338 relations: Address Resolution Protocol, Administrative distance, Akamai Technologies, ALOHAnet, American Civil Liberties Union, Analog signal, Anonymous (group), Application service provider, Application software, Application-level gateway, ARCNET, ARPANET, Association for Computing Machinery, Associative array, Asynchronous transfer mode, Authorization, Backbone network, Backdoor (computing), Bandwidth (computing), Bell Labs, Bit error rate, Bitstream, Border Gateway Protocol, Bridging (networking), Bus network, Business-to-business, Campus network, Capacity management, Carrier wave, Carrier-sense multiple access with collision avoidance, Category 5 cable, CDMA2000, CdmaOne, Cell relay, Cellular network, Circuit switching, Civil and political rights, Client (computing), Clustered file system, Coaxial cable, Communication protocol, Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, Communications security, Community of interest, Comparison of network diagram software, Computer, Computer and network surveillance, Computer data storage, Computer engineering, Computer hardware, ..., Computer port (hardware), Computer science, Computer virus, Computer worm, Confidentiality, Connection-oriented communication, Connectionless communication, Core router, Crime, Crosstalk, Customer to customer, Cyberattack, Cyberspace, CYCLADES, Darknet, DARPA, Dartmouth College, Dartmouth Time Sharing System, Data, Data integrity, Data link, Data link layer, Data transmission, Datagram, Datapoint, David Boggs, Denial-of-service attack, Differentiated services, Digital AMPS, Digital audio, Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications, Digital signal, Digital subscriber line, Digital video, Dimitri Bertsekas, Distributed computing, Distributed hash table, Domain Name System, Donald Davies, Dropbox (service), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, Electrical cable, Electrical engineering, Electromagnetic induction, Electronic engineering, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Electronics, Email, Encryption, End-to-end encryption, Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution, Erlang (unit), Error detection and correction, Ethernet, Ethernet hub, Ethernet over coax, Evolution-Data Optimized, Exploit (computer security), Exponential backoff, Extranet, Facebook, Fair queuing, Farouk Kamoun, Fault (technology), Fax, Fiber Distributed Data Interface, File server, Firewall (computing), Frame (networking), Frame Relay, Free-space optical communication, Friend-to-friend, G.hn, Gateway (telecommunications), General Electric, General Packet Radio Service, Google Talk, Grade of service, GSM, Hacktivism, Header (computing), Hepting v. AT&T, Hierarchical routing, History of the Internet, Home network, Home wiring, Host (network), HTTPS, Human-readable medium, Hushmail, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, IDEN, IEEE 802, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.1D, IEEE 802.1Q, IEEE 802.1X, IEEE 802.20, IEEE 802.3, IEEE P1906.1, IEEE P802.1p, Information technology, Infrared Data Association, Instant messaging, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Integrated services, Intergalactic Computer Network, Internet, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, Internet backbone, Internet Protocol, Internet protocol suite, Internet service provider, Internetworking, Interplanetary Internet, Intranet, IP address, IP multicast, IP over Avian Carriers, IPv4, ITU-T, J. C. R. Licklider, Jitter, Key (cryptography), Key escrow, Last mile, Latency (engineering), Law enforcement, Lawrence Roberts (scientist), Leased line, Leonard Kleinrock, Line-of-sight propagation, Local area network, MAC address, Mass surveillance, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Medium access control, Mesh networking, Message queue, Metropolitan area network, Microwave, Minimum-Pairs Protocol, Modem, Modulation, Multicast, Multipath routing, Multiplexing, Narus (company), National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom), Netscape, Netscape Navigator, Network Access Control, Network address, Network administrator, Network congestion, Network interface controller, Network layer, Network management, Network packet, Network performance, Network planning and design, Network security, Network segment, Network service, Network simulation, Network switch, Network topology, Network traffic control, Networking cables, Networking hardware, Next-generation network, Node (networking), Norman Abramson, NPL network, Octet (computing), Off-the-Record Messaging, Offered load, OGAS, Online chat, Open access, Optical fiber, OSI model, Overlay network, Packet forwarding, Packet loss, Packet switching, PARC (company), Paul Baran, Payload (computing), Peer-to-peer, Peer-to-peer file sharing, Personal area network, Personal computer, Physical layer, Point-to-point (telecommunications), Port (computer networking), Power cable, Power-line communication, Pretty Good Privacy, Printing, Privacy, Propagation delay, Protocol stack, Pulse-code modulation, Quality of service, Queuing delay, Radio wave, Random number generation, Regional Internet registry, Repeater, Reporters Without Borders, Request for Comments, Resilience (network), Retail, Retransmission (data networks), Ring network, Robert G. Gallager, Robert Metcalfe, Robert Tappan Morris, Round-trip delay time, Router (computing), Routing, Routing table, Routledge, Sabre (computer system), Satellite, Security hacker, Semi-Automatic Ground Environment, Server (computing), Service (systems architecture), Signal, Skype, Sliding window protocol, Social control, Spanning Tree Protocol, Spread spectrum, SRI International, Star network, State diagram, Storage area network, Streaming media, Submarine communications cable, Subnetwork, Synchronous optical networking, Systems engineering, Telecommunication, Telecommunications network, Telephone, Telephone exchange, Telephone network, Telephony, Terabit Ethernet, Terrestrial Trunked Radio, Throughput, Time-division multiplexing, Total Information Awareness, Traffic analysis, Trailer (computing), Transmission Control Protocol, Transmission medium, Tree network, Twisted pair, UMTS, United States Department of Defense, University of California, Los Angeles, University of California, Santa Barbara, University of Hawaii, University of Utah, Uptime, Virtual circuit, Virtual LAN, Virtual private network, Western Electric, Wi-Fi, Wide area network, William Stallings, Wireless access point, Wireless LAN, Wireless network, Wireless router, World Wide Web, X.25, Yahoo! Messenger, ZRTP, 100 Gigabit Ethernet, 10BASE2, 10BASE5, 5-4-3 rule. Expand index (288 more) » « Shrink index
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a communication protocol used for discovering the link layer address, such as a MAC address, associated with a given network layer address, typically an IPv4 address.
Administrative distance (AD) or route preference is a number of arbitrary unit assigned to dynamic routes, static routes and directly-connected routes.
Akamai Technologies, Inc. is an American content delivery network (CDN) and cloud service provider headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the United States.
ALOHAnet, also known as the ALOHA System, or simply ALOHA, was a pioneering computer networking system developed at the University of Hawaii.
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Officially nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike.
An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal.
Anonymous is a decentralized international hacktivist group that is widely known for its various DDOS cyber attacks against several governments, government institutions & government agencies, corporations, and the Church of Scientology.
An application service provider (ASP) is a business providing computer-based services to customers over a network; such as access to a particular software application (such as customer relationship management) using a standard protocol (such as HTTP).
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
In the context of computer networking, an application-level gateway (also known as ALG, application layer gateway, application gateway, application proxy, or application-level proxy) consists of a security component that augments a firewall or NAT employed in a computer network.
Attached Resource Computer NETwork (ARCNET or ARCnet) is a communications protocol for local area networks.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
In computer science, an associative array, map, symbol table, or dictionary is an abstract data type composed of a collection of (key, value) pairs, such that each possible key appears at most once in the collection.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is, according to the ATM Forum, "a telecommunications concept defined by ANSI and ITU (formerly CCITT) standards for carriage of a complete range of user traffic, including voice, data, and video signals".
Authorization is the function of specifying access rights/privileges to resources related to information security and computer security in general and to access control in particular.
A backbone is a part of computer network that interconnects various pieces of network, providing a path for the exchange of information between different LANs or subnetworks.
A backdoor is a method, often secret, of bypassing normal authentication or encryption in a computer system, a product, or an embedded device (e.g. a home router), or its embodiment, e.g. as part of a cryptosystem, an algorithm, a chipset, or a "homunculus computer" (such as that as found in Intel's AMT technology).
In computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors.
A bitstream (or bit stream), also known as binary sequence, is a sequence of bits.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet.
A network bridge is a computer networking device that creates a single aggregate network from multiple communication networks or network segments.
A bus network is a network topology in which nodes are directly connected to a common linear (or branched) half-duplex link called a bus.
Business-to-business (B2B or, in some countries, BtoB) refers to a situation where one business makes a commercial transaction with another.
A campus network, campus area network, corporate area network or CAN is a computer network made up of an interconnection of local area networks (LANs) within a limited geographical area.
Capacity management's primary goal is to ensure that information technology resources are right-sized to meet current and future business requirements in a cost-effective manner.
In telecommunications, a carrier wave, carrier signal, or just carrier, is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information.
Carrier-sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) in computer networking, is a network multiple access method in which carrier sensing is used, but nodes attempt to avoid collisions by transmitting only when the channel is sensed to be "idle".
Category 5 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 5, is a twisted pair cable for computer networks.
CDMA2000 (also known as C2K or IMT Multi‑Carrier (IMT‑MC)) is a family of 3G mobile technology standards for sending voice, data, and signaling data between mobile phones and cell sites.
Interim Standard 95 (IS-95) was the first ever CDMA-based digital cellular technology.
In computer networking, cell relay refers to a method of statistically multiplexing small fixed-length packets, called "cells", to transport data between computers or kinds of network equipment.
A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network where the last link is wireless.
Circuit switching is a method of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
A client is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server.
A clustered file system is a file system which is shared by being simultaneously mounted on multiple servers.
Cross-sectional view of a coaxial cable Coaxial cable, or coax (pronounced), is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) is a United States wiretapping law passed in 1994, during the presidency of Bill Clinton (Pub. L. No. 103-414, 108 Stat. 4279, codified at 47 USC 1001-1010).
Communications security is the discipline of preventing unauthorized interceptors from accessing telecommunications in an intelligible form, while still delivering content to the intended recipients.
A community of interest, or interest-based community, is a community of people who share a common interest or passion.
A comparison of network diagram software finds a number of tools exist to generate computer network diagrams.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer and network surveillance is the monitoring of computer activity and data stored on a hard drive, or data being transferred over computer networks such as the Internet.
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.
Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of computer science and electronics engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
In computer hardware, a port serves as an interface between the computer and other computers or peripheral devices.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
A computer virus is a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.
Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.
Connection-oriented communication is a network communication mode in telecommunications and computer networking, where a communication session or a semi-permanent connection is established before any useful data can be transferred, and where a stream of data is delivered in the same order as it was sent.
Connectionless communication, often referred to as CL-mode communication,Information Processing Systems - Open Systems Interconnection, "Transport Service Definition - Addendum 1: Connectionless-mode Transmission", International Organization for Standardization, International Standard 8072/AD 1, December 1986.
A core router is a router designed to operate in the Internet backbone, or core.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
In electronics, crosstalk is any phenomenon by which a signal transmitted on one circuit or channel of a transmission system creates an undesired effect in another circuit or channel.
Customer to customer (C2C) markets provide an innovative way to allow customers to interact with each other.
A cyberattack is any type of offensive maneuver that targets computer information systems, infrastructures, computer networks, or personal computer devices.
Cyberspace is interconnected technology.
The CYCLADES computer network was a French research network created in the early 1970s.
A darknet (or dark net) is a portion of routed, allocated IP space not running any services.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
The Dartmouth Time-Sharing System, or DTSS for short, is an operating system first developed at Dartmouth College between 1963 and 1964.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
Data integrity is the maintenance of, and the assurance of the accuracy and consistency of, data over its entire life-cycle, and is a critical aspect to the design, implementation and usage of any system which stores, processes, or retrieves data.
In telecommunication a data link is the means of connecting one location to another for the purpose of transmitting and receiving digital information.
The data link layer, or layer 2, is the second layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking.
Data transmission (also data communication or digital communications) is the transfer of data (a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.
A datagram is a basic transfer unit associated with a packet-switched network.
Datapoint Corporation, originally known as Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC), was a computer company based in San Antonio, Texas, United States.
David Reeves Boggs (born 1950) is an electrical and radio engineer from the United States who developed early prototypes of Internet protocols, file servers, gateways, network interface cards and, along with Robert Metcalfe and others, co-invented Ethernet, the most popular family of technologies for local area computer networks.
In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.
Differentiated services or DiffServ is a computer networking architecture that specifies a simple and scalable mechanism for classifying and managing network traffic and providing quality of service (QoS) on modern IP networks.
IS-54 and IS-136 are second-generation (2G) mobile phone systems, known as Digital AMPS (D-AMPS), and a further development of the north-American 1G mobile system AMPS.
Digital audio is audio, or simply sound, signal that has been recorded as or converted into digital form, where the sound wave of the audio signal is encoded as numerical samples in continuous sequence, typically at CD audio quality which is 16 bit sample depth over 44.1 thousand samples per second.
Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (Digital European Cordless Telecommunications), usually known by the acronym DECT, is a standard primarily used for creating cordless telephone systems.
A digital signal is a signal that is being used to represent data as a sequence of discrete values; at any given time it can only take on one of a finite number of values.
Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines.
Digital video is an electronic representation of moving visual images (video) in the form of encoded digital data.
Dimitri Panteli Bertsekas (b. 1942, Athens, Δημήτρης Παντελής Μπερτσεκάς) is an applied mathematician, electrical engineer, and computer scientist, and a professor at the department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science in School of Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
A distributed hash table (DHT) is a class of a decentralized distributed system that provides a lookup service similar to a hash table: (key, value) pairs are stored in a DHT, and any participating node can efficiently retrieve the value associated with a given key.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.
Donald Watts Davies, CBE, FRS (7 June 1924 – 28 May 2000) was a Welsh computer scientist who was employed at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL).
Dropbox is a file hosting service operated by American company Dropbox, Inc., headquartered in San Francisco, California, that offers cloud storage, file synchronization, personal cloud, and client software.
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used on UDP/IP networks whereby a DHCP server dynamically assigns an IP address and other network configuration parameters to each device on a network so they can communicate with other IP networks.
An electrical cable is an assembly of one or more wires running side by side or bundled, which is used to carry electric current.
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.
Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components (such as semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits) to design electronic circuits, devices, VLSI devices and their systems.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
End-to-end encryption (E2EE) is a system of communication where only the communicating users can read the messages.
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) (also known as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC), or Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) is a digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates as a backward-compatible extension of GSM.
The erlang (symbol E) is a dimensionless unit that is used in telephony as a measure of offered load or carried load on service-providing elements such as telephone circuits or telephone switching equipment.
In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).
An Ethernet hub, active hub, network hub, repeater hub, multiport repeater, or simply hub is a network hardware device for connecting multiple Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment.
Ethernet over Coax (EoC) is a family of technologies that supports the transmission of Ethernet frames over coaxial cable.
Evolution-Data Optimized (EV-DO, EVDO, etc.) is a telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access.
An exploit (from the English verb to exploit, meaning "to use something to one’s own advantage") is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug or vulnerability to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized).
Exponential backoff is an algorithm that uses feedback to multiplicatively decrease the rate of some process, in order to gradually find an acceptable rate.
An extranet is a controlled private network that allows access to partners, vendors and suppliers or an authorized set of customers – normally to a subset of the information accessible from an organization's intranet.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
Fair queuing is a family of scheduling algorithms used in some process and network schedulers.
Farouk Kamoun, PhD.
In document ISO 10303-226, a fault is defined as an abnormal condition or defect at the component, equipment, or sub-system level which may lead to a failure.
Fax (short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax (the latter short for telefacsimile), is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) is a standard for data transmission in a local area network.
In computing, a file server (or fileserver) is a computer attached to a network that provides a location for shared disk access, i.e. shared storage of computer files (such as text, image, sound, video) that can be accessed by the workstations that are able to reach the computer that shares the access through a computer network.
In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.
A frame is a digital data transmission unit in computer networking and telecommunication.
Frame Relay is a standardized wide area network technology that specifies the physical and data link layers of digital telecommunications channels using a packet switching methodology.
Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.
A friend-to-friend (or F2F) computer network is a type of peer-to-peer network in which users only make direct connections with people they know.
G.hn is a specification for home networking with data rates up to 2 Gbit/s and operation over four types of legacy wires: telephone wiring, coaxial cables, power lines and plastic optical fiber.
A gateway is the piece of networking hardware used in telecommunications via communications networks that allows data to flow from one discrete network to another.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data standard on the 2G and 3G cellular communication network's global system for mobile communications (GSM).
Google Talk (also known as Google Chat) is an instant messaging service that provides both text and voice communication.
In telecommunication engineering, and in particular teletraffic engineering, the quality of voice service is specified by two measures: the grade of service (GoS) and the quality of service (QoS).
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland in December 1991.
In Internet activism, hacktivism or hactivism (a portmanteau of hack and activism) is the subversive use of computers and computer networks to promote a political agenda or a social change.
In information technology, header refers to supplemental data placed at the beginning of a block of data being stored or transmitted.
Hepting v. AT&T is a United States class action lawsuit filed in January 2006 by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) against the telecommunications company AT&T, in which the EFF alleges that AT&T permitted and assisted the National Security Agency (NSA) in unlawfully monitoring the communications of the United States, including AT&T customers, businesses and third parties whose communications were routed through AT&T's network, as well as voice over IP telephone calls routed via the Internet.
Hierarchical routing is a method of routing in networks that is based on hierarchical addressing.
The history of the Internet begins with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s.
A home network or home area network (HAN) is a type of computer network that facilitates communication among devices within the close vicinity of a home.
Homes typically have several kinds of home wiring, including Electrical wiring for lighting and power distribution, permanently installed and portable appliances, telephone, heating or ventilation system control, and increasingly for home theatre and computer networks.
A network host is a computer or other device connected to a computer network.
HTTP Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet.
A human-readable medium or human-readable format is a representation of data or information that can be naturally read by humans.
Hushmail is an encrypted proprietary web-based email service offering PGP-encrypted e-mail and vanity domain service.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN) is a mobile telecommunications technology, developed by Motorola, which provides its users the benefits of a trunked radio and a cellular telephone.
IEEE 802 is a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area networks.
IEEE 802.11 is a set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 900 MHz and 2.4, 3.6, 5, and 60 GHz frequency bands.
802.1D is the IEEE MAC Bridges standard which includes Bridging, Spanning Tree and others.
802.1Q, often referred to as Dot1q, is the networking standard that supports virtual LANs (VLANs) on an IEEE 802.3 Ethernet network.
IEEE 802.1X is an IEEE Standard for port-based Network Access Control (PNAC).
IEEE 802.20 or Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) was a specification by the standard association of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for mobile wireless Internet access networks.
IEEE 802.3 is a working group and a collection of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards produced by the working group defining the physical layer and data link layer's media access control (MAC) of wired Ethernet.
The IEEE P1906.1 - Recommended Practice for Nanoscale and Molecular Communication Framework is a standards working group sponsored by the IEEE Communications Society Standards Development Board whose goal is to develop a common framework for nanoscale and molecular communication.
IEEE P802.1p is the name of a task group active from 1995 to 1998 and responsible for adding traffic class expediting and dynamic multicast filtering to the IEEE 802.1D standard.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) is an industry-driven interest group that was founded in 1993 by around 50 companies.
Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
In computer networking, IntServ or integrated services is an architecture that specifies the elements to guarantee quality of service (QoS) on networks.
Intergalactic Computer Network or Galactic Network was a computer networking concept similar to today's Internet.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a function of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and Internet numbers.
The Internet backbone might be defined by the principal data routes between large, strategically interconnected computer networks and core routers on the Internet.
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
Internetworking is the practice of connecting a computer network with other networks through the use of gateways that provide a common method of routing information packets between the networks.
The interplanetary Internet (based on IPN, also called InterPlaNet) is a conceived computer network in space, consisting of a set of network nodes that can communicate with each other.
An intranet is a private network accessible only to an organization's staff.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.
IP multicast is a method of sending Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams to a group of interested receivers in a single transmission.
In computer networking, IP over Avian Carriers (IPoAC) is a proposal to carry Internet Protocol (IP) traffic by birds such as homing pigeons.
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).
The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications.
Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider (March 11, 1915 – June 26, 1990), known simply as J. C. R. or "Lick", was an American psychologistMiller, G. A.
In electronics and telecommunications, jitter is the deviation from true periodicity of a presumably periodic signal, often in relation to a reference clock signal.
In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm.
Key escrow (also known as a “fair” cryptosystem) is an arrangement in which the keys needed to decrypt encrypted data are held in escrow so that, under certain circumstances, an authorized third party may gain access to those keys.
The last mile or last kilometer is a colloquial phrase widely used in the telecommunications, cable television and internet industries to refer to the final leg of the telecommunications networks that deliver telecommunication services to retail end-users (customers).
Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed.
Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.
Lawrence G. Roberts (born December 21, 1937 in Connecticut) is an American scientist who received the Draper Prize in 2001 "for the development of the Internet", and the Principe de Asturias Award in 2002.
A leased line is a private bidirectional or symmetric telecommunications circuit between two or more locations provided in exchange for a monthly rent.
Leonard Kleinrock (born June 13, 1934) is an American computer scientist.
Line-of-sight propagation is a characteristic of electromagnetic radiation or acoustic wave propagation which means waves travel in a direct path from the source to the receiver.
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.
A media access control address (MAC address) of a device is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface controller (NIC) for communications at the data link layer of a network segment.
Mass surveillance is the intricate surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population in order to monitor that group of citizens.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
In IEEE 802 LAN/MAN standards, the medium access control (MAC) sublayer (also known as the media access control sublayer) and the logical link control (LLC) sublayer together make up the data link layer.
A mesh network is a local network topology in which the infrastructure nodes (i.e. bridges, switches and other infrastructure devices) connect directly, dynamically and non-hierarchically to as many other nodes as possible and cooperate with one another to efficiently route data from/to clients.
In computer science, message queues and mailboxes are software-engineering components used for inter-process communication (IPC), or for inter-thread communication within the same process.
A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN).
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
The minimum-pairs (or MP) is an active measurement protocol to estimate in real-time the smaller of the forward and reverse one-way network delays (OWDs).
A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
In computer networking, multicast is group communication where data transmission is addressed to a group of destination computers simultaneously.
Multipath routing is the routing technique of using multiple alternative paths through a network, which can yield a variety of benefits such as fault tolerance, increased bandwidth, or improved security.
In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.
Narus Inc. was a software company and vendor of big data analytics for cybersecurity.
The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park in Teddington, London, England.
Netscape is a brand name associated with the development of the Netscape web browser.
Netscape Navigator was a proprietary web browser, and the original browser of the Netscape line, from versions 1 to 4.08, and 9.x. It was the flagship product of the Netscape Communications Corp and was the dominant web browser in terms of usage share in the 1990s, but by 2002 its use had almost disappeared.
Network Access Control (NAC) is an approach to computer security that attempts to unify endpoint security technology (such as antivirus, host intrusion prevention, and vulnerability assessment), user or system authentication and network security enforcement.
A network address is an identifier for a node or host on a telecommunications network.
A network administrator is the person designated in an organization whose responsibility includes maintaining computer infrastructures with emphasis on networking.
Network congestion in data networking and queueing theory is the reduced quality of service that occurs when a network node or link is carrying more data than it can handle.
A network interface controller (NIC, also known as a network interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter or physical network interface, and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the network layer is layer 3.
Network management is the process of administering and managing computer networks.
A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network.
Network performance refers to measures of service quality of a network as seen by the customer.
Network planning and design is an iterative process, encompassing topological design, network-synthesis, and network-realization, and is aimed at ensuring that a new telecommunications network or service meets the needs of the subscriber and operator.
Network security consists of the policies and practices adopted to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, misuse, modification, or denial of a computer network and network-accessible resources.
A network segment is a portion of a computer network.
In computer networking, a network service is an application running at the network application layer and above, that provides data storage, manipulation, presentation, communication or other capability which is often implemented using a client-server or peer-to-peer architecture based on application layer network protocols.
In computer network research, network simulation is a technique whereby a software program models the behavior of a network by calculating the interaction between the different network entities (routers, switches, nodes, access points, links etc.). Most simulators use discrete event simulation - the modeling of systems in which state variables change at discrete points in time.
A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub, officially MAC bridge) is a computer networking device that connects devices together on a computer network by using packet switching to receive, process, and forward data to the destination device.
Network topology is the arrangement of the elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a communication network.
In computer networking, network traffic control is the process of managing, controlling or reducing the network traffic, particularly Internet bandwidth, e.g. by the network scheduler.
Networking cables are networking hardware used to connect one network device to other network devices or to connect two or more computers to share printers, scanners etc.
Networking hardware, also known as network equipment or computer networking devices, are physical devices which are required for communication and interaction between devices on a computer network.
The next-generation network (NGN) is a body of key architectural changes in telecommunication core and access networks.
In telecommunications networks, a node (Latin nodus, ‘knot’) is either a redistribution point or a communication endpoint.
Norman Manuel Abramson (April 1, 1932) is an American Jewish engineer and computer scientist, most known for developing the ALOHAnet system for wireless computer communication.
The NPL Network or NPL Data Communications Network was a local area computer network operated by a team from the National Physical Laboratory in England that pioneered the concept of packet switching.
The octet is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that consists of eight bits.
Off-the-Record Messaging (OTR) is a cryptographic protocol that provides encryption for instant messaging conversations.
In the mathematical theory of probability, offered load is a concept in queuing theory.
OGAS (Общегосударственная автоматизированная система учёта и обработки информации, All-State Automated System) was a Soviet project to create a nationwide information network.
Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the Internet that offers a real-time transmission of text messages from sender to receiver.
Open access (OA) refers to research outputs which are distributed online and free of cost or other barriers, and possibly with the addition of a Creative Commons license to promote reuse.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.
An overlay network is a computer network that is built on top of another network.
Packet forwarding is the relaying of packets from one network segment to another by nodes in a computer network.
Packet loss occurs when one or more packets of data travelling across a computer network fail to reach their destination.
Packet switching is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload.
PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.
Paul Baran (April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was a Polish-born Jewish American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks.
In computing and telecommunications, the payload is the part of transmitted data that is the actual intended message.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.
Peer-to-peer file sharing is the distribution and sharing of digital media using peer-to-peer (P2P) networking technology.
A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer.
In telecommunications, a point-to-point connection refers to a communications connection between two Communication endpoints or nodes.
In computer networking, a port is an endpoint of communication in an operating system, which identifies a specific process or a type of network service running on that system.
A power cable is an electrical cable, an assembly of one or more electrical conductors, usually held together with an overall sheath.
Power-line communication (PLC) carries data on a conductor that is also used simultaneously for AC electric power transmission or electric power distribution to consumers.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is an encryption program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.
Propagation delay is a technical term that can have a different meaning depending on the context.
The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family.
Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals.
Quality of service (QoS) is the description or measurement of the overall performance of a service, such as a telephony or computer network or a cloud computing service, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network.
In telecommunication and computer engineering, the queuing delay or queueing delay is the time a job waits in a queue until it can be executed.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
Random number generation is the generation of a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by a random chance, usually through a hardware random-number generator (RNG).
A regional Internet registry (RIR) is an organization that manages the allocation and registration of Internet number resources within a particular region of the world.
In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
In information and communications technology, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a type of publication from the technology community.
In computer networking: resilience is the ability to provide and maintain an acceptable level of service in the face of faults and challenges to normal operation.” Threats and challenges for services can range from simple misconfiguration over large scale natural disasters to targeted attacks.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
Retransmission, essentially identical with Automatic repeat request (ARQ), is the resending of packets which have been either damaged or lost.
A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node - a ring.
Robert Gray Gallager (born May 29, 1931) is an American electrical engineer known for his work on information theory and communications networks.
Robert Melancton Metcalfe (born April 7, 1946) is an electrical engineer from the United States who co-invented Ethernet, founded 3Com and formulated Metcalfe's Law.
Robert Tappan Morris (born November 8, 1965) is an American computer scientist and entrepreneur. He is best known for creating the Morris Worm in 1988, considered the first computer worm on the Internet. Morris was prosecuted for releasing the worm, and became the first person convicted under the then-new Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. He went on to co-found the online store Viaweb, one of the first web-based applications, and later the funding firm Y Combinator—both with Paul Graham. He later joined the faculty in the department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he received tenure in 2006.
In telecommunications, the round-trip delay time (RTD) or round-trip time (RTT) is the length of time it takes for a signal to be sent plus the length of time it takes for an acknowledgement of that signal to be received.
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.
Routing is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network, or between or across multiple networks.
In computer networking a routing table, or routing information base (RIB), is a data table stored in a router or a networked computer that lists the routes to particular network destinations, and in some cases, metrics (distances) associated with those routes.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Sabre Global Distribution System, owned by Sabre Holdings, is used by travel agents around the world with more than 400 airlines, 220,000 hotels, 42 car rental brands, 38 rail providers and 17 cruise lines.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network.
The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE, a name selected to mean "wise") was a system of large computers and associated networking equipment that coordinated data from many radar sites and processed it to produce a single unified image of the airspace over a wide area.
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
In the contexts of software architecture, service-orientation and service-oriented architecture, the term service refers to a software functionality or a set of software functionalities (such as the retrieval of specified information or the execution of a set of operations) with a purpose that different clients can reuse for different purposes, together with the policies that should control its usage (based on the identity of the client requesting the service, for example).
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".
Skype is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches via the Internet and to regular telephones.
A sliding window protocol is a feature of packet-based data transmission protocols.
Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences.
The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a network protocol that builds a loop-free logical topology for Ethernet networks.
In telecommunication and radio communication, spread-spectrum techniques are methods by which a signal (e.g., an electrical, electromagnetic, or acoustic signal) generated with a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth.
SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California.
A Star network is one of the most common computer network topologies.
A state diagram is a type of diagram used in computer science and related fields to describe the behavior of systems.
A storage area network (SAN) is a Computer network which provides access to consolidated, block level data storage.
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider.
A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea.
A subnetwork or subnet is a logical subdivision of an IP network.
Synchronous optical networking (SONET) and synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) are standardized protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams synchronously over optical fiber using lasers or highly coherent light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
A telecommunications network is a collection of terminal nodes, links are connected so as to enable telecommunication between the terminals.
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.
A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises.
A telephone network is a telecommunications network used for telephone calls between two or more parties.
Telephony is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties.
Terabit Ethernet or TbE is used to describe speeds of Ethernet above 100 Gbit/s.
Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA; formerly known as Trans-European Trunked Radio), a European standard for a trunked radio system, is a professional mobile radio and two-way transceiver specification.
In general terms, throughput is the maximum rate of production or the maximum rate at which something can be processed.
Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Total Information Awareness (TIA) was a program of the United States Information Awareness Office that began during the 2003 fiscal year.
Traffic analysis is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication, which can be performed even when the messages are encrypted.
In information technology, trailer or footer refers to supplemental data placed at the end of a block of data being stored or transmitted, which may contain information for the handling of the data block, or just mark its end.
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.
A transmission medium is a material substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) that can propagate energy waves.
A tree network, or star-bus network, is a hybrid network topology in which star networks are interconnected via bus networks.
Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of improving electromagnetic compatibility.
The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system.
The University of Hawaiʻi system (formally the University of Hawaiʻi and popularly known as UH) is a public, co-educational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment training center, three university centers, four education centers and various other research facilities distributed across six islands throughout the State of Hawaii in the United States.
The University of Utah (also referred to as the U, U of U, or Utah) is a public coeducational space-grant research university in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
Uptime is a measure of the time a machine, typically a computer, has been working and available.
A virtual circuit (VC) is a means of transporting data over a packet switched computer network in such a way that it appears as though there is a dedicated physical layer link between the source and destination end systems of this data.
A virtual LAN (VLAN) is any broadcast domain that is partitioned and isolated in a computer network at the data link layer (OSI layer 2).
A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.
Western Electric Company (WE, WECo) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996.
Wi-Fi or WiFi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.
A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunications network or computer network that extends over a large geographical distance/place.
William Stallings is an American author.
20018 In computer networking, a wireless access point (WAP), or more generally just access point (AP), is a networking hardware device that allows a Wi-Fi device to connect to a wired network.
A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using wireless communication within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building.
A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes.
An early example of a wireless router A wireless router is a device that performs the functions of a router and also includes the functions of a wireless access point.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.
Yahoo! Messenger (sometimes abbreviated Y!M) is an advertisement-supported instant messaging client and associated protocol provided by Yahoo!.
ZRTP (composed of Z and Real-time Transport Protocol) is a cryptographic key-agreement protocol to negotiate the keys for encryption between two end points in a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) phone telephony call based on the Real-time Transport Protocol.
40 Gigabit Ethernet (40GbE) and 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GbE) are groups of computer networking technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at rates of 40 and 100 gigabits per second (Gbit/s), respectively.
10BASE2 (also known as cheapernet, thin Ethernet, thinnet, and thinwire) is a variant of Ethernet that uses thin coaxial cable terminated with BNC connectors.
10BASE5 (also known as thick Ethernet or thicknet) was the first commercially available variant of Ethernet.
The 5-4-3 rule also referred to as the IEEE way (contrary to the Ethernet way) is a design guideline for Ethernet computer networks covering the number of repeaters and segments on shared-access Ethernet backbones in a tree topology.
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