46 relations: Afterimage, Aphakia, Bipolar neuron, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cilium, Color blindness, Color vision, Cone, Cone dystrophy, Cornea, Disc shedding, Double cone (biology), Fovea centralis, Human eye, Inner plexiform layer, Lens (anatomy), Light, Macula of retina, Mammal, Melanopsin, Micrometre, Mitochondrion, Nanometre, Neural adaptation, Neuroscience Information Framework, Opponent process, Organelle, Phagocytosis, Photobleaching, Photopsin, Photoreceptor cell, Protein, Responsivity, Retina, Retina bipolar cell, Retinoblastoma, RG color space, Rod cell, Stiles–Crawford effect, Synapse, Tetrachromacy, The Independent, Transmembrane protein, Trichromacy, Ultraviolet.
An afterimage is an image that continues to appear in one's vision after the exposure to the original image has ceased.
Aphakia is the absence of the lens of the eye, due to surgical removal, a perforating wound or ulcer, or congenital anomaly.
A bipolar neuron or bipolar cell, is a type of neuron which has two extensions.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.
A cone dystrophy is an inherited ocular disorder characterized by the loss of cone cells, the photoreceptors responsible for both central and color vision.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
Disc shedding is the process by which photoreceptors in the eye are renewed.
Double cones (DCs), known as twin cones when the two members are the same, are two cone cells (colour detecting photoreceptors) joined together that may also be coupled optically/electrically.
The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
The inner plexiform layer is an area of the retina that is made up of a dense reticulum of fibrils formed by interlaced dendrites of retinal ganglion cells and cells of the inner nuclear layer.
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye and some other animalian eyes.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Neural adaptation or sensory adaptation is a change over time in the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus.
The Neuroscience Information Framework is a repository of global neuroscience web resources, including experimental, clinical, and translational neuroscience databases, knowledge bases, atlases, and genetic/genomic resources and provides many authoritative links throughout the neuroscience portal of Wikipedia.
The color opponent process is a color theory that states that the human visual system interprets information about color by processing signals from cones and rods in an antagonistic manner.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
In optics, photobleaching (sometimes termed fading) is the photochemical alteration of a dye or a fluorophore molecule such that it permanently is unable to fluoresce.
Photopsins (also known as Cone opsins) are the photoreceptor proteins found in the cone cells of the retina that are the basis of color vision.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Responsivity measures the input–output gain of a detector system.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
As a part of the retina, bipolar cells exist between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells.
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a rare form of cancer that rapidly develops from the immature cells of a retina, the light-detecting tissue of the eye.
The RG or red-green color space is a color space that uses only two colors, red and green.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
The Stiles–Crawford effect (subdivided into the Stiles–Crawford effect of the first and second kind) is a property of the human eye that refers to the directional sensitivity of the cone photoreceptors.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Tetrachromacy is the condition of possessing four independent channels for conveying color information, or possessing four types of cone cells in the eye.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.
Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Color receptors, Colour receptors, Cone (cell), Cone (eye), Cone (retina), Cone (vision), Cone cells, Cone photoreceptor, Cones (eye), Cones (eyes), Cones (retina), Retina cone cell, Retinal cone, Retinal cones.