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Computer virus

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A computer virus is a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code. [1]

221 relations: Action Center, Adware, Alan Oppenheimer, Algorithm, Amiga, Andrew Ross (sociologist), Android (robot), Antivirus software, Apple DOS, ARPANET, Artificial life, Assembly language, Automaton, AV-TEST, Backup, Backup and Restore, BBN Technologies, Biology, Bliss (virus), Boot sector, Booting, Botnet, Brain (computer virus), Browser Helper Object, Bulletin board, Bulletin board system, Central processing unit, CIH (computer virus), Clone (computing), Cmd.exe, CNBC, Code injection, COM file, Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures, Compact disc, Comparison of computer viruses, Compiler, Component Object Model, Compression virus, Computer program, Computer security, Computer virus, Computer worm, Confidence trick, Control flow, Copyright infringement, Core War, Credit card, Creeper (program), Crimeware, ..., Cross-site scripting, Cryptographic hash function, Cryptography, Cryptovirology, Cyclic redundancy check, Database, Deception, Denial-of-service attack, Desktop computer, Desktop environment, Digital Equipment Corporation, Digital image, Diplom, Disk cloning, Disk image, Double-click, Download, DVD, Elk Cloner, Email, Email address, Email attachment, Email spam, Emulator, Encryption, Evolutionary algorithm, Exclusive or, Executable, Exploit (computer security), File system, File system permissions, Filename extension, Floppy disk, Framewave, Fred Cohen, Free software, Genetic diversity, Google, Hacker, Hard disk drive, Hash function, Heuristic (computer science), Heuristic analysis, Home computer, IBM PC compatible, Income, Infection control, Instant messaging, Internet, Internet forum, Interrupt, IP address, J. B. Gunn, John von Neumann, Key (cryptography), Keystroke logging, Kilobyte, Lahore, Leonard Adleman, Linux, Live CD, Logic bomb, Login, Macintosh, Macintosh operating systems, Macro (computer science), Macro virus, Malicious Software Removal Tool, Malware, Mark Russinovich, Master boot record, Metamorphic code, Michael Crichton, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Outlook, Microsoft Safety Scanner, Microsoft Security Essentials, Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Word, Modem, MPEG-4 Part 14, MS-DOS, MS-DOS API, Mt. Lebanon School District, Multipartite virus, Mutation, National Vulnerability Database, NTFS, Object lifetime, Open-source software, Operating system, Optical disc, Password, Patch (computing), Patch Tuesday, Payload, Payload (computing), PDF, PDP-10, Personal computer, Phishing, Pittsburgh, Plaintext, Polymorphic code, Polymorphic engine, Portable Executable, Practical joke, Quine (computing), Random-access memory, Ransom, Ransomware, Reboot, Removable media, Rich Skrenta, Rootkit, Runtime system, Sabotage, Safe mode, Samy (computer worm), SCA (computer virus), Science fiction, Search algorithm, Security bug, Self-modifying code, Self-replication, Shareware, Simile (computer virus), Social engineering (security), Social networking service, Software, Software engineering, Spamming, Spreadsheet, Spyware, Subroutine, Superuser, System administrator, System File Checker, System Restore, Task manager, Technical University of Dortmund, Threat (computer), TOPS-20, Trojan horse (computing), University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, University of Southern California, URL, USB flash drive, Usenet, Vector (malware), Virus hoax, VirusTotal, Vulnerability (computing), Westworld (film), Windows 3.0, Windows 7, Windows 95, Windows API, Windows Defender, Windows Live Messenger, Windows ME, Windows Media Video, Windows NT, Windows Update, Windows Vista, Windows XP, Yahoo!, Zero-day (computing), Zombie (computer science), .exe. Expand index (171 more) »

Action Center

Action Center is a notification center included with Windows Phone 8.1, Windows 10 and Windows 10 Mobile.

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Adware

Adware, or advertising-supported software, is software that generates revenue for its developer by automatically generating online advertisements in the user interface of the software or on a screen presented to the user during the installation process.

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Alan Oppenheimer

Alan Louis Oppenheimer (born April 23, 1930) is an American actor and voice actor.

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Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Amiga

The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985.

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Andrew Ross (sociologist)

Andrew Ross (born 1956) is Professor of Social and Cultural Analysis at New York University (NYU), and a social activist and analyst.

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Android (robot)

An android is a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to look and act like a human, especially one with a body having a flesh-like resemblance.

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Antivirus software

Antivirus software, or anti-virus software (abbreviated to AV software), also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.

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Apple DOS

Apple DOS is the family of disk operating systems for the Apple II series of microcomputers from late 1978 through early 1983.

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ARPANET

The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.

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Artificial life

Artificial life (often abbreviated ALife or A-Life) is a field of study wherein researchers examine systems related to natural life, its processes, and its evolution, through the use of simulations with computer models, robotics, and biochemistry.

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Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

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Automaton

An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.

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AV-TEST

AV-TEST is an independent organization which evaluates and rates antivirus and security suite software for Microsoft Windows and Android operating systems, according to a variety of criteria.

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Backup

In information technology, a backup, or the process of backing up, refers to the copying into an archive file of computer data so it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.

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Backup and Restore

Backup and Restore (formerly Windows Backup and Restore Center) is a component of Microsoft Windows introduced in Windows Vista and included in later versions that allow users to create backups and restore from backups created earlier.

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BBN Technologies

BBN Technologies (originally Bolt, Beranek and Newman) is an American high-technology company which provides research and development services.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Bliss (virus)

Bliss is a computer virus, introduced in 1997, which aims to infect Linux systems.

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Boot sector

A boot sector is a region of a hard disk, floppy disk, optical disc, or other data storage device that contains machine code to be loaded into random-access memory (RAM) by a computer system's built-in firmware.

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Booting

In computing, booting is starting up a computer or computer appliance until it can be used.

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Botnet

A botnet is a number of Internet-connected devices, each of which is running one or more bots.

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Brain (computer virus)

Brain is the industry standard name for a computer virus that was released in its first form in January 1986, and is considered to be the first computer virus for MS-DOS.

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Browser Helper Object

A Browser Helper Object (BHO) is a DLL module designed as a plugin for Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser to provide added functionality.

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Bulletin board

A bulletin board (pinboard, pin board, noticeboard, or notice board in British English) is a surface intended for the posting of public messages, for example, to advertise items wanted or for sale, announce events, or provide information.

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Bulletin board system

A bulletin board system or BBS (also called Computer Bulletin Board Service, CBBS) is a computer server running software that allows users to connect to the system using a terminal program.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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CIH (computer virus)

CIH, also known as Chernobyl or Spacefiller, is a Microsoft Windows 9x computer virus which first emerged in 1998.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Clone (computing)

In computing, a clone is a hardware or software system that is designed to function in the same way as another system.

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Cmd.exe

Command Prompt, also known as cmd.exe or cmd (after its executable file name), is the command-line interpreter on Windows NT, Windows CE, OS/2 and eComStation operating systems.

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CNBC

CNBC is an American basic cable, internet and satellite business news television channel that is owned by NBCUniversal News Group, a division of NBCUniversal, with both being ultimately owned by Comcast.

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Code injection

Code injection is the exploitation of a computer bug that is caused by processing invalid data.

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COM file

A COM file is a type of simple executable file.

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Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures

The Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) system provides a reference-method for publicly known information-security vulnerabilities and exposures.

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Compact disc

Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.

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Comparison of computer viruses

The compilation of a unified list of computer viruses is made difficult because of naming.

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Compiler

A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).

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Component Object Model

Component Object Model (COM) is a binary-interface standard for software components introduced by Microsoft in 1993.

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Compression virus

A compression virus is an example of a benevolent computer virus, invented by Fred Cohen.

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Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

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Computer security

Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.

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Computer virus

A computer virus is a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.

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Computer worm

A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.

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Confidence trick

A confidence trick (synonyms include con, confidence game, confidence scheme, ripoff, scam and stratagem) is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their confidence, used in the classical sense of trust.

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Control flow

In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.

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Copyright infringement

Copyright infringement is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works.

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Core War

Core War is a 1984 programming game created by D. G. Jones and A. K. Dewdney in which two or more battle programs (called "warriors") compete for control of a virtual computer.

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Credit card

A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.

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Creeper (program)

Creeper was an experimental computer program written by Bob Thomas at BBN in 1971.

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Crimeware

Crimeware is a class of malware designed specifically to automate cybercrime.

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Cross-site scripting

Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications.

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Cryptographic hash function

A cryptographic hash function is a special class of hash function that has certain properties which make it suitable for use in cryptography.

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Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

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Cryptovirology

Cryptovirology is a field that studies how to use cryptography to design powerful malicious software.

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Cyclic redundancy check

A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an error-detecting code commonly used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to raw data.

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Database

A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.

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Deception

Deception is the act of propagating a belief that is not true, or is not the whole truth (as in half-truths or omission).

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Denial-of-service attack

In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.

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Desktop computer

A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.

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Desktop environment

In computing, a desktop environment (DE) is an implementation of the desktop metaphor made of a bundle of programs running on top of a computer operating system, which share a common graphical user interface (GUI), sometimes described as a graphical shell.

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Digital Equipment Corporation

Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.

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Digital image

A digital image is a numeric representation, normally binary, of a two-dimensional image.

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Diplom

A Diplom (from δίπλωμα diploma) is an academic degree in the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland and a similarly named degree in some other European countries including Bulgaria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland (only for engineers), France, Greece, Hungary, Russia, Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovenia, and Ukraine.

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Disk cloning

Disk cloning is the process of copying the contents of one computer hard disk to another disk or to an "image" file.

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Disk image

A disk image, in computing, is a computer file containing the contents and structure of a disk volume or of an entire data storage device, such as a hard disk drive, tape drive, floppy disk, optical disc or USB flash drive.

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Double-click

A double-click is the act of pressing a computer mouse button twice quickly without moving the mouse.

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Download

In computer networks, to download (abbreviation DL) is to receive data from a remote system, typically a server such as a web server, an FTP server, an email server, or other similar systems.

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DVD

DVD (an abbreviation of "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.

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Elk Cloner

Elk Cloner is one of the first known microcomputer viruses that spread "in the wild", i.e., outside the computer system or laboratory in which it was written.

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Email

Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.

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Email address

An email address identifies an email box to which email messages are delivered.

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Email attachment

An email attachment is a computer file sent along with an email message.

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Email spam

Email spam, also known as junk email, is a type of electronic spam where unsolicited messages are sent by email.

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Emulator

In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system (called the guest).

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Encryption

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.

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Evolutionary algorithm

In artificial intelligence, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a subset of evolutionary computation, a generic population-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm.

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Exclusive or

Exclusive or or exclusive disjunction is a logical operation that outputs true only when inputs differ (one is true, the other is false).

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Executable

In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful.

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Exploit (computer security)

An exploit (from the English verb to exploit, meaning "to use something to one’s own advantage") is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug or vulnerability to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized).

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File system

In computing, a file system or filesystem controls how data is stored and retrieved.

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File system permissions

Most file systems have methods to assign permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users.

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Filename extension

A filename extension is an identifier specified as a suffix to the name of a computer file.

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Floppy disk

A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.

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Framewave

Framewave (formerly AMD Performance Library (APL)) is computer software, a high-performance optimized programming library, consisting of low level application programming interfaces (APIs) for image processing, signal processing, JPEG, and video functions.

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Fred Cohen

Frederick B. Cohen (born 1956) is an American computer scientist and best known as the inventor of computer virus defense techniques.

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Free software

Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.

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Genetic diversity

Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.

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Google

Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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Hacker

A computer hacker is any skilled computer expert that uses their technical knowledge to overcome a problem.

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Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

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Hash function

A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size.

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Heuristic (computer science)

In computer science, artificial intelligence, and mathematical optimization, a heuristic (from Greek εὑρίσκω "I find, discover") is a technique designed for solving a problem more quickly when classic methods are too slow, or for finding an approximate solution when classic methods fail to find any exact solution.

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Heuristic analysis

Heuristic analysis is a method employed by many computer antivirus programs designed to detect previously unknown computer viruses, as well as new variants of viruses already in the "wild".

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Home computer

Home computers were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s.

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IBM PC compatible

IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.

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Income

Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms.

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Infection control

Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology.

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Instant messaging

Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet.

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Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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Internet forum

An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.

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Interrupt

In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.

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IP address

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

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J. B. Gunn

John Battiscombe "J.

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John von Neumann

John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

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Key (cryptography)

In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm.

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Keystroke logging

Keystroke logging, often referred to as keylogging or keyboard capturing, is the action of recording (logging) the keys struck on a keyboard, typically covertly, so that the person using the keyboard is unaware that their actions are being monitored.

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Kilobyte

The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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Lahore

Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.

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Leonard Adleman

Leonard Adleman (born December 31, 1945) is an American computer scientist.

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Linux

Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.

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Live CD

A live CD (also live DVD, live disc, or live operating system) is a complete bootable computer installation including operating system which runs directly from a CD-ROM or similar storage device into a computer's memory, rather than loading from a hard disk drive.

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Logic bomb

A logic bomb is a piece of code intentionally inserted into a software system that will set off a malicious function when specified conditions are met.

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Login

In computer security, logging in (or logging on or signing in or signing on) is the process by which an individual gains access to a computer system by identifying and authenticating themselves.

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Macintosh

The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.

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Macintosh operating systems

The family of Macintosh operating systems developed by Apple Inc. includes the graphical user interface-based operating systems it has designed for use with its Macintosh series of personal computers since 1984, as well as the related system software it once created for compatible third-party systems.

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Macro (computer science)

A macro (short for "macroinstruction", from Greek μακρός 'long') in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence (often a sequence of characters) should be mapped to a replacement output sequence (also often a sequence of characters) according to a defined procedure.

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Macro virus

In computing terminology, a macro virus is a virus that is written in a macro language: a programming language which is embedded inside a software application (e.g., word processors and spreadsheet applications).

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Malicious Software Removal Tool

Microsoft Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool is a freely distributed virus removal tool developed by Microsoft for the Microsoft Windows operating system.

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Malware

Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server or computer network.

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Mark Russinovich

Mark Eugene Russinovich (born 1966) is CTO of Microsoft Azure.

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Master boot record

A master boot record (MBR) is a special type of boot sector at the very beginning of partitioned computer mass storage devices like fixed disks or removable drives intended for use with IBM PC-compatible systems and beyond.

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Metamorphic code

Metamorphic code is code that when run outputs a logically equivalent version of its own code under some interpretation.

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Michael Crichton

John Michael Crichton (October 23, 1942 – November 4, 2008) was an American author, screenwriter, film director and producer best known for his work in the science fiction, thriller, and medical fiction genres.

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Microsoft Excel

Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet developed by Microsoft for Windows, macOS, Android and iOS.

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Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft.

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Microsoft Outlook

Microsoft Outlook is a personal information manager from Microsoft, available as a part of the Microsoft Office suite.

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Microsoft Safety Scanner

Microsoft Safety Scanner is a free virus scanner similar to Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool that can be used to scan a system for computer viruses and other forms of malware.

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Microsoft Security Essentials

Microsoft Security Essentials (MSE) is an antivirus software (AV) that provides protection against different types of malicious software, such as computer viruses, spyware, rootkits, and trojan horses.

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Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

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Microsoft Word

Microsoft Word (or simply Word) is a word processor developed by Microsoft.

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Modem

A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.

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MPEG-4 Part 14

MPEG-4 Part 14 or MP4 is a digital multimedia container format most commonly used to store video and audio, but it can also be used to store other data such as subtitles and still images.

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MS-DOS

MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.

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MS-DOS API

The MS-DOS API is an API which originated with 86-DOS and is used in MS-DOS/PC DOS and other DOS-compatible operating systems.

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Mt. Lebanon School District

Mt.

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Multipartite virus

A multipartite virus is a computer virus that infects and spreads in multiple ways.

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Mutation

In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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National Vulnerability Database

The National Vulnerability Database is the U.S. government repository of standards-based vulnerability management data represented using the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP).

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NTFS

NTFS (New Technology File System) is a proprietary file system developed by Microsoft.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Object lifetime

In object-oriented programming (OOP), the object lifetime (or life cycle) of an object is the time between an object's creation and its destruction.

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Open-source software

Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Optical disc

In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc (OD) is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium) on one of its flat surfaces.

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Password

A password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password), which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access.

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Patch (computing)

A patch is a set of changes to a computer program or its supporting data designed to update, fix, or improve it.

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Patch Tuesday

Patch Tuesday (also known as Update Tuesday) is an unofficial term used to refer to when Microsoft regularly releases security patches for its software products.

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Payload

Payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually measured in terms of weight.

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Payload (computing)

In computing and telecommunications, the payload is the part of transmitted data that is the actual intended message.

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PDF

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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PDP-10

The PDP-10 is a mainframe computer family manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1966 into the 1980s.

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Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

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Phishing

Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

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Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.

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Plaintext

In cryptography, plaintext or cleartext is unencrypted information, as opposed to information encrypted for storage or transmission.

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Polymorphic code

In computer terminology, polymorphic code is code that uses a polymorphic engine to mutate while keeping the original algorithm intact.

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Polymorphic engine

A polymorphic engine (sometimes called mutation engine or mutating engine) is a computer program that can be used to transform a program into a subsequent version that consists of different code yet operates with the same functionality.

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Portable Executable

The Portable Executable (PE) format is a file format for executables, object code, DLLs, FON Font files, and others used in 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows operating systems.

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Practical joke

A practical joke, or prank, is a mischievous trick played on someone, generally causing the victim to experience embarrassment, perplexity, confusion, or discomfort.

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Quine (computing)

A quine is a non-empty computer program which takes no input and produces a copy of its own source code as its only output.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Ransom

Ransom is the practice of holding a prisoner or item to extort money or property to secure their release, or it may refer to the sum of money involved.

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Ransomware

Ransomware is a type of malicious software from cryptovirology that threatens to publish the victim's data or perpetually block access to it unless a ransom is paid.

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Reboot

In computing, rebooting is the process by which a running computer system is restarted, either intentionally or unintentionally.

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Removable media

In computer storage, some types of removable media are designed to be read to or written to by removable readers, writers and drives.

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Rich Skrenta

Richard "Rich" Skrenta (born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is a computer programmer and Silicon Valley entrepreneur who created the web search engine blekko.

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Rootkit

A root kit is a collection of computer software, typically malicious, designed to enable access to a computer or areas of its software that is not otherwise allowed (for example, to an unauthorized user) and often masks its existence or the existence of other software.

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Runtime system

A runtime system, also called run-time system, primarily implements portions of an execution model.

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Sabotage

Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.

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Safe mode

Safe mode is a diagnostic mode of a computer operating system (OS).

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Samy (computer worm)

Samy (also known as JS.Spacehero) is an XSS worm that was designed to propagate across the MySpace social-networking site written by Samy Kamkar.

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SCA (computer virus)

The SCA virus is the first computer virus created for the Commodore Amiga and one of the first to gain public notoriety.

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Science fiction

Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.

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Search algorithm

In computer science, a search algorithm is any algorithm which solves the search problem, namely, to retrieve information stored within some data structure, or calculated in the search space of a problem domain.

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Security bug

A security bug or security defect is a software bug that can be exploited to gain unauthorized access or privileges on a computer system.

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Self-modifying code

In computer science, self-modifying code is code that alters its own instructions while it is executing – usually to reduce the instruction path length and improve performance or simply to reduce otherwise repetitively similar code, thus simplifying maintenance.

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Self-replication

Self-replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself.

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Shareware

Shareware is a type of proprietary software which is initially provided free of charge to users, who are allowed and encouraged to make and share copies of the program.

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Simile (computer virus)

Win32/Simile (also known as Etap and MetaPHOR) is a metamorphic computer virus written in assembly language for Microsoft Windows.

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Social engineering (security)

Social engineering, in the context of information security, refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information.

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Social networking service

A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is a web application that people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.

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Software

Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Software engineering

Software engineering is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method.

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Spamming

Electronic spamming is the use of electronic messaging systems to send an unsolicited message (spam), especially advertising, as well as sending messages repeatedly on the same site.

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Spreadsheet

A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form.

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Spyware

Spyware is software that aims to gather information about a person or organization sometimes without their knowledge, that may send such information to another entity without the consumer's consent, that asserts control over a device without the consumer's knowledge, or it may send such information to another entity with the consumer's consent, through cookies.

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Subroutine

In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.

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Superuser

In computing, the superuser is a special user account used for system administration.

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System administrator

A system administrator, or sysadmin, is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems; especially multi-user computers, such as servers.

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System File Checker

System File Checker (SFC) is a utility in Microsoft Windows that allows users to scan for and restore corruptions in Windows system files.

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System Restore

System Restore is a feature in Microsoft Windows that allows the user to revert their computer's state (including system files, installed applications, Windows Registry, and system settings) to that of a previous point in time, which can be used to recover from system malfunctions or other problems.

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Task manager

A task manager is a system monitor program used to provide information about the processes and programs running on a computer, as well as the general status of the computer.

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Technical University of Dortmund

TU Dortmund University (Technische Universität Dortmund) is a university in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany with over 30,000 students, and over 6,000 staff, offering around 80 Bachelor's and master's degree programs.

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Threat (computer)

In computer security, a threat is a possible danger that might exploit a vulnerability to breach security and therefore cause possible harm.

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TOPS-20

The TOPS-20 operating system by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) was a proprietary OS used on some of DEC's 36-bit mainframe computers.

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Trojan horse (computing)

In computing, a Trojan horse, or Trojan, is any malicious computer program which misleads users of its true intent.

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University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.

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University of Southern California

The University of Southern California (USC or SC) is a private research university in Los Angeles, California.

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URL

A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.

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USB flash drive

A USB flash drive, also variously known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, flash stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key (after the original M-Systems DiskOnKey drive from 2000), flash-drive, memory stick (not to be confused with the Sony Memory Stick), USB stick or USB memory, is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB interface.

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Usenet

Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.

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Vector (malware)

A vector in computing, specifically when talking about malicious code such as viruses or worms, is the method that this code uses to propagate itself or infect a computer.

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Virus hoax

A computer virus hoax is a message warning the recipients of a non-existent computer virus threat.

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VirusTotal

VirusTotal is a website created by the Spanish security company Hispasec Sistemas.

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Vulnerability (computing)

In computer security, a vulnerability is a weakness which can be exploited by a Threat Actor, such as an attacker, to perform unauthorized actions within a computer system.

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Westworld (film)

Westworld is a 1973 American science fiction Western thriller film written and directed by novelist Michael Crichton about amusement park androids that malfunction and begin killing visitors.

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Windows 3.0

Windows 3.0, a graphical environment, is the third major release of Microsoft Windows, and was released on May 22, 1990.

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Windows 7

Windows 7 (codenamed Vienna, formerly Blackcomb) is a personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft.

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Windows 95

Windows 95 (codenamed Chicago) is a consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft.

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Windows API

The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is Microsoft's core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems.

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Windows Defender

Windows Defender (called Windows Defender Antivirus in Windows 10 Creators Update) is an anti-malware component of Microsoft Windows.

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Windows Live Messenger

Windows Live Messenger (formerly MSN Messenger) is a discontinued instant messaging client developed by Microsoft for Windows, Xbox 360, Mac OS X, BlackBerry OS, iOS, Java ME, S60 on Symbian OS 9.x, and Zune HD.

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Windows ME

Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows ME (marketed with the pronunciation of the pronoun "me", commonly pronounced as an initialism, "M-E (Codenamed Millennium)", is a graphical operating system from Microsoft released to manufacturing in June 2000, and launched in September 2000.

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Windows Media Video

Windows Media Video (WMV) is a series of video codecs and their corresponding video coding formats developed by Microsoft.

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Windows NT

Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993.

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Windows Update

Windows Update is a Microsoft service for the Windows 9x and Windows NT families of operating system, which automates downloading and installing software updates over the Internet.

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Windows Vista

Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.

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Windows XP

Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.

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Yahoo!

Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc..

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Zero-day (computing)

A zero-day (also known as 0-day) vulnerability is a computer-software vulnerability that is unknown to those who would be interested in mitigating the vulnerability (including the vendor of the target software).

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Zombie (computer science)

In computer science, a zombie is a computer connected to the Internet that has been compromised by a hacker, computer virus or trojan horse program and can be used to perform malicious tasks of one sort or another under remote direction.

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.exe

.exe is a common filename extension denoting an executable file (the main execution point of a computer program) for DOS, OpenVMS, Microsoft Windows, Symbian or OS/2.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_virus

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