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Index Computus

Computus (Latin for "computation") is a calculation that determines the calendar date of Easter. [1]

111 relations: Abbo of Fleury, Act of Uniformity 1662, Addition, Alcuin, Alexander of Villedieu, Anatolius of Laodicea, Anglicanism, Annianus of Alexandria, Anno Domini, Arthur Matthew Weld Downing, Asia (Roman province), Assignment (computer science), Assyrian Church of the East, Augustalis (bishop), BASIC, Bede, Book of Common Prayer, Byzantine Empire, Calendar, Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Catholic Church, Celtic Christianity, Charlemagne, Christian Zeller, Christopher Clavius, Church History (Eusebius), Common Era, Coptic calendar, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, CPAN, Crucifixion darkness, Crucifixion of Jesus, Cyril of Alexandria, Dionysius Exiguus, Division (mathematics), Dominical letter, Eanflæd, Easter, Easter controversy, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecclesiastical full moon, Ecclesiastical new moon, Epact, Equinox, Eusebius, First Council of Nicaea, Floor and ceiling functions, Francia, ..., Full moon, Gaul, Golden number (time), Gregorian calendar, Harold Spencer Jones, Hebrew calendar, Hippolytus of Rome, Iberian Peninsula, Inter gravissimas, Intercalation (timekeeping), Iona Abbey, Java (programming language), Jean Meeus, Johannes Kepler, Julian calendar, Kidinnu, Latin, Leavening agent, List of dates for Easter, Lunar calendar, Lunar month, Lunar phase, March equinox, Metonic cycle, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft SQL Server, Middle Ages, Modulo operation, Moveable feast, Multiplication, Nature (journal), New moon, Nisan, Old Farmer's Almanac, Oriental Orthodoxy, Oswiu, Papal bull, Passover, Perl, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, PL/pgSQL, Polycrates of Ephesus, Pope Dionysius of Alexandria, Pope Theophilus of Alexandria, Practical Astronomy with your Calculator, Protestantism, Reform of the date of Easter, Resurrection of Jesus, Revised Julian calendar, Roman Missal, Roman numerals, Rudolphine Tables, Subtraction, Synod of Whitby, The Observatory (journal), Tidal acceleration, Tithi, Tropical year, Victorius of Aquitaine, Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, World Council of Churches. Expand index (61 more) »

Abbo of Fleury

Abbo or Abbon of Fleury (Abbo Floriacensis; – 13 November 1004), also known as Saint Abbo or Abbon, was a monk and abbot of Fleury Abbey in present-day Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire near Orléans, France.

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Act of Uniformity 1662

The Act of Uniformity 1662 (14 Car 2 c 4) is an Act of the Parliament of England.

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Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic; the others are subtraction, multiplication and division.

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Alcuin of York (Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.

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Alexander of Villedieu

Alexander of Villedieu was a French author, teacher and poet, who wrote text books on Latin grammar and arithmetic, everything in verse.

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Anatolius of Laodicea

Anatolius of Laodicea (early 3rd century – July 3, 283), also known as Anatolius of Alexandria, was Bishop of Laodicea on the Mediterranean coast of Roman Syria, and was one of the foremost scholars of his day in the physical sciences as well as in Aristotelean philosophy.

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Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.

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Annianus of Alexandria

Annianus of Alexandria (Annianos) was a monk who flourished in Alexandria during the bishopric of Theophilus of Alexandria around the beginning of the fifth century. He criticized the world history of his contemporary monk Panodorus of Alexandria for relying too much on secular sources rather than biblical sources for his dates. As a result, Annianus developed his own chronology which placed Creation on 25 March 5492 BC. This created the Alexandrian Era whose first day was the first day of the proleptic Alexandrian civil year in progress, 29 August 5493 BC. This year was eleven Paschal cycles of 532 years each before the Alexandrian year beginning 29 August 360, which itself was four 19-year cycles after the epoch of the Diocletian Era on 29 August 284. The former is known as the Era of Grace in the Coptic Church, whereas the latter is known as the Era of Martyrs. He was the first computist to recognize the 532-year cycle of Easters in the Julian calendar. This cycle is often attributed to Victorius of Aquitaine in 457, the first to recognize such a cycle in the West. None of Annianus's writings have survived. He is principally known from the discussion of his works by George Syncellus during the 9th century, though lesser fragments appear elsewhere. Elijah of Nisibis cites him in his 11th-century Chronography.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Arthur Matthew Weld Downing

Arthur Matthew Weld Downing FRAS (13 April 1850 – 8 December 1917) was an Irish mathematician and astronomer.

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Asia (Roman province)

The Roman province of Asia or Asiana (Ἀσία or Ἀσιανή), in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic.

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Assignment (computer science)

In computer programming, an assignment statement sets and/or re-sets the value stored in the storage location(s) denoted by a variable name; in other words, it copies a value into the variable.

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Assyrian Church of the East

The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.

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Augustalis (bishop)

Augustalis (fl. 5th century) was the first bishop of Toulon, according to some authorities.

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BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.

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Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.

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Book of Common Prayer

The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes.

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Calendar (New Style) Act 1750

The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 (c.23) (also known as Chesterfield's Act after Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.

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Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Celtic Christianity

Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.

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Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Christian Zeller

Julius Christian Johannes Zeller (24 June 1822, Mühlhausen am Neckar – 31 May 1899, Cannstatt) was a German mathematician.

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Christopher Clavius

Christopher Clavius (25 March 1538 – 6 February 1612) was a German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who modified the proposal of the modern Gregorian calendar after the death of its primary author, Aloysius Lilius.

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Church History (Eusebius)

The Church History (Ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἱστορία; Historia Ecclesiastica or Historia Ecclesiae) of Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea was a 4th-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the 1st century to the 4th century.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Coptic calendar

The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is a liturgical calendar that was used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and is still used in Egypt.

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Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.

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The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) is a repository of over 250,000 software modules and accompanying documentation for 39,000 distributions, written in the Perl programming language by over 12,000 contributors.

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Crucifixion darkness

The Crucifixion darkness is an episode in three of the canonical gospels in which the sky becomes dark in daytime during the crucifixion of Jesus.

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Crucifixion of Jesus

The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.

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Cyril of Alexandria

Cyril of Alexandria (Κύριλλος Ἀλεξανδρείας; Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲕⲩⲣⲓⲗⲗⲟⲩ ⲁ̅ also ⲡⲓ̀ⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲕⲓⲣⲓⲗⲗⲟⲥ; c. 376 – 444) was the Patriarch of Alexandria from 412 to 444.

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Dionysius Exiguus

Dionysius Exiguus (Latin for "Dionysius the Humble"; –) was a 6th-century monk born in Scythia Minor (probably modern Dobruja, in Romania and Bulgaria).

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Division (mathematics)

Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the others being addition, subtraction, and multiplication.

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Dominical letter

Dominical letters or Sunday letters are a method used to determine the day of the week for particular dates.

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Eanflæd (19 April 626 – after 685, also known as Enfleda) was a Deiran princess, queen of Northumbria and later, the abbess of an influential Christian monastery in Whitby, England.

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Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.

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Easter controversy

The controversy over the correct date for Easter began in Early Christianity as early as the 2nd Century A.D. Discussion and disagreement over the best method of computing the date of Easter Sunday has been ongoing and unresolved for centuries.

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Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Ecclesiastical full moon

An ecclesiastical full moon is formally the 14th day of the ecclesiastical lunar month (an ecclesiastical moon) in an ecclesiastical lunar calendar.

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Ecclesiastical new moon

An ecclesiastical new moon is the first day of a lunar month (an ecclesiastical moon) in an ecclesiastical lunar calendar.

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The epact (Latin epactae, from Greek: epaktai hèmerai.

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An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.

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Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.

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First Council of Nicaea

The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.

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Floor and ceiling functions

In mathematics and computer science, the floor function is the function that takes as input a real number x and gives as output the greatest integer less than or equal to x, denoted \operatorname(x).

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Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.

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Full moon

The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully illuminated from Earth's perspective.

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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Golden number (time)

A golden number (sometimes capitalized) is a number assigned to each year in sequence to indicate the year's position in a 19-year Metonic cycle.

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Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.

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Harold Spencer Jones

Sir Harold Spencer Jones KBE FRS FRSE PRAS (29 March 1890 Kensington, London – 3 November 1960) was an English astronomer.

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Hebrew calendar

The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.

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Hippolytus of Rome

Hippolytus of Rome (170 – 235 AD) was one of the most important 3rd-century theologians in the Christian Church in Rome, where he was probably born.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Inter gravissimas

Inter gravissimas was a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582.

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Intercalation (timekeeping)

Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases.

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Iona Abbey

Iona Abbey is located on the Isle of Iona, just off the Isle of Mull on the West Coast of Scotland.

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Java (programming language)

Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.

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Jean Meeus

Jean Meeus (born 12 December 1928) is a Belgian meteorologist and amateur astronomer specializing in celestial mechanics, spherical and mathematical astronomy.

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Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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Kidinnu (also Kidunnu) (fl. 4th century BC? possibly died 14 August 330 BC) was a Chaldean astronomer and mathematician.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leavening agent

A leaven, often called a leavening agent (and also known as a raising agent), is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens the mixture.

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List of dates for Easter

This is a list of dates for Easter.

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Lunar calendar

A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.

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Lunar month

In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two successive syzygies (new moons or full moons).

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Lunar phase

The lunar phase or phase of the Moon is the shape of the directly sunlit portion of the Moon as viewed from Earth.

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March equinox

The March equinox or Northward equinox is the equinox on the Earth when the subsolar point appears to leave the southern hemisphere and cross the celestial equator, heading northward as seen from Earth.

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Metonic cycle

For astronomy and calendar studies, the Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris (from ἐννεακαιδεκαετηρίς, "nineteen years") is a period of very close to 19 years that is nearly a common multiple of the solar year and the synodic (lunar) month.

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Microsoft Excel

Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet developed by Microsoft for Windows, macOS, Android and iOS.

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Microsoft SQL Server

Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Modulo operation

In computing, the modulo operation finds the remainder after division of one number by another (sometimes called modulus).

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Moveable feast

A moveable feast or movable feast is an observance in a Christian liturgical calendar that occurs on a different date (relative to the dominant civil or solar calendar) in different years.

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Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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New moon

In astronomy, the new moon is the first lunar phase, when the Moon and Sun have the same ecliptic longitude.

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Nisan (or Nissan; נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year.

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Old Farmer's Almanac

The Old Farmer's Almanac is a reference book containing weather forecasts, planting charts, astronomical data, recipes, and articles.

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Oriental Orthodoxy

Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.

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Oswiu, also known as Oswy or Oswig (Ōswīg) (c. 612 – 15 February 670), was King of Bernicia from 642 until his death.

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Papal bull

A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.

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Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.

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Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt

The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is the national metrology institute of the Federal Republic of Germany, with scientific and technical service tasks.

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PL/pgSQL (Procedural Language/PostgreSQL) is a procedural programming language supported by the PostgreSQL ORDBMS.

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Polycrates of Ephesus

Polycrates of Ephesus (Πολυκράτης; fl. c. 130 – 196) was an Early Christian bishop who resided in Ephesus.

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Pope Dionysius of Alexandria

Saint Dionysius of Alexandria, named "the Great," 14th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark from 28 December 248 until his death on 22 March 264, after seventeen years as a bishop.

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Pope Theophilus of Alexandria

Theophilus was the 23rd Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St.

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Practical Astronomy with your Calculator

Practical Astronomy with your Calculator is a book written by Peter Duffett-Smith, a University Lecturer and a Fellow of Downing College.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Reform of the date of Easter

A reform of the date of Easter has been proposed several times because the current system for determining the date of Easter is seen as presenting two significant problems.

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Resurrection of Jesus

The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead: as the Nicene Creed expresses it, "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".

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Revised Julian calendar

The Revised Julian calendar, also known as the Milanković calendar, or, less formally, new calendar, is a calendar proposed by the Serbian scientist Milutin Milanković in 1923, which effectively discontinued the 340 years of divergence between the naming of dates sanctioned by those Eastern Orthodox churches adopting it and the Gregorian calendar that has come to predominate worldwide.

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Roman Missal

The Roman Missal (Missale Romanum) is the liturgical book that contains the texts and rubrics for the celebration of the Mass in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church.

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Roman numerals

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.

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Rudolphine Tables

The Rudolphine Tables (Tabulae Rudolphinae) consist of a star catalogue and planetary tables published by Johannes Kepler in 1627, using some observational data collected by Tycho Brahe (1546–1601).

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Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.

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Synod of Whitby

The Synod of Whitby (664 A.D.) was a Northumbrian synod where King Oswiu of Northumbria ruled that his kingdom would calculate Easter and observe the monastic tonsure according to the customs of Rome, rather than the customs practised by Irish monks at Iona and its satellite institutions.

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The Observatory (journal)

The Observatory is a publication, variously described as a journal, a magazine and a review, devoted to astronomy.

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Tidal acceleration

Tidal acceleration is an effect of the tidal forces between an orbiting natural satellite (e.g. the Moon), and the primary planet that it orbits (e.g. Earth).

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In Vedic timekeeping, a tithi (also spelled thithi) is a lunar day, or the time it takes for the longitudinal angle between the Moon and the Sun to increase by 12°.

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Tropical year

A tropical year (also known as a solar year) is the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice.

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Victorius of Aquitaine

Victorius of Aquitaine, a countryman of Prosper of Aquitaine and also working in Rome, produced in AD 457 an Easter Cycle, which was based on the consular list provided by Prosper's Chronicle.

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Weidmannsche Buchhandlung

Weidmannsche Buchhandlung is a German book publisher established in 1680 that remained independent until it was acquired by Verlag Georg Olms in 1983.

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World Council of Churches

The World Council of Churches (WCC) is a worldwide inter-church organization founded in 1948.

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Calculating the date of Easter, Computing Easter, Date of Easter, Date of easter, Dates for Easter, Easter Algorithm, Easter Problem, Easter algorithm, Easter computus, Easter cycle, Easter date, Easter table, Easter tables, Gauss's Easter algorithm, Paschal calculation, Paschal computation, Paschal table.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computus

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