.
In computing, a bitmap is a mapping from some domain (for example, a range of integers) to bits.
The Blinn–Phong reflection model (also called the modified Phong reflection model) is a modification to the Phong reflection model developed by Jim Blinn.
Robert Fletcher "Bob" Sproull (born c. 1945) is an American computer scientist, who worked for Oracle Corporation where he was director of Oracle Labs in Burlington, Massachusetts.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
Brian A. Barsky is a Professor at the University of California, Berkeley, working in computer graphics and geometric modeling as well as in optometry and vision science.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
Bùi Tường Phong (December 14, 1942 – July 1975) was a Vietnamese-born French-American computer graphics researcher and pioneer.
Bump mapping is a technique in computer graphics for simulating bumps and wrinkles on the surface of an object.
A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
A cartoon is a type of illustration, possibly animated, typically in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Charles "Chuck" Csuri (born July 4, 1922) is an artist and pioneer in the field of digital art and recognized as the father of digital art and computer animation by the Smithsonian Magazine.
A chart is a graphical representation of data, in which "the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart".
Chroma key compositing, or chroma keying, is a visual effects/post-production technique for compositing (layering) two images or video streams together based on color hues (chroma range).
Clipping, in the context of computer graphics, is a method to selectively enable or disable rendering operations within a defined region of interest.
Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.
Computational photography or computational imaging refers to digital image capture and processing techniques that use digital computation instead of optical processes.
Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists.
Computational science (also scientific computing or scientific computation (SC)) is a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field that uses advanced computing capabilities to understand and solve complex problems.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer animation is the process used for generating animated images.
Computer graphics is a sub-field of Computer Science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content.
Computer graphics lighting refers to the simulation of light in computer graphics.
Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice is a textbook written by John F. Hughes, Andries van Dam, Morgan McGuire, David F. Sklar, James D. Foley, Steven K. Feiner, and Kurt Akeley and published by Addison–Wesley.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.
Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, films, television programs, shorts, commercials, videos, and simulators.
A control panel is a flat, often vertical, area where control or monitoring instruments are displayed or it is an enclosed unit that is the part of a system that users can access, as the control panel of a security system (also called control unit).
Crowd simulation is the process of simulating the movement of a large number of entities or characters.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Daniel J. Sandin (born 1942) is a video and computer graphics artist/researcher.
Darkness, the polar opposite to brightness, is understood as a lack of illumination or an absence of visible light.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data.
Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.
David Cannon Evans (February 24, 1924 – October 3, 1998) was the founder of the computer science department at the University of Utah and co-founder (with Ivan Sutherland) of Evans & Sutherland, a computer firm which is known as a pioneer in the domain of computer-generated imagery.
David Pearson is a British physicist and computer scientist.
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).
A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.
Digital art is an artistic work or practice that uses digital technology as an essential part of the creative or presentation process.
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.
Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
A digital image is a numeric representation, normally binary, of a two-dimensional image.
In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.
Dire Straits were a British rock band formed in London in 1977 by Mark Knopfler (lead vocals and lead guitar), David Knopfler (rhythm guitar and backing vocals), John Illsley (bass guitar and backing vocals), and Pick Withers (drums and percussion).
Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU).
Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces (APIs) for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms.
Donald Peter Greenberg (born 1934) is the Jacob Gould Schurman Professor of Computer Graphics at Cornell University.
Doom (typeset as DOOM in official documents and stylized as DooM in other media) is a 1993 first-person shooter (FPS) video game by id Software.
Douglas Taylor "Doug" Ross (21 December 1929 – 31 January 2007) was an American computer scientist pioneer, and Chairman of SofTech, Inc. He is most famous for originating the term CAD for computer-aided design, and is considered to be the father of Automatically Programmed Tools (APT) a language to drive numerically controlled manufacturing.
Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium.
Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Edwin Earl Catmull (born March 31, 1945) is an American computer scientist and current president of Pixar and Walt Disney Animation Studios.
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).
An electron gun (also called electron emitter) is an electrical component in some vacuum tubes that produces a narrow, collimated electron beam that has a precise kinetic energy.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
An engineering drawing, a type of technical drawing, is used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items.
In mathematics, an expression or mathematical expression is a finite combination of symbols that is well-formed according to rules that depend on the context.
A fighting game is a video game genre based around interpersonal combat between a limited amount of characters, in which they fight until they defeat their opponents or the timer expires.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
Final Fantasy is a science fiction and fantasy media franchise created by Hironobu Sakaguchi, and developed and owned by Square Enix (formerly Square).
Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within is a 2001 American computer-animated science fiction film directed by Hironobu Sakaguchi, creator of the Final Fantasy series of role-playing video games.
Finding Nemo is a 2003 American computer-animated adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures.
First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective; that is, the player experiences the action through the eyes of the protagonist.
François Schuiten (born 26 April 1956) is a Belgian comic book artist.
Franklin C. (Frank) Crow is a computer scientist who has made important contributions to computer graphics, including some of the first practical spatial anti-aliasing techniques.
Frederic Ira Parke graduated from the University of Utah with a BS degree in physics in 1965.
Frieder Nake (born December 16, 1938 in Stuttgart, Germany) is a mathematician, computer scientist, and pioneer of computer art.
is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
The Game Developers Conference (GDC) is the largest annual gathering of professional video game developers, focusing on learning, inspiration, and networking.
The GameCube is a home video game console released by Nintendo in Japan and North America in 2001 and Europe and Australia in 2002.
GameSpot is a video gaming website that provides news, reviews, previews, downloads, and other information on video games.
GeForce is a brand of graphics processing units (GPUs) designed by Nvidia.
The GeForce 256 is the original release in Nvidia's "GeForce" product-line.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, rarely GPGP) is the use of a graphics processing unit (GPU), which typically handles computation only for computer graphics, to perform computation in applications traditionally handled by the central processing unit (CPU).
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
Georg Nees (23 June 1926 – 3 January 2016) was a German academic who was a pioneer of computer art and generative graphics.
Global illumination (shortened as GI), or indirect illumination, is a general name for a group of algorithms used in 3D computer graphics that are meant to add more realistic lighting to 3D scenes.
This is a glossary of terms relating computer graphics.
A golden age is a period in a field of endeavor when great tasks were accomplished.
Gouraud shading, named after Henri Gouraud, is an interpolation method used in computer graphics to produce continuous shading of surfaces represented by polygon meshes.
Grand Theft Auto (GTA) is an action-adventure video game series created by David Jones and Mike Dailly; the later titles of which were created by brothers Dan and Sam Houser, Leslie Benzies and Aaron Garbut.
Graphic design is the process of visual communication and problem-solving through the use of typography, photography and illustration.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
Graphics (from Greek γραφικός graphikos, "belonging to drawing") are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain.
Graphics hardware is computer hardware that generates computer graphics and allows them to be shown on a display, usually using a graphics card (video card) in combination with a device driver to create the images on the screen.
In computer graphics, a computer graphics pipeline, rendering pipeline or simply graphics pipeline, is a conceptual model that describes what steps a graphics system needs to perform to render a 3D scene to a 2D screen.
A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.
A graphing calculator (also graphics / graphic display calculator) is a handheld computer that is capable of plotting graphs, solving simultaneous equations, and performing other tasks with variables.
Gun Fight, known as Western Gun in Japan and Europe, is a 1975 arcade shooter game designed by Tomohiro Nishikado, and released by Taito in Japan and Europe and by Midway in North America.
In computing, hardware acceleration is the use of computer hardware to perform some functions more efficiently than is possible in software running on a more general-purpose CPU.
Hatching (hachure in French) is an artistic technique used to create tonal or shading effects by drawing (or painting or scribing) closely spaced parallel lines.
A head-mounted display (or helmet-mounted display, for aviation applications), both abbreviated HMD, is a display device, worn on the head or as part of a helmet, that has a small display optic in front of one (monocular HMD) or each eye (binocular HMD).
Henri Gouraud (born 1944) is a French computer scientist.
Henry Fuchs (born 20 January 1948 in Tokaj, Hungary) is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS) and the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and the Federico Gil Professor of Computer Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC).
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
In 3D computer graphics, shown surface determination (also known as hidden surface removal (HSR), occlusion culling (OC) or visible surface determination (VSD)) is the process used to determine which surfaces and parts of surfaces are not visible from a certain viewpoint.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
The High-Level Shader Language or High-Level Shading Language (HLSL) is a proprietary shading language developed by Microsoft for the Direct3D 9 API to augment the shader assembly language, and went on to become the required shading language for the unified shader model of Direct3D 10 and higher.
Home computers were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s.
Human–computer interaction (HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM 2250 Graphics Display Unit was a vector graphics display system by IBM for the System/360.
The IBM 7090 is a second-generation transistorized version of the earlier IBM 709 vacuum tube mainframe computers that was designed for "large-scale scientific and technological applications".
Ice Age is a 2002 American computer-animated buddy comedy-drama road film directed by Chris Wedge and co-directed by Carlos Saldanha from a story by Michael J. Wilson.
id Software LLC (see Company name) is an American video game developer headquartered in Dallas, Texas.
An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.
Image editing encompasses the processes of altering images, whether they are digital photographs, traditional photo-chemical photographs, or illustrations.
Image file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images.
In 3D computer graphics, the image plane is that plane in the world which is identified with the plane of the monitor.
In mathematics an implicit surface is a surface in Euclidean space defined by an equation An implicit surface is the set of zeros of a function of three variables.
Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is an American motion picture visual effects company that was founded in May 1975 by George Lucas.
Infographics (a clipped compound of "information" and "graphics") are graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to present information quickly and clearly.
Information visualization or information visualisation is the study of (interactive) visual representations of abstract data to reinforce human cognition.
In computing, an input device is a piece of computer hardware equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or information appliance.
The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.
In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the energy.
An isosurface is a three-dimensional analog of an isoline.
Ivan Edward Sutherland (born May 16, 1938) is an American computer scientist and Internet pioneer, widely regarded as the "father of computer graphics." His early work in computer graphics as well as his teaching with David C. Evans in that subject at the University of Utah in the 1970s was pioneering in the field.
Jack Elton Bresenham (born 11 October 1937, Clovis, New Mexico, US) is a former professor of computer science.
"Jaggies" is the informal name for artifacts in raster images, most frequently from aliasing, which in turn is often caused by non-linear mixing effects producing high-frequency components or missing or poor anti-aliasing filtering prior to sampling.
James David Foley (born July 20, 1942) is an American computer scientist and computer graphics researcher.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
James F. Blinn (born 1949) is an American computer scientist who first became widely known for his work as a computer graphics expert at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), particularly his work on the pre-encounter animations for the Voyager project, his work on the Carl Sagan documentary series Cosmos, and the research of the Blinn–Phong shading model.
Jim Kajiya is a pioneer in the field of computer graphics.
John D. Carmack (born August 20, 1970) is an American computer programmer, engineer, and businessman.
John F. Hughes is a Professor of Computer Science at Brown University.
John Edward Warnock (born October 6, 1940) is an American computer scientist and businessman best known as the co-founder with Charles Geschke of Adobe Systems Inc., the graphics and publishing software company.
Kenneth C. Knowlton (born 1931 in Springville, New York), is a computer graphics pioneer, artist, mosaicist and portraitist, who worked at Bell Labs.
A keyframe in animation and filmmaking is a drawing that defines the starting and ending points of any smooth transition.
The Khronos Group, Inc. is an American non-profit member-funded industry consortium based in Beaverton, Oregon, focused on the creation of open standard, royalty-free application programming interfaces (APIs) for authoring and accelerated playback of dynamic media on a wide variety of platforms and devices.
is a series of crossover action role-playing games owned by Disney and developed and published by Square Enix (originally by Square).
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
Lance J. Williams (September 25, 1949 – August 20, 2017) was a prominent graphics researcher who made major contributions to texture map prefiltering, shadow rendering algorithms, facial animation, and antialiasing techniques.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A light pen is a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with a computer's CRT display.
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
In mathematics, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation or, in some contexts, linear function) is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves (in the sense defined below) the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
Following is a list of notable 3D modeling software, computer programs used for developing a mathematical representation of any three-dimensional surface of objects, also called 3D modeling.
This is a list of animated feature films first released in the 2010s.
The following is a list of arcade system boards released by Sega.
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company.
In computer graphics, Loop subdivision surface is an approximating subdivision scheme developed by Charles Loop in 1987 for triangular meshes.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
Madagascar is a 2005 American computer-animated adventure comedy film produced by DreamWorks Animation and released to theaters on May 27, 2005.
Magnavox (Latin for "great voice") (stylized as MAGNAVOX) is an American electronics company founded in the United States.
The Magnavox Odyssey is the first commercial home video game console.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.
Marc Levoy is a computer graphics researcher and Professor Emeritus of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering at Stanford University and a Distinguished Engineer at Google.
Martin Edward Newell is a British-born computer scientist specializing in computer graphics who is perhaps best known as the creator of the Utah teapot computer model.
Mattes are used in photography and special effects filmmaking to combine two or more image elements into a single, final image.
Maurice Benayoun (aka MoBen or 莫奔) (born 29 March 1957 in Mascara, Algeria) is a French pioneer new-media artist and theorist based in Paris and Hong Kong.
Michael Louis Friendly (born 1945) is an American psychologist, Professor of Psychology at York University in Ontario, Canada, and director of its Statistical Consulting Service, especially known for his contributions to graphical methods for categorical and multivariate data, and on the history of data and information visualisation.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Microsoft XNA (a recursive acronym for XNA's not acronymed) is a freeware set of tools with a managed runtime environment provided by Microsoft that facilitates video game development and management.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
In computer graphics, mipmaps (also MIP maps) or pyramids are pre-calculated, optimized sequences of images, each of which is a progressively lower resolution representation of the same image.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
Mirror's Edge is a first-person action-adventure platformer developed by EA DICE and published by Electronic Arts.
The MIT Lincoln Laboratory, located in Lexington, Massachusetts, is a United States Department of Defense research and development center chartered to apply advanced technology to problems of national security.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
"Money for Nothing" is a single by British rock band Dire Straits, taken from their 1985 studio album Brothers in Arms.
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.
The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues.
Professor Nadia Magnenat Thalmann is an eminent computer graphics scientist who is the founder and head of MIRALab at the University of Geneva.
The Namco System 21 "Polygonizer" is an arcade system board unveiled by Namco in 1988 with the game Winning Run.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
Nintendo Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto.
The, stylized as NINTENDO64 and abbreviated to N64, is Nintendo's third home video game console for the international market.
The Nintendo Switch is the seventh major video game console developed by Nintendo.
Non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) is a mathematical model commonly used in computer graphics for generating and representing curves and surfaces.
In 3D computer graphics, normal mapping, or Dot3 bump mapping, is a technique used for faking the lighting of bumps and dents – an implementation of bump mapping.
Nvidia Corporation (most commonly referred to as Nvidia, stylized as NVIDIA, or (due to their logo) nVIDIA) is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California.
The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential, public university in Columbus, Ohio.
Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) is a cross-language, cross-platform application programming interface (API) for rendering 2D and 3D vector graphics.
OpenGL Shading Language (abbreviated: GLSL), is a high-level shading language with a syntax based on the C programming language.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
, or, is a national university located in Osaka, Japan.
An oscilloscope, previously called an oscillograph, and informally known as a scope or o-scope, CRO (for cathode-ray oscilloscope), or DSO (for the more modern digital storage oscilloscope), is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time.
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.
Parametrization (or parameterization; also parameterisation, parametrisation) is the process of finding parametric equations of a curve, a surface, or, more generally, a manifold or a variety, defined by an implicit equation.
A particle system is a technique in game physics, motion graphics, and computer graphics that uses a large number of very small sprites, 3D models, or other graphic objects to simulate certain kinds of "fuzzy" phenomena, which are otherwise very hard to reproduce with conventional rendering techniques - usually highly chaotic systems, natural phenomena, or processes caused by chemical reactions.
Paul de Casteljau (born 1930 in Besançon, France.) is a French physicist and mathematician.
The PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor-1) is the first computer in Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP series and was first produced in 1959.
Peter Shirley (born 1963) is American computer scientist and computer graphics researcher.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
In computer graphics, photon mapping is a two-pass global illumination algorithm developed by Henrik Wann Jensen that approximately solves the rendering equation.
Photorealism is a genre of art that encompasses painting, drawing and other graphic media, in which an artist studies a photograph and then attempts to reproduce the image as realistically as possible in another medium.
Physically based rendering is a subset of computer-generated imagery that aims at production of pictures while making use of physically based shading derived from empirical shading models.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pierre Étienne Bézier (September 1, 1910 – November 25, 1999) was a French engineer and one of the founders of the fields of solid, geometric and physical modelling as well as in the field of representing curves, especially in CAD/CAM systems.
Pixar Animation Studios, commonly referred to as Pixar, is an American computer animation movie studio based in Emeryville, California that is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, owned by The Walt Disney Company.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
A planetarium (plural planetaria or planetariums) is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation.
Plastic arts are art forms which involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by moulding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics.
A platform game, or platformer, is a video game genre and subgenre of action game.
is a gaming brand that consists of four home video game consoles, as well as a media center, an online service, a line of controllers, two handhelds and a phone, as well as multiple magazines.
The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console that was developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.
The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.
The PlayStation 4 (PS4) is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment.
A polygon mesh is a collection of, s and s that defines the shape of a polyhedral object in 3D computer graphics and solid modeling.
In 3D computer graphics, Polygonal modeling is an approach for modeling objects by representing or approximating their surfaces using polygons.
Pong is one of the earliest arcade video games.
PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
A procedural animation is a type of computer animation, used to automatically generate animation in real-time to allow for a more diverse series of actions than could otherwise be created using predefined animations.
In computer graphics, a procedural texture is a texture created using a mathematical description (i.e. an algorithm) rather than directly stored data.
Quake is a first-person shooter video game, developed by id Software and published by GT Interactive in 1996.
Quarxs was one of the earliest computer animated series, predating ReBoot, and the first one produced in HD.
The racing video game genre is the genre of video games, either in the first-person or third-person perspective, in which the player partakes in a racing competition with any type of land, water, air or space vehicles.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Ralph Henry Baer (born Rudolf Heinrich Baer; March 8, 1922 – December 6, 2014) was a German-born American inventor, game developer, and engineer.
In computer graphics, a raster graphics or bitmap image is a dot matrix data structure that represents a generally rectangular grid of pixels (points of color), viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.
A raster graphics editor is a computer program that allows users to create and edit images interactively on the computer screen and save them in one of many "bitmap" or "raster" formats such as JPEG, PNG, GIF and TIFF.
Ray casting is the use of ray–surface intersection tests to solve a variety of problems in computer graphics and computational geometry.
In computer graphics, ray tracing is a rendering technique for generating an image by tracing the path of light as pixels in an image plane and simulating the effects of its encounters with virtual objects.
Real time within the media is a method where events are portrayed at the same rate at which the characters experience them.
Real-time computer graphics or real-time rendering is the sub-field of computer graphics focused on producing and analyzing images in real time.
Reflection in computer graphics is used to emulate reflective objects like mirrors and shiny surfaces.
In computer graphics, environment mapping, or reflection mapping, is an efficient image-based lighting technique for approximating the appearance of a reflective surface by means of a precomputed texture image.
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.
Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs.
In computer graphics, the rendering equation is an integral equation in which the equilibrium radiance leaving a point is given as the sum of emitted plus reflected radiance under a geometric optics approximation.
The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.
Robert L. "Rob" Cook (December 10, 1952) is a computer graphics researcher and developer, and the co-creator of the RenderMan rendering software.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.
The San Francisco Bay Area (popularly referred to as the Bay Area) is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun estuaries in the northern part of the U.S. state of California.
Sanders Associates was a defense contractor in Nashua, New Hampshire, United States, from 1951 until it was sold in 1986.
Scanline rendering (also scan line rendering and scan-line rendering) is an algorithm for visible surface determination, in 3D computer graphics, that works on a row-by-row basis rather than a polygon-by-polygon or pixel-by-pixel basis.
Scientific visualization (also spelled scientific visualisation) is an interdisciplinary branch of science.
In computer displays, filmmaking, television production, and other kinetic displays, scrolling is sliding text, images or video across a monitor or display, vertically or horizontally.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
Sega Games Co., Ltd., originally short for Service Games and officially styled as SEGA, is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, with offices around the world.
The is a 32-bit fifth-generation home video game console developed by Sega and released on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 11, 1995 in North America, and July 8, 1995 in Europe.
The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE, a name selected to mean "wise") was a system of large computers and associated networking equipment that coordinated data from many radar sites and processed it to produce a single unified image of the airspace over a wide area.
In computer graphics, a shader is a type of computer program that was originally used for shading (the production of appropriate levels of light, darkness, and color within an image) but which now performs a variety of specialized functions in various fields of computer graphics special effects or does video post-processing unrelated to shading, or even functions unrelated to graphics at all.
Shading refers to depicting depth perception in 3D models or illustrations by varying levels of darkness.
Shadow volume is a technique used in 3D computer graphics to add shadows to a rendered scene.
A short film is any motion picture not long enough to be considered a feature film.
SIGGRAPH (Special Interest Group on Computer GRAPHics and Interactive Techniques) is the annual conference on computer graphics (CG) convened by the ACM SIGGRAPH organization.
Silicon Graphics, Inc. (later rebranded SGI, historically known as Silicon Graphics Computer Systems or SGCS) was an American high-performance computing manufacturer, producing computer hardware and software.
Silicon Valley (abbreviated as SV) is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, and social media.
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.
Skeletal animation is a technique in computer animation in which a character (or other articulated object) is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called skin or mesh) and a hierarchical set of interconnected bones (called the skeleton or rig) used to animate (pose and keyframe) the mesh.
Sketchpad (a.k.a. Robot Draftsman) was a revolutionary computer program written by Ivan Sutherland in 1963 in the course of his PhD thesis, for which he received the Turing Award in 1988, and the Kyoto Prize in 2012.
Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.
is an arcade game created by Tomohiro Nishikado and released in 1978.
Spacewar! is a space combat video game developed in 1962 by Steve Russell, in collaboration with Martin Graetz and Wayne Wiitanen, and programmed by Russell with assistance from others including Bob Saunders and Steve Piner.
Special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, SPFX, or simply FX) are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, television, theatre, video game and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world.
A Special Interest Group (SIG) is a community within a larger organization with a shared interest in advancing a specific area of knowledge, learning or technology where members cooperate to affect or to produce solutions within their particular field, and may communicate, meet, and organize conferences.
A specular highlight is the bright spot of light that appears on shiny objects when illuminated (for example, see image at right).
Sperry Corporation (1910−1986) was a major American equipment and electronics company whose existence spanned more than seven decades of the 20th century.
In computer graphics, a sprite is a two-dimensional bitmap that is integrated into a larger scene.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Star Wars is an American epic space opera media franchise, centered on a film series created by George Lucas.
Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.
Stephen "Steve" Russell (born 1937) is an American computer scientist most famous for creating Spacewar!, one of the earliest video games.
Steven K. Feiner is an American computer scientist, serving as Professor for computer science at Columbia University in the field of computer graphics.
A subdivision surface, in the field of 3D computer graphics, is a method of representing a smooth surface via the specification of a coarser piecewise linear polygon mesh.
Subsurface scattering (or SSS), also known as subsurface light transport (SSLT), is a mechanism of light transport in which light penetrates the surface of a translucent object, is scattered by interacting with the material, and exits the surface at a different point.
Super Mario 64 is a 1996 platform video game developed and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo 64.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
Japan operates a number of centers for supercomputing which hold world records in speed, with the K computer becoming the world's fastest in June 2011.
Supersampling is a spatial anti-aliasing method, i.e. a method used to remove aliasing (jagged and pixelated edges, colloquially known as "jaggies") from images rendered in computer games or other computer programs that generate imagery.
is a Japanese video game developer and publisher of arcade hardware and mobile phones, and an operator of video arcades.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
is a fighting video game franchise created, developed, and published by Namco (later Bandai Namco Entertainment).
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
A television advertisement (also called a television commercial, commercial or ad in American English, and known in British English as a TV advert or simply an advert) is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization.
Tennis for Two is a sports video game developed in 1958, which simulates a game of tennis, and was one of the first games developed in the early history of video games.
In the visual arts, texture is the perceived surface quality of a work of art.
In computer graphics, texture filtering or texture smoothing is the method used to determine the texture color for a texture mapped pixel, using the colors of nearby texels (pixels of the texture).
Texture mapping is a method for defining high frequency detail, surface texture, or color information on a computer-generated graphic or 3D model.
The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time is an action-adventure video game developed and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo 64.
The Polar Express is a children's book written and illustrated by Chris Van Allsburg and published by Houghton Mifflin in 1985.
The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate, headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California.
Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
In computer science, the time complexity is the computational complexity that describes the amount of time it takes to run an algorithm.
is a Japanese video game developer.
Toy Story is a 1995 American computer-animated buddy comedy adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures.
In linear algebra, linear transformations can be represented by matrices.
A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.
A triangle mesh is a type of polygon mesh in computer graphics.
TRW Inc. was an American corporation involved in a variety of businesses, mainly aerospace, automotive, and credit reporting.
is a city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan.
The MIT Lincoln Laboratory TX-2 computer was the successor to the Lincoln TX-0 and was known for its role in advancing both artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats that were first proposed by NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories and later defined and approved by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
In aesthetics, the uncanny valley is a hypothesized relationship between the degree of an object's resemblance to a human being and the emotional response to such an object.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of Utah (also referred to as the U, U of U, or Utah) is a public coeducational space-grant research university in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
User interface design (UI) or user interface engineering is the design of user interfaces for machines and software, such as computers, home appliances, mobile devices, and other electronic devices, with the focus on maximizing usability and the user experience.
UV mapping is the 3D modeling process of projecting a 2D image to a 3D model's surface for texture mapping.
Vector graphics are computer graphics images that are defined in terms of 2D points, which are connected by lines and curves to form polygons and other shapes.
A vertex (plural vertices) in computer graphics is a data structure that describes certain attributes, like the position of a point in 2D or 3D space, at multiple points on a surface.
A video card (also called a display card, graphics card, display adapter or graphics adapter) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor).
A video display controller or VDC (also regularly called display engine, display interface) is an integrated circuit which is the main component in a video signal generator, a device responsible for the production of a TV video signal in a computing or game system.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
The video game industry is the economic sector involved in the development, marketing, and monetization of video games.
is a series of fighting games created by Sega studio AM2 and designers Yu Suzuki and Seiichi Ishii.
Virtua Racing or V.R. for short, is a Formula One racing arcade game, developed by Sega AM2 and released in 1992.
Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment, that incorporates mainly auditory and visual, but also other types of sensory feedback like haptic.
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
Visualization or visualisation (see spelling differences) is any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message.
In scientific visualization and computer graphics, volume rendering is a set of techniques used to display a 2D projection of a 3D discretely sampled data set, typically a 3D scalar field.
A voxel represents a value on a regular grid in three-dimensional space.
Wayne Lytle is the founder of Animusic, an American musical computer animation company.
Web design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites.
Whirlwind I was a Cold War-era vacuum tube computer developed by the MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory for the U.S. Navy.
William Fetter, also known as William Alan Fetter or Bill Fetter (March 14, 1928June 23, 2002), was an American graphic designer and pioneer in the field of computer graphics.
William Higinbotham (October 22, 1910 – November 10, 1994) was an American physicist.
A wire-frame model is a visual presentation of a 3-dimensional (3D) or physical object used in 3D computer graphics.
Wolfenstein 3D is a first-person shooter video game developed by id Software and published by Apogee Software and FormGen.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xbox is a video gaming brand created and owned by Microsoft.
Xbox One is a line of eighth generation home video game consoles developed by Microsoft.
Young Sherlock Holmes (also known as Young Sherlock Holmes and the Pyramid of Fear) is a 1985 American mystery adventure film directed by Barry Levinson and written by Chris Columbus, based on the characters created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
The Z8000 ("zee-eight-thousand") is a 16-bit microprocessor introduced by Zilog in early 1979, between the launch of the Intel 8086 (April 1978) and the Motorola 68000 (September 1979).
16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.
2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from two-dimensional models (such as 2D geometric models, text, and digital images) and by techniques specific to them.
3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.
The 3D Core Graphics System (a.k.a. Core) was the very first graphical standard ever developed.
In 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling (or three-dimensional modeling) is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object (either inanimate or living) in three dimensions via specialized software.
3D printing is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together).
3D projection is any method of mapping three-dimensional points to a two-dimensional plane.
3D rendering is the 3D computer graphics process of automatically converting 3D wire frame models into 2D images on a computer.
Applications of computer graphics, CG Artwork, CG artwork, CG imagery, Cg artwork, Computer Graphics, Computer Painting, Computer painting, Graphical computing, Graphics primitives, Triangle primitives.