148 relations: Accumulator (computing), Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing, ALGOL 60, Algorithm, Analytical Engine, App store, App Store (iOS), App Store (macOS), Application software, Arithmetic logic unit, Assembly language, Automatic programming, Backtracking, Batch processing, Bernoulli number, Binary code, Binary file, Binary number, Booting, Bus (computing), C (programming language), Central processing unit, Charles Babbage, Clipping (morphology), Clock signal, COBOL, Command-line interface, Compiler, Computer, Computer hardware, Computer multitasking, Computer programming, Computer-aided design, Computer-aided engineering, Context switch, Control flow, Customer relationship management, Data (computing), Data type, Decimal, Declarative programming, Desktop computer, Device driver, Electronic circuit, Emulator, End user, Engineered language, Engineering, ENIAC, ..., Enterprise resource planning, Enterprise software, Executable, Execution (computing), File format, Finite-state machine, Firmware, Floating-point arithmetic, Functional programming, Germany, Google Play, Haskell (programming language), History of computing hardware, Human-readable medium, IBM 1401, IBM System/360, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Imperative programming, Inflation, Input/output, Instruction set architecture, Integrated development environment, Intel AppUp, Interface (computing), Interpreter (computing), IWork, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Joseph Marie Jacquard, Just-in-time compilation, Killer application, Knowledge worker, Konrad Zuse, Library (computing), LibreOffice, Lisp (programming language), Luigi Federico Menabrea, Machine code, Manchester Baby, Microcode, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Store (digital), Middleware, Mobile app, Mobile device, Multithreading (computer architecture), Non-volatile memory, Object file, Operating system, Parallel computing, Parsing, Pascal's calculator, Peripheral, PL/I, Process (computing), Processor register, Program counter, Programmer, Programming language, Programming paradigm, Prolog, Punched card, Punched tape, Random-access memory, Read-only memory, Read–eval–print loop, Schedule (workplace), Scheduling (computing), Scripting language, Self-modifying code, Side effect (computer science), Software, Software bug, Software development, Software engineering, Software suite, Software system, Source code, Statement (computer science), Stored-program computer, Supply chain management software, System administrator, System software, The Art of Computer Programming, Thread (computing), Time management, Time-sharing, Turing completeness, Universal Turing machine, Unix shell, Utility software, Vacuum tube, Variable (computer science), Volatile memory, Von Neumann architecture, Web application, Web browser, Z3 (computer). Expand index (98 more) » « Shrink index
In a computer's central processing unit (CPU), an accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored.
Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace (née Byron; 10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine.
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
ALGOL 60 (short for Algorithmic Language 1960) is a member of the ALGOL family of computer programming languages.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.
An app store (or app marketplace) is a type of digital distribution platform for computer software, often in a mobile context.
The App Store is a digital distribution platform, developed and maintained by Apple Inc., for mobile apps on its iOS operating system.
The App Store is a digital distribution platform for macOS apps, created by Apple Inc. The platform was announced on October 20, 2010, at Apple's "Back to the Mac" event.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
In computer science, the term automatic programming identifies a type of computer programming in which some mechanism generates a computer program to allow human programmers to write the code at a higher abstraction level.
Backtracking is a general algorithm for finding all (or some) solutions to some computational problems, notably constraint satisfaction problems, that incrementally builds candidates to the solutions, and abandons a candidate ("backtracks") as soon as it determines that the candidate cannot possibly be completed to a valid solution.
In computing, batch processing refers to a computer working through a queue or batch of separate jobs (programs) without manual intervention (non-interactive).
In mathematics, the Bernoulli numbers are a sequence of rational numbers which occur frequently in number theory.
A binary code represents text, computer processor instructions, or any other data using a two-symbol system.
A binary file is a computer file that is not a text file.
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
In computing, booting is starting up a computer or computer appliance until it can be used.
In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.
In linguistics, clipping is the word formation process which consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts (Marchand: 1969).
In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is used like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits.
COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
In computing, multitasking is the concurrent execution of multiple tasks (also known as processes) over a certain period of time.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.
Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is the broad usage of computer software to aid in engineering analysis tasks.
In computing, a context switch is the process of storing the state of a process or of a thread, so that it can be restored and execution resumed from the same point later.
In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.
Customer relationship management (CRM) is an approach to manage a company's interaction with current and potential customers.
Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.
In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.
The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.
In computer science, declarative programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that expresses the logic of a computation without describing its control flow.
A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.
In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.
An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.
In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system (called the guest).
In product development, an end user (sometimes end-user) is a person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a product.
Engineered languages (often abbreviated to engelangs, or, less commonly, engilangs) are constructed languages devised to test or prove some hypotheses about how languages work or might work.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is the integrated management of core business processes, often in real-time and mediated by software and technology.
Enterprise software, also known as enterprise application software (EAS), is computer software used to satisfy the needs of an organization rather than individual users.
In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful.
Execution in computer and software engineering is the process by which a computer or a virtual machine performs the instructions of a computer program.
A file format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file.
A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automaton (FSA, plural: automata), finite automaton, or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model of computation.
In electronic systems and computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Google Play (previously Android Market) is a digital distribution service operated and developed by Google.
Haskell is a standardized, general-purpose compiled purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing.
The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers.
A human-readable medium or human-readable format is a representation of data or information that can be naturally read by humans.
The IBM 1401 is a variable wordlength decimal computer that was announced by IBM on October 5, 1959.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the IEEE Computer Society.
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.
An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development.
The Intel AppUp center was a digital storefront for existing and new PC software, apps, content and entertainment, developed by Intel for Windows-based Ultrabook devices, netbooks, laptops, and personal computers.
In computing, an interface is a shared boundary across which two or more separate components of a computer system exchange information.
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.
iWork is an office suite of applications created by Apple Inc. for its macOS and iOS operating systems, and also available cross-platform through the iCloud website.
The Jacquard machine is a device fitted to a power loom that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with such complex patterns as brocade, damask and matelassé.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
Joseph Marie Charles dit (called or nicknamed) Jacquard (7 July 1752 – 7 August 1834), was a French weaver and merchant.
In computing, just-in-time (JIT) compilation, (also dynamic translation or run-time compilation), is a way of executing computer code that involves compilation during execution of a program – at run time – rather than prior to execution.
In marketing terminology, a killer application (commonly shortened to killer app) is any computer program that is so necessary or desirable that it proves the core value of some larger technology, such as computer hardware, a gaming console, software, a programming language, a software platform, or an operating system.
Knowledge workers are workers whose main capital is knowledge.
Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.
LibreOffice is a free and open source office suite, a project of The Document Foundation.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
Luigi Federico Menabrea (4 September 1809 – 24 May 1896), later made 1st Count Menabrea and 1st Marquess of Valdora, was an Italian general, statesman and mathematician who served as the Prime Minister of Italy from 1867 to 1869.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
The Manchester Baby, also known as the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), was the world's first stored-program computer.
Microcode is a computer hardware technique that imposes an interpreter between the CPU hardware and the programmer-visible instruction set architecture of the computer.
Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft.
Microsoft Store (formerly known as Windows Store prior to October 2017) is a digital distribution platform for Microsoft Windows.
Middleware is computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system.
A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch.
A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.
In computer architecture, multithreading is the ability of a central processing unit (CPU) or a single core in a multi-core processor to execute multiple processes or threads concurrently, appropriately supported by the operating system.
Non-volatile memory (NVM) or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled.
An object file is a file containing object code, meaning relocatable format machine code that is usually not directly executable.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.
Parsing, syntax analysis or syntactic analysis is the process of analysing a string of symbols, either in natural language, computer languages or data structures, conforming to the rules of a formal grammar.
A Pascaline signed by Pascal in 1652 Top view and overview of the entire mechanism''Œuvres de Pascal'' in 5 volumes, ''La Haye'', 1779 Pascal's calculator (also known as the arithmetic machine or Pascaline) is a mechanical calculator invented by Blaise Pascal in the early 17th century.
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.
PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses.
In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed.
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
The program counter (PC), commonly called the instruction pointer (IP) in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register (IAR), the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence.
A programmer, developer, dev, coder, or software engineer is a person who creates computer software.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features.
Prolog is a general-purpose logic programming language associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics.
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.
Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data.
Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.
A Read–Eval–Print Loop (REPL), also known as an interactive toplevel or language shell, is a simple, interactive computer programming environment that takes single user inputs (i.e. single expressions), evaluates them, and returns the result to the user; a program written in a REPL environment is executed piecewise.
A schedule, often called a rota or roster, is a list of employees, and associated information e.g. location, working times, responsibilities for a given time period e.g. week, month or sports season.
In computing, scheduling is the method by which work specified by some means is assigned to resources that complete the work.
A scripting or script language is a programming language that supports scripts: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator.
In computer science, self-modifying code is code that alters its own instructions while it is executing – usually to reduce the instruction path length and improve performance or simply to reduce otherwise repetitively similar code, thus simplifying maintenance.
In computer science, a function or expression is said to have a side effect if it modifies some state outside its scope or has an observable interaction with its calling functions or the outside world besides returning a value.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
A software bug is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.
Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications, frameworks, or other software components.
Software engineering is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method.
A software suite or application suite is a collection of computer programs —usually application software or programming software— of related functionality, often sharing a similar user interface and the ability to easily exchange data with each other.
A software system is a system on intercommunicating components based on software forming part of a computer system (a combination of hardware and software).
In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.
In computer programming, a statement is a syntactic unit of an imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out.
A stored-program computer is a computer that stores program instructions in electronic memory.
Supply chain management software (SCMS) is the software tools or modules used in executing supply chain transactions, managing supplier relationships and controlling associated business processes.
A system administrator, or sysadmin, is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems; especially multi-user computers, such as servers.
System software is computer software designed to provide a platform to other software.
The Art of Computer Programming (sometimes known by its initials TAOCP) is a comprehensive monograph written by Donald Knuth that covers many kinds of programming algorithms and their analysis.
In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system.
Time management is the process of planning and exercising conscious control of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity.
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.
In computability theory, a system of data-manipulation rules (such as a computer's instruction set, a programming language, or a cellular automaton) is said to be Turing complete or computationally universal if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine.
In computer science, a universal Turing machine (UTM) is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input.
A Unix shell is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a traditional Unix-like command line user interface.
Utility software is system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
In computer programming, a variable or scalar is a storage location (identified by a memory address) paired with an associated symbolic name (an identifier), which contains some known or unknown quantity of information referred to as a value.
Volatile memory, in contrast to non-volatile memory, is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information; it retains its contents while powered on but when the power is interrupted, the stored data is quickly lost.
The von Neumann architecture, which is also known as the von Neumann model and Princeton architecture, is a computer architecture based on the 1945 description by the mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and others in the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.
In computing, a web application or web app is a client–server computer program which the client (including the user interface and client-side logic) runs in a web browser.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
The Z3 was a German electromechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse.
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