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Index Conducting

Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert. [1]

157 relations: Aida, Alan Gilbert (conductor), Alondra de la Parra, Anton Bruckner, Art music, Arthur Nikisch, Articulation (music), Arturo Toscanini, Audition, Bachelor of Music, Baltimore Symphony Orchestra, Bar (music), Baroque music, Baton (conducting), Bavarian State Opera, Beat (music), Berlin Philharmonic, Big band, Black conductors, Boston Symphony Orchestra, Bow (music), Brock McElheran, Cambridge University Press, Carl Maria von Weber, Celebrity, Cheironomy, Choir, Christian, Classical music, Concert, Concert band, Concertmaster, Conducting, Conductorless orchestra, Cosima Wagner, Cue note, Dean Dixon, Der Ring des Nibelungen, Dimitri Mitropoulos, Doctor of Musical Arts, Dynamics (music), En saga, Eugene Ormandy, Felix Mendelssohn, Felix Weingartner, Figured bass, François Habeneck, Franz Liszt, Frederik Prausnitz, Fritz Reiner, ..., Gangrene, Giuseppe Verdi, Glass ceiling, Glossary of musical terminology, Gustav Mahler, Hamburg State Opera, Hans von Bülow, Harpsichord, Hector Berlioz, Heinrich Schenker, Henry Lewis (musician), Herbert von Karajan, Historically informed performance, Ictus, Ilya Musin (conductor), James Conlon, James DePreist, James Levine, Jérôme de La Gorce, Jean Sibelius, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Johannes Brahms, Kapellmeister, Kurt Masur, L'Histoire du soldat, Legato, Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, Leipzig Opera, Leonard Bernstein, Leopold Stokowski, List of principal conductors by orchestra, London Symphony Orchestra, Louis Spohr, Louis XIV of France, Louis-Antoine Jullien, Lute, Maestro, Marching band, Marin Alsop, Master of Music, Max Rudolf (conductor), Meiningen Court Orchestra, Melody, Michael Bowles, Michael Morgan (conductor), Middle Ages, Military band, Motion capture, Music, Music director, Music school, Music stand, Music theory, Musical ensemble, Musical notation, Musical phrasing, Musical theatre, Myung-whun Chung, NEA Jazz Masters, New York Philharmonic, Norman Lebrecht, Opera, Orchestra, Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire, Orquestra Sinfônica do Estado de São Paulo, Otto Klemperer, Oxford University Press, Paris Opera, Paul Freeman (conductor), Pedal point, Philharmoniker Hamburg, Piano, Pierre Boulez, Pipe organ, Pit orchestra, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Rehearsal, Resolution (music), Rhythm, Richard Strauss, Richard Wagner, Seiji Ozawa, Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra, Sheet music, Simone Young, Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra, Sound recording and reproduction, Staccato, Staff of office, Symphonic poem, Symphony No. 4 (Brahms), Symphony No. 5 (Beethoven), Symphony No. 9 (Mahler), Synthesizer, Te Deum, Tempo, Terminal degree, The Christian Science Monitor, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, The New York Times, The Proms, Time signature, Vasily Safonov, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Willem Mengelberg, Youth orchestra, Yuri Temirkanov. Expand index (107 more) »


Aida is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Antonio Ghislanzoni.

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Alan Gilbert (conductor)

Alan Gilbert (born February 23, 1967) is an American conductor and violinist.

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Alondra de la Parra

Alondra de la Parra (born October 31, 1980) is a Mexican conductor and the current Music Director of the Queensland Symphony Orchestra, the first female principal conductor of an Australian symphony orchestra.

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Anton Bruckner

Josef Anton Bruckner was an Austrian composer, organist, and music theorist best known for his symphonies, masses, Te Deum and motets.

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Art music

Art music (alternately called classical music, cultivated music, serious music, and canonic music) is music that implies advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques Siron, "Musique Savante (Serious music)", Dictionnaire des mots de la musique (Paris: Outre Mesure): 242.

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Arthur Nikisch

Arthur Nikisch (12 October 185523 January 1922) was a Hungarian conductor who performed internationally, holding posts in Boston, London, Leipzig and—most importantly—Berlin.

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Articulation (music)

In music, articulation is the direction or performance technique which affects the transition or continuity on a single note or between multiple notes or sounds.

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Arturo Toscanini

Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian conductor.

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An audition is a sample performance by an actor, singer, musician, dancer or other performer.

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Bachelor of Music

Bachelor of Music is an academic degree awarded by a college, university, or conservatory upon completion of a program of study in music.

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Baltimore Symphony Orchestra

The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra is an American symphony orchestra based in Baltimore, Maryland.

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Bar (music)

In musical notation, a bar (or measure) is a segment of time corresponding to a specific number of beats in which each beat is represented by a particular note value and the boundaries of the bar are indicated by vertical bar lines.

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Baroque music

Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.

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Baton (conducting)

A baton is a stick that is used by conductors primarily to enlarge and enhance the manual and bodily movements associated with directing an ensemble of musicians.

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Bavarian State Opera

The Bavarian State Opera (German) is an opera company based in Munich, Germany.

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Beat (music)

In music and music theory, the beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse (regularly repeating event), of the mensural level (or beat level).

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Berlin Philharmonic

The Berlin Philharmonic (Berliner Philharmoniker) is a German orchestra based in Berlin.

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Big band

A big band is a type of musical ensemble that usually consists of ten or more musicians with four sections: saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and a rhythm section.

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Black conductors

Black conductors are musicians of African, Caribbean, African-American ancestry and other members of the African diaspora who are musical ensemble leaders who direct classical music performances, such as an orchestral or choral concerts, or jazz ensemble big band concerts by way of visible gestures with the hands, arms, face and head.

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Boston Symphony Orchestra

The Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO) is an American orchestra based in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Bow (music)

In music, a bow is a tensioned stick with hair affixed to it that is moved across some part of a musical instrument to cause vibration, which the instrument emits as sound.

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Brock McElheran

Brock McElheran (6 January 1918 – 23 September 2008) was a conductor and professor at the Crane School of Music at SUNY Potsdam and a published author.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (18 or 19 November 1786 5 June 1826) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, and was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.

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Celebrity refers to the fame and public attention accorded by the mass media to individuals or groups or, occasionally, animals, but is usually applied to the persons or groups of people (celebrity couples, families, etc.) themselves who receive such a status of fame and attention.

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Cheironomy (or Chironomy) is a form of conduction where the use of hand gestures directs musical performance.

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A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Classical music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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A concert is a live music performance in front of an audience.

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Concert band

A concert band, also called wind ensemble, symphonic band, wind symphony, wind orchestra, wind band, symphonic winds, symphony band, or symphonic wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of members of the woodwind, brass, and percussion families of instruments, along with the double bass or bass guitar.

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The Concertmaster (from the German Konzertmeister) in the U.S. and Canada is the leader of the first violin section in an orchestra (or clarinet in a concert band) and the instrument-playing leader of the orchestra.

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Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert.

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Conductorless orchestra

The conductorless orchestra, sometimes referred to as a self-conducted orchestra or unconducted orchestra, is an instrumental ensemble that functions as an orchestra but is not led or directed by a conductor.

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Cosima Wagner

Cosima Wagner (born Francesca Gaetana Cosima Liszt; 24 December 1837 – 1 April 1930) was the illegitimate daughter of the Hungarian pianist and composer Franz Liszt and Marie d'Agoult.

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Cue note

In musical notation, a cue note is or cue notes are indications informing players, "of important passages being played by other instruments, entrance after a long period of rest."McGrain, Mark (1990).

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Dean Dixon

Charles Dean Dixon (January 10, 1915November 3, 1976) was an American conductor.

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Der Ring des Nibelungen

(The Ring of the Nibelung), WWV 86, is a cycle of four German-language epic music dramas composed by Richard Wagner.

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Dimitri Mitropoulos

Dimitri Mitropoulos (Δημήτρης Μητρόπουλος; – 2 November 1960), was a Greek conductor, pianist, and composer.

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Doctor of Musical Arts

The Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) is a doctoral academic degree in music.

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Dynamics (music)

In music, the dynamics of a piece is the variation in loudness between notes or phrases.

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En saga

En saga (English translation: A fairy tale or A saga) is a tone poem written by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius in 1892.

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Eugene Ormandy

Eugene Ormandy (born Jenő Blau; November 18, 1899 – March 12, 1985) was an Hungarian-American conductor and violinist, best known for his association with the Philadelphia Orchestra, as its music director.

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Felix Mendelssohn

Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (3 February 1809 4 November 1847), born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early romantic period.

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Felix Weingartner

Paul Felix Weingartner, Edler von Münzberg (2 June 1863 – 7 May 1942) was an Austrian conductor, composer and pianist.

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Figured bass

Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals) indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones that a musician playing piano, harpsichord, organ, lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords) play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below.

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François Habeneck

François Antoine Habeneck (22 January 1781 – 8 February 1849) was a French classical violinist and conductor.

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Franz Liszt

Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.

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Frederik Prausnitz

Frederik William Prausnitz (August 26, 1920 in Cologne – November 12, 2004 in Lewes, Delaware) was a German-born American conductor and teacher.

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Fritz Reiner

Frederick Martin "Fritz" Reiner (December 19, 1888 – November 15, 1963) was a prominent conductor of opera and symphonic music in the twentieth century.

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Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply.

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Giuseppe Verdi

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.

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Glass ceiling

A glass ceiling is a metaphor used to represent an invisible barrier that keeps a given demographic (typically applied to minorities) from rising beyond a certain level in a hierarchy.

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Glossary of musical terminology

This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores, music reviews, and program notes.

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Gustav Mahler

Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation.

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Hamburg State Opera

The Hamburg State Opera (in German: Hamburgische Staatsoper) is a Germany opera company based in Hamburg.

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Hans von Bülow

Baron Hans Guido von Bülow (January 8, 1830February 12, 1894) was a German conductor, virtuoso pianist, and composer of the Romantic era.

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A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.

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Hector Berlioz

Louis-Hector Berlioz; 11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique, Harold en Italie, Roméo et Juliette, Grande messe des morts (Requiem), L'Enfance du Christ, Benvenuto Cellini, La Damnation de Faust, and Les Troyens. Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and conducted several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 compositions for voice, accompanied by piano or orchestra. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, and Gustav Mahler.

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Heinrich Schenker

Heinrich Schenker (19 June 1868, Wiśniowczyk – 14 January 1935, Vienna) was a music theorist, music critic, teacher, pianist, and composer, best known for his approach to musical analysis, now usually called Schenkerian analysis.

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Henry Lewis (musician)

Henry Jay Lewis (October 16, 1932 – January 26, 1996) was an African-American double-bassist and orchestral conductor.

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Herbert von Karajan

Herbert von Karajan (born Heribert Ritter von Karajan; 5 April 1908 – 16 July 1989) was an Austrian conductor.

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Historically informed performance

Historically informed performance (also referred to as period performance, authentic performance, or HIP) is an approach to the performance of classical music, which aims to be faithful to the approach, manner and style of the musical era in which a work was originally conceived.

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Ictus may refer to.

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Ilya Musin (conductor)

Ilya Aleksandrovich Musin (p; – 6 June 1999) was a Russian conductor, a prominent teacher and a theorist of conducting.

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James Conlon

James Conlon (born March 18, 1950) is an American conductor of opera, and symphonic and choral works.

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James DePreist

James Anderson DePreist (November 21, 1936 – February 8, 2013) was an American conductor.

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James Levine

James Lawrence Levine (born June 23, 1943) is an American conductor and pianist.

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Jérôme de La Gorce

Jérôme de La Gorce (born 1951 in Paris) is a French art historian and musicologist.

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Jean Sibelius

Jean Sibelius, born Johan Julius Christian Sibelius (8 December 186520 September 1957), was a Finnish composer and violinist of the late Romantic and early-modern periods.

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Jean-Baptiste Lully

Jean-Baptiste Lully (born Giovanni Battista Lulli,; 28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687) was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France.

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Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period.

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Kapellmeister is a German word designating a person in charge of music-making.

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Kurt Masur

Kurt Masur (18 July 1927 – 19 December 2015) was a German conductor.

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L'Histoire du soldat

(The Soldier's Tale) is a theatrical work "to be read, played, and danced" by three actors and one or several dancers, accompanied by a septet of instruments.

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In music performance and notation, legato (Italian for "tied together"; French lié; German gebunden) indicates that musical notes are played or sung smoothly and connected.

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Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra

The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra (Gewandhausorchester; also previously known in German as the Gewandhausorchester Leipzig) is a German symphony orchestra based in Leipzig, Germany.

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Leipzig Opera

The Leipzig Opera (in German) is an opera house and opera company located at the Augustusplatz in Leipzig, Germany.

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Leonard Bernstein

Leonard Bernstein (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist.

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Leopold Stokowski

Leopold Anthony Stokowski (18 April 188213 September 1977) was an English conductor of Polish and Irish descent.

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List of principal conductors by orchestra

This is a non-exhaustive list of principal conductors by orchestra, classified by country and by city.

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London Symphony Orchestra

The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO), founded in 1904, is the oldest of London's symphony orchestras.

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Louis Spohr

Louis Spohr (5 April 178422 October 1859), baptized Ludewig Spohr, later often in the modern German form of the name Ludwig, was a German composer, violinist and conductor.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Louis-Antoine Jullien

Louis-Antoine Jullien (23 April 181214 March 1860) was a French conductor and composer of light music.

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A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.

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Maestro (from the Italian maestro, meaning "master" or "teacher") is an honorific title of respect (plural: maestri, feminine: maestra).

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Marching band

A marching band is a group in which instrumental musicians perform while marching, often for entertainment or competition.

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Marin Alsop

Marin Alsop (born October 16, 1956) is an American conductor and violinist.

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Master of Music

The Master of Music (M.M. or M.Mus.) is, as an academic title, the first graduate degree in Music awarded by universities and conservatories.

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Max Rudolf (conductor)

Max Rudolf (June 15, 1902 — February 28, 1995) was a German conductor and music institute teacher.

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Meiningen Court Orchestra

The Meiningen Court Orchestra (Meininger Hofkapelle) is one of the oldest and most traditional orchestras in Europe.

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A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.

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Michael Bowles

Michael Andrew Bowles (30 November 1909 – 6 April 1998) was an Irish conductor and composer, who was also active in New Zealand, the USA, and England.

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Michael Morgan (conductor)

Michael Morgan (born September 1957 in Washington, D.C.) is an American conductor.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Military band

A military band is a group of personnel that performs musical duties for military functions, usually for the armed forces.

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Motion capture

Motion capture (Mo-cap for short) is the process of recording the movement of objects or people.

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Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.

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Music director

A music director, musical director, or director of music may be the director of an orchestra or concert band, the director of music for a film, the director of music at a radio station, the head of the music department in a school, the coordinator of the musical ensembles in a university, college, or institution (but not usually the head of the academic music department), the head bandmaster of a military band, the head organist and choirmaster of a church, or an Organist and Master of the Choristers (a title given to a Director of Music at a cathedral, particularly in England).

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Music school

A music school is an educational institution specialized in the study, training, and research of music.

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Music stand

A music stand is a pedestal or elevated rack designed to hold a paper score or sheets of music in position for reading.

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Music theory

Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.

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Musical ensemble

A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name.

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Musical notation

Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.

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Musical phrasing

Musical phrasing refers to the way a musician shapes a sequence of notes in a passage of music to express an emotion or impression.

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Musical theatre

Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance.

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Myung-whun Chung

Myung-whun Chung (born 22 January 1953, Seoul) is a South Korean pianist and conductor.

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NEA Jazz Masters

The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), every year honors up to seven jazz musicians with Jazz Master Awards.

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New York Philharmonic

The New York Philharmonic, officially the Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York, Inc., globally known as New York Philharmonic Orchestra (NYPO) or New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, is a symphony orchestra based in New York City in the United States.

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Norman Lebrecht

Norman Lebrecht (born 11 July 1948 in London) is a British commentator on music and cultural affairs, a novelist, and the author of the classical music blog Slipped Disc.

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Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.

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An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.

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Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire

The Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire was a symphony orchestra established in Paris in 1828.

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Orquestra Sinfônica do Estado de São Paulo

The Orquestra Sinfônica do Estado de São Paulo (OSESP; São Paulo State Symphony Orchestra) is a Brazilian symphony orchestra based in São Paulo.

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Otto Klemperer

Otto Nossan Klemperer (14 May 18856 July 1973) was a Jewish German-born conductor and composer, described as "the last of the few really great conductors of his generation.".

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paris Opera

The Paris Opera (French) is the primary opera company of France.

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Paul Freeman (conductor)

Paul Douglas Freeman (January 2, 1936 – July 21, 2015) was an American conductor, born in Richmond, Virginia.

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Pedal point

In music, a pedal point (also pedal tone, pedal note, organ point, or pedal) is a sustained tone, typically in the bass, during which at least one foreign, i.e., dissonant harmony is sounded in the other parts.

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Philharmoniker Hamburg

The Philharmonisches Staatsorchester Hamburg (Hamburg Philharmonic State Orchestra) is an internationally renowned symphony orchestra based in Hamburg.

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The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers.

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Pierre Boulez

Pierre Louis Joseph Boulez CBE (26 March 1925 – 5 January 2016) was a French composer, conductor, writer and founder of institutions.

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Pipe organ

The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through organ pipes selected via a keyboard.

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Pit orchestra

A pit orchestra is a type of orchestra that accompanies performers in musicals, operas, ballets and other shows involving music.

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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.

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A rehearsal is an activity in the performing arts that occurs as preparation for a performance in music, theatre, dance and related arts, such as opera, musical theatre and film production.

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Resolution (music)

Resolution in western tonal music theory is the move of a note or chord from dissonance (an unstable sound) to a consonance (a more final or stable sounding one).

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Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".

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Richard Strauss

Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.

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Richard Wagner

Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").

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Seiji Ozawa

is a Japanese conductor known for his advocacy of modern composers and for his work with the San Francisco Symphony, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, and the Boston Symphony Orchestra.

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Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra

The Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra (SPO), founded in 1948, is one of the oldest and most famous orchestras in South Korea.

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Sheet music

Sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols to indicate the pitches (melodies), rhythms or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece.

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Simone Young

Simone Margaret Young AM (born 2 March 1961) is an Australian conductor.

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Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra

The Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra (SJMO) is the national jazz orchestra of the United States.

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Sound recording and reproduction

Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.

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Staccato (Italian for "detached") is a form of musical articulation.

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Staff of office

A staff of office is a staff, the carrying of which often denotes an official's position, a social rank or a degree of social prestige.

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Symphonic poem

A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, usually in a single continuous movement, which illustrates or evokes the content of a poem, short story, novel, painting, landscape, or other (non-musical) source.

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Symphony No. 4 (Brahms)

The Symphony No.

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Symphony No. 5 (Beethoven)

The Symphony No.

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Symphony No. 9 (Mahler)

Symphony No.

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A synthesizer (often abbreviated as synth, also spelled synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones.

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Te Deum

The Te Deum (also known as Ambrosian Hymn or A Song of the Church) is an early Christian hymn of praise.

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In musical terminology, tempo ("time" in Italian; plural: tempi) is the speed or pace of a given piece.

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Terminal degree

A terminal degree is a university degree that can signify one of two outcomes.

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The Christian Science Monitor

The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.

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The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians

The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Proms

The Proms is an eight-week summer season of daily orchestral classical music concerts and other events held annually, predominantly in the Royal Albert Hall in central London.

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Time signature

The time signature (also known as meter signature, metre signature, or measure signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats (pulses) are to be contained in each measure (bar) and which note value is equivalent to one beat.

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Vasily Safonov

Vasily Ilyich Safonov (Васи́лий Ильи́ч Сафо́нов, Vasi'lij Ilji'č Safo'nov; 6 February 185227 February 1918), also known as Wassily Safonoff, was a Russian pianist, teacher, conductor and composer.

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Wilhelm Furtwängler

Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer.

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Willem Mengelberg

Joseph Willem Mengelberg (28 March 1871 – 21 March 1951) was a Dutch conductor, famous for his performances of Mahler and Strauss with the Concertgebouw Orchestra.

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Youth orchestra

A youth orchestra is an orchestra made of young musicians, typically ranging from pre-teens or teenagers to those in their mid-20s.

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Yuri Temirkanov

Yuri Khatuevich Temirkanov (Ю́рий Хату́евич Темирка́нов; Темыркъан Юрий; born December 10, 1938) is a Russian conductor of Circassian (Kabardian) origin.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conducting

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