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Ambrose Powell Hill, Jr. (November 9, 1825April 2, 1865) was a Confederate general who was killed in the American Civil War.
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
The Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves of 1807 (enacted March 2, 1807) is a United States federal law that stated that no new slaves were permitted to be imported into the United States.
Adventism is a branch of Protestant Christianity which was started in the United States during the Second Great Awakening when Baptist preacher William Miller first publicly shared his belief that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ would occur at some point between 1843 and 1844.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The State of Alabama was central to the Civil War, with the secession convention at Montgomery, birthplace of the Confederacy, inviting other states to form a Southern Republic, during January-March 1861, and develop constitutions to legally run their own affairs.
The Alabama State Capitol, listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the First Confederate Capitol, is the state capitol building for Alabama.
Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) served as a general in three different armies: the Texian (''i.e.'' Republic of Texas) Army, the United States Army, and the Confederate States Army.
Alexander Hamilton Stephens (born February 11, 1812 – March 4, 1883) was an American politician who served as the 50th Governor of Georgia from 1882 until his death in 1883.
Alexander Mosby Clayton (January 15, 1801 – September 30, 1889) was an American politician who served as a Deputy from Mississippi to the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States from February to May 1861.
Alexander Peter Stewart (October 2, 1821 – August 30, 1908) was a career United States Army officer, college professor, and a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
Alexandria is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Alfred L. Brophy is an American legal scholar.
Joseph Allan Nevins (May 20, 1890 – March 5, 1971) was an American historian and journalist, known for his extensive work on the history of the Civil War and his biographies of such figures as Grover Cleveland, Hamilton Fish, Henry Ford, and John D. Rockefeller, as well as his public service.
Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American soldier, railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a United States Senator.
Ambrose Dudley Mann (April 26, 1801 – November 15, 1889) was the first United States Assistant Secretary of State and a commissioner for the Confederate States of America.
Amelia Island, in Nassau County, Florida, is the southernmost of the Sea Islands, a chain of barrier islands stretching along the east coast of the United States from South Carolina to Florida.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
American Civil War Prison Camps were operated by both the Union and the Confederacy to handle the 409,000 soldiers captured during the war from 1861 to 1865.
The Amnesty Act of May 22, 1872 was a United States federal law which reversed most of the penalties imposed on former Confederates by the Fourteenth Amendment.
Andersonville is a city in Sumter County, Georgia, United States.
Andrew Gordon Magrath (February 8, 1813 – April 9, 1893) was the last Confederate Governor of South Carolina from 1864 to 1865, having previously been a United States federal judge.
Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837.
Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.
The Appomattox Court House National Historical Park is a National Historical Park of original and reconstructed 19th century buildings in Appomattox County, Virginia.
During the American Civil War, Arkansas was a Confederate state, though it had initially voted to remain in the Union.
The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.
General Sir Arthur James Lyon Fremantle (11 November 1835 – 25 September 1901) was a British Army officer and a notable British witness to the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War.
Asa Biggs (February 4, 1811March 6, 1878) was a North Carolina politician who held a number of positions.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
The city of Atlanta, Georgia, in Fulton County, was an important rail and commercial center during the American Civil War.
Augusta, officially Augusta–Richmond County, is a consolidated city-county on the central eastern border of the U.S. state of Georgia.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
The Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War, fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, near Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek.
The Battle of Big Bethel was one of the earliest land battles of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War (1861–1865), and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign.
The Battle of Cherbourg, or sometimes the Battle off Cherbourg or the Sinking of CSS Alabama, was a single-ship action fought during the American Civil War between a United States Navy warship, the USS ''Kearsarge'', and a Confederate States Navy warship, the CSS ''Alabama'', on June 19, 1864, off Cherbourg, France.
The Battle of Fort Donelson was fought from February 12–16, 1862, in the Western Theater of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Fort Henry was fought on February 6, 1862, in western Middle Tennessee, during the American Civil War.
The Battle of Fort Pillow, which ended with the Fort Pillow massacre, was fought on April 12, 1864, at Fort Pillow on the Mississippi River in Henning, Tennessee, during the American Civil War.
The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12–13, 1861) was the bombardment of Fort Sumter near Charleston, South Carolina by the Confederate States Army, and the return gunfire and subsequent surrender by the United States Army, that started the American Civil War.
The Battle of Fredericksburg was fought December 11–15, 1862, in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, between General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General Ambrose Burnside, as part of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Gettysburg (with an sound) was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War.
The Battle of Hampton Roads, often referred to as either the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack (or Virginia) or the Battle of Ironclads, was the most noted and arguably most important naval battle of the American Civil War from the standpoint of the development of navies.
The Battle of Island Number Ten was an engagement at the New Madrid or Kentucky Bend on the Mississippi River during the American Civil War, lasting from February 28 to April 8, 1862.
The Battle of Mobile Bay of August 5, 1864 was an engagement of the American Civil War in which a Union fleet commanded by Rear Admiral David G. Farragut, assisted by a contingent of soldiers, attacked a smaller Confederate fleet led by Admiral Franklin Buchanan and three forts that guarded the entrance to Mobile Bay.
The Battle of Nashville was a two-day battle in the Franklin-Nashville Campaign that represented the end of large-scale fighting west of the coastal states in the American Civil War.
The Battle of New Bern (also known as the Battle of New Berne) was fought on 14 March 1862, near the city of New Bern, North Carolina, as part of the Burnside Expedition of the American Civil War.
The Battle of New Orleans was a series of engagements fought between December 14, 1814 and January 18, 1815, constituting the last major battle of the War of 1812.
The opening phase of what came to be called the Burnside Expedition, the Battle of Roanoke Island was an amphibious operation of the American Civil War, fought on February 7–8, 1862, in the North Carolina Sounds a short distance south of the Virginia border.
The Battle of Shiloh (also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing) was a battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6–7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee.
The Battle of Stones River (also known as the Second Battle of Murfreesboro) was a battle fought from December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, in Middle Tennessee, as the culmination of the Stones River Campaign in the Western Theater of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Wilmington was fought February 11–22, 1865, during the American Civil War, mostly outside the city of Wilmington, North Carolina.
The Battle of Wilson's Creek, also known as the Battle of Oak Hills, was the first major battle of the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War.
Bell Irvin Wiley (January 5, 1906 in Halls, Tennessee – April 4, 1980 in Atlanta, Georgia) was an American historian who specialized in the American Civil War, and was an authority on military history and the social history of common people.
A belligerent (lat. bellum gerere, "to wage war") is an individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat.
Benjamin Franklin Perry (November 20, 1805December 3, 1886) was the 72nd Governor of South Carolina, appointed by President Andrew Johnson in 1865 after the end of the American Civil War.
During the first half of the nineteenth century, as many as one million enslaved Africans were transported through sales in the domestic slave trade to the Deep South in a forced migration to work as laborers for the region's cotton plantations.
The term black church or African-American church refers to Protestant churches that currently or historically have ministered to predominantly black congregations in the United States.
The blockade runners of the American Civil War were seagoing steam ships that were used to make their way through the Union blockade that extended some along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastlines and the lower Mississippi River.
The Bonnie Blue Flag was an unofficial banner of the Confederate States of America at the start of the American Civil War in 1861.
In the context of the American Civil War (1861–65), the border states were slave states that did not declare a secession from the Union and did not join the Confederacy.
Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a senior officer of the Confederate States Army who was assigned to duty at Richmond, under direction of the President of the Confederate States of America, Jefferson Davis, and charged with the conduct of military operations of the armies of the Confederate States from February 24, 1864 until January 13, 1865, when he was charged with command and defense of Wilmington, North Carolina.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Burton Allen Holder (born between January 16 and March 16, 1843 – 1920) gained fame as a soldier in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
C.S.A.: The Confederate States of America is a 2004 American mockumentary that is directed by Kevin Willmott.
The Cabinet of the Confederate States existed from February 18, 1861 to May 10, 1865.
California's involvement in the American Civil War included sending gold east, recruiting volunteer combat units to replace regular forces in territories of the Western United States, maintaining and building numerous camps and fortifications, suppressing secessionist activity (many of these secessionists went east to fight for the Confederacy) and securing the New Mexico Territory against the Confederacy.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Camille Armand Jules Marie, Prince de Polignac (February 16, 1832 – November 15, 1913) was a French nobleman who served with the Confederates in the American Civil War, living on to become the last surviving Confederate major-general.
The capture of New Orleans (April 25 – May 1, 1862) during the American Civil War was an important event for the Union.
The Carolinas Campaign was the final campaign in the Western Theater of the American Civil War.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Charles Francis Adams Sr. (August 18, 1807 – November 21, 1886) was an American historical editor, writer, politician, and diplomat.
Charles Frédéric Girard (8 March 1822 – 29 January 1895) was a French biologist specializing in ichthyology and herpetology.
Charles Pierce Roland (born April 8, 1918) is an American historian and professor emeritus of the University of Kentucky whose research specialty is in the fields of the American South and the Civil War.
Charles William Field (April 6, 1828 – April 9, 1892) was a career military officer, serving in the United States Army and then, during the American Civil War, in the Confederate States Army.
Charleston, South Carolina, was a hotbed of secession at the start of the American Civil War and an important Atlantic Ocean port city for the fledgling Confederate States of America.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Charleston is the most populous city in, and the capital of, the U.S. state of West Virginia.
The Charlotte Mint was the first United States branch mint.
Charlotte is the most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
The Chattanooga Campaign was a series of maneuvers and battles in October and November 1863, during the American Civil War.
Cheat Mountain is an exceptionally high and rugged ridge situated in the Allegheny Mountains of eastern West Virginia, USA.
The Cherokee (translit or translit) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
The Cherokee Nation (ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, pronounced Tsalagihi Ayeli) from 1794–1907 was a legal, autonomous, tribal government in North America recognized from 1794 to 1907.
The Chickasaw are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands.
The Choctaw (in the Choctaw language, Chahta)Common misspellings and variations in other languages include Chacta, Tchakta and Chocktaw.
Christian fundamentalism began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among British and American Protestants at merriam-webster.com.
Christopher Gustavus Memminger (born Christoph Gustav Memminger; January 9, 1803 – March 7, 1888) was a German-born American politician and one of the founding fathers of the Confederate States.
Church attendance is a central religious practice for many Christians; some Christian denominations, such as the Catholic Church require church attendance on the Lord's Day (Sunday); the Westminster Confession of Faith is held by the Reformed Churches and teaches first-day Sabbatarianism, thus proclaiming the duty of public worship in keeping with the Ten Commandments.
Churches of Christ are autonomous Christian congregations associated with one another through distinct beliefs and practices.
City Point was a town in Prince George County, Virginia that was annexed by the independent city of Hopewell in 1923.
Clement A. Evans (born Clement Anselm Evans; February 25, 1833 – July 2, 1911) was a Confederate army infantry general in the American Civil War.
Columbus is a consolidated city-county in the west central U.S. state of Georgia.
Commandant is a title often given to the officer in charge of a military (or other uniformed service) training establishment or academy.
The commemoration of the American Civil War is based on the memories of the Civil War that Americans have shaped according to their political, social and cultural circumstances and needs, starting with the Gettysburg Address and the dedication of the Gettysburg cemetery in 1863.
The Commemoration of the American Civil War on postage stamps concerns both the actual stamps and covers used during the American Civil War, and the later postage celebrations.
The Commerce Clause describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3).
The Compromise of 1877 was an informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election.
The Confederados were some 10,000 to 20,000 Confederate American refugees who fled to Brazil, chiefly to the state of São Paulo, from the Southern United States after the American Civil War.
Confederate Arizona, officially the Territory of Arizona, and also known as Arizona Territory, was a territory claimed by the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, between 1861 and 1865.
Confederate colonies were made up of refugees from the Confederate States of America who fled the United States after the Union won the American Civil War (1861–1865).
The Confederate government of Kentucky was a shadow government established for the Commonwealth of Kentucky by a self-constituted group of Confederate sympathizers during the American Civil War.
The Confederate government of Missouri was a shadow government, established for the state of Missouri by pro-Confederate Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson and other Southern sympathizers, during the American Civil War.
The Confederate Patent Office was the agency of the Confederate States of America charged with issuing patents on inventions.
The individual Confederate States of America issued many denominations of banknotes during the American Civil War.
The Confederate States Army (C.S.A.) was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865).
The Attorney General of the Confederate States of America was a member of the Confederate cabinet.
The Confederate States Constitution, formally the Constitution of the Confederate States of America, was the supreme law of the Confederate States, as adopted on March 11, 1861, and in effect from February 22, 1862, through the conclusion of the American Civil War.
The Confederate States of America dollar was first issued just before the outbreak of the American Civil War by the newly formed Confederacy.
The Confederate States Marine Corps (CSMC) was a branch of the Confederate States armed forces during the American Civil War.
The Navy of the Confederate States (CSN) was the naval branch of the Confederate States Armed Forces, established by an act of the Confederate States Congress on February 21, 1861.
The Confederate States presidential election of 1861 was the only presidential election held under the Permanent Constitution of the Confederate States of America.
The Confederate States Secretary of State was the head of the Confederate States State Department from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War.
The Confederate States Secretary of the Navy was the head of the Confederate States Department of the Navy.
The Confederate States Secretary of the Treasury was the head of the Confederate States Department of the Treasury.
The Confederate States Secretary of War was a member of the Confederate States President's Cabinet during the American Civil War.
Confederate war finance was the various means, fiscal and monetary, through which the Confederate States of America financed their war effort during the American Civil War.
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
The Confederate States Congress was both the provisional and "permanent" legislative assembly of the Confederate States of America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Cooperationists were a group formed in the United States in the 1860s.
Cornell Law School is the law school of Cornell University, a private Ivy League university located in Ithaca, New York.
The Cornerstone Speech, also known as the Cornerstone Address, was an oration delivered by Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens at the Athenaeum in Savannah, Georgia, on March 21, 1861.
The Corwin Amendment is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution that would shield "domestic institutions" of the states (which in 1861 included slavery) from the constitutional amendment process and from abolition or interference by Congress.
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish.
CSS Alabama was a screw sloop-of-war built in 1862 for the Confederate States Navy at Birkenhead on the River Mersey opposite Liverpool, England by John Laird Sons and Company.
CSS Albemarle was a steam-powered ironclad ram of the Confederate Navy (and later the second Albemarle of the United States Navy), named for a town and a sound in North Carolina.
CSS Savannah was a Richmond-class casemate ironclad in the Confederate States Navy during the American Civil War.
CSS Shenandoah, formerly Sea King, was an iron-framed, teak-planked, full-rigged sailing ship with auxiliary steam power chiefly known for her adventures under Lieutenant Commander James Waddell as part of the Confederate States Navy during the American Civil War.
CSS Virginia was the first steam-powered ironclad warship built by the Confederate States Navy during the first year of the American Civil War; she was constructed as a casemate ironclad using the raised and cut down original lower hull and engines of the scuttled steam frigate.
The Dahlonega Mint was a former branch of the United States Mint built during the Georgia Gold Rush to help the miners get their gold assayed and minted, without having to travel to the Philadelphia Mint.
The city of Dahlonega is the county seat of Lumpkin County, Georgia, United States.
Daniel Harvey Hill (July 12, 1821September 24, 1889) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War and a Southern scholar.
Daniel Ringo (October 27, 1803 – September 3, 1873) was a United States federal judge in Arkansas who sided with the Confederacy during the American Civil War.
Danville is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States, located on the fall line of the Dan River.
David Dixon Porter (June 8, 1813 – February 13, 1891) was a United States Navy admiral and a member of one of the most distinguished families in the history of the U.S. Navy.
David Glasgow Farragut (also spelled Glascoe; July 5, 1801 – August 14, 1870) was a flag officer of the United States Navy during the American Civil War.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
Deo vindice, meaning (With) God (as our) defender/protector (see:la:Deo vindice) was the national motto of the Confederate States.
The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).
Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era in the United States of America was based on a series of laws, new constitutions, and practices in the South that were deliberately used to prevent black citizens from registering to vote and voting.
"Dixie," also known as "Dixie's Land," "I Wish I Was in Dixie," and other titles, is a popular song in the Southern United States.
Catharine Drew Gilpin Faust (born September 18, 1947) is an American historian and the 28th President of Harvard University, the first woman to serve in that role.
Drewry's Bluff is located in northeastern Chesterfield County, Virginia in the United States.
Ellis Merton Coulter (1890–1981) was an American historian of the South, author, and a founding member of the Southern Historical Association.
Earl Van Dorn (September 17, 1820May 7, 1863) was a career United States Army officer and great-nephew of Andrew Jackson, fighting with distinction during the Mexican–American War and against several tribes of Native Americans.
East Tennessee comprises approximately the eastern third of the U.S. state of Tennessee, one of the three Grand Divisions of Tennessee defined in state law.
Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career United States Army officer who fought in the Mexican-American War.
Edward Alfred Pollard (February 27, 1832 – December 17, 1872) was a Virginian journalist and author.
Edward Carrington Elmore (about 1826 – death date unknown, likely 1926) served as the Treasurer of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.
Edward "Allegheny" Johnson (April 16, 1816 – March 2, 1873) was a United States Army officer and Confederate general in the American Civil War.
Edward Porter Alexander (May 26, 1835 – April 28, 1910) was a military engineer, railroad executive, planter, and author.
Edwin Warren Moïse (1810–1868) was an American medical doctor and Judge in the Confederate States of America.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elias Cornelius Boudinot (Cherokee) (August 1, 1835 – September 27, 1890) was an attorney, politician and military officer in the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.
Emory Thomas (born November 3, 1939 in Richmond, Virginia) is a History Professor Emeritus at the University of Georgia and noted scholar of the American Civil War.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Enrollment Act,, enacted March 3, 1863, also known as the Civil War Military Draft Act, was legislation passed by the United States Congress during the American Civil War to provide fresh manpower for the Union Army.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".
In American history, the Fire-Eaters were a group of pro-slavery Southerners in the Antebellum South who urged the separation of Southern states into a new nation, which became the Confederate States of America.
The First Battle of Bull Run (the name used by Union forces), also known as the First Battle of Manassas.
The First Battle of Memphis was a naval battle fought on the Mississippi River immediately above the city of Memphis on June 6, 1862, during the American Civil War.
The First Battle of Mesilla, was fought on July 25, 1861 at Mesilla in New Mexico Territory, in present-day Doña Ana County, New Mexico.
Fitzhugh Lee (November 19, 1835 – April 28, 1905) was a Confederate cavalry general in the American Civil War, the 40th Governor of Virginia, diplomat, and United States Army general in the Spanish–American War.
The term "Five Civilized Tribes" derives from the colonial and early federal period in the history of the United States.
Three successive designs served as the official national flag of the Confederate States of America (the "Confederate States" or the "Confederacy") during its existence from 1861 to 1865.
Florida joined the Confederate States of America at the beginning of the Civil War, as the third of the original seven states to secede from the Union, following Lincoln's 1860 election.
Fort Donelson was a fortress built by the Confederacy during the American Civil War to control the Cumberland River leading to the heart of Tennessee, and the heart of the Confederacy.
Fort Fisher was a Confederate fort during the American Civil War.
Fort Monroe (also known as the Fort Monroe National Monument) is a decommissioned military installation in Hampton, Virginia—at Old Point Comfort, the southern tip of the Virginia Peninsula, United States.
The naval battle at Fort Pillow, Tennessee (sometimes known as the engagement at Plum Point Bend) took place on the Mississippi River between ships of the Confederate River Defense Fleet, which consisted of a number of wooden sidewheel paddleboats converted to naval rams, and ships of the ''Union'' Mississippi River Squadron, which consisted of a number of ironclads, approximately four miles above Fort Pillow, Tennessee on May 10, 1862, during the American Civil War.
Fort Pillow State Historic Park is a state park in western Tennessee that preserves the American Civil War site of the Battle of Fort Pillow.
Fort Sumter is a sea fort in Charleston, South Carolina, notable for two battles of the American Civil War.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
The Second French Empire remained officially neutral throughout the American Civil War and never recognized the Confederate States of America.
Francis Marion Cockrell (October 1, 1834December 13, 1915) was a Confederate military commander and American politician from the state of Missouri.
Francis Wilkinson Pickens (1805/1807January 25, 1869) was a political Democrat and Governor of South Carolina when that state became the first to secede from the U.S.A. A cousin of Senator John C. Calhoun, Pickens was born into the culture of the antebellum plantocracy, and became an ardent supporter of nullification (refusal to pay federal import tariffs) when he served in the South Carolina house of representatives, before being elected to Congress and then the state senate.
Frank Lawrence Owsley (January 20, 1890 – October 21, 1956) was an American historian who taught at Vanderbilt University for most of his career, where he specialized in southern history and was a member of the Southern Agrarians.
Franklin Buchanan (September 17, 1800 – May 11, 1874) was an officer in the United States Navy who became the only full admiral in the Confederate Navy during the American Civil War, and commanded the ironclad CSS ''Virginia''.
Frédéric Émile, Baron d’Erlanger (born June 19, 1832 in Frankfurt am Main; died May 22, 1911 in Versailles) born as Friedrich Emil Erlanger, was a German banker and Consul.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
A front line (alternative forms: front-line or frontline) in military terminology is the position(s) closest to the area of conflict of an armed force's personnel and equipment, generally referring to maritime or land forces.
Gabriel James Rains (June 4, 1803 – September 6, 1881) was a career United States Army officer and a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
A general welfare clause is a section that appeared in many constitutions, as well as in some charters and statutes, which provides that the governing body empowered by the document may enact laws to promote the general welfare of the people, sometimes worded as the public welfare.
General-in-chief has been a military rank or title in various armed forces around the world.
George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826October 29, 1885) was an American soldier, civil engineer, railroad executive, and politician.
George C. Rable is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Alabama.
George Davis (March 1, 1820 – February 23, 1896) was an American politician who served as the fourth Attorney General of the Confederate States from 1864 to 1865.
George Edward Pickett (January 16,Military records cited by Eicher, p. 428, and Warner, p. 239, list January 28. The memorial that marks his gravesite in Hollywood Cemetery lists his birthday as January 25. The claims to have accessed the baptismal record from St. John's Church in Richmond; at the time of young Pickett's christening on March 10, 1826, his parents gave their son's date of birth as January 16. 1825 – July 30, 1875) was a career United States Army officer who became a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
George Alfred Trenholm (February 25, 1807 – December 9, 1876) was businessman, financier, politician, and slaveowner who strongly supported the Confederate States of America and became its Secretary of the Treasury during the final year of the American Civil War.
George Wythe Randolph (March 10, 1818 – April 3, 1867) was a lawyer, planter, and Confederate general.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
George Washington Custis Lee (September 16, 1832 – February 18, 1913), also known as Custis Lee, was the eldest son of Robert E. Lee and Mary Anna Custis Lee.
Georgia was one of the original seven slave states that formed the Confederate States of America in February 1861, triggering the U.S. Civil War.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
The Gettysburg Campaign was a military invasion of Pennsylvania by the main Confederate army under General Robert E. Lee in summer 1863.
Gideon Johnson Pillow (June 8, 1806 – October 8, 1878) was an American lawyer, politician, speculator, slaveowner, United States Army major general of volunteers during the Mexican-American War and Confederate brigadier general in the American Civil War.
Glanders (from Middle English glaundres or Old French glandres, both meaning glands; malleus, Rotz; also known as "equinia", "farcy", and "malleus") is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys.
Flag terminology is the nomenclature, or system of terms, used in vexillology, the study of flags, to describe precisely the parts, patterns, and other attributes of flags and their display.
"God Save the South" is a poem turned song by American writer George Henry Miles (as "Ernest Halpin") written in 1861.
The Golden Circle (Círculo Dorado) was an unrealized 1850s proposal by the Knights of the Golden Circle to expand the number of slave states.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
The Great Seal of the Confederate States of America, formally the Seal of the Confederate States, was used to authenticate certain documents issued by the C.S. government.
Guadalupe Peak, also known as Signal Peak, is the highest natural point in Texas, with an elevation of above sea level.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
Hamilton is the capital of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda.
The Hampton Roads Conference was a peace conference held between the United States and the Confederate States on February 3, 1865, aboard the steamboat River Queen in Hampton Roads, Virginia, to discuss terms to end the American Civil War.
Henry Heth (not) (December 16, 1825 – September 27, 1899) was a career United States Army officer who became a Confederate general in the American Civil War.
Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister in the mid-19th century.
Henry Rootes Jackson (June 24, 1820 – May 23, 1898) was a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
Henry Stuart Foote (February 28, 1804May 19, 1880) was a United States Senator from Mississippi and the chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations from 1847 to 1852.
Henry Steele Commager (October 25, 1902 – March 2, 1998) was an American historian.
Heinrich Hartmann Wirz, better known as Henry Wirz (November 25, 1823 – November 10, 1865), was a Swiss-born American officer of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.
A high water mark is a point that represents the maximum rise of a body of water over land.
The high-water mark of the Confederacy refers to an area on Cemetery Ridge near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, marking the farthest point reached by Confederate forces during Pickett's Charge on July 3, 1863.
The history of Delaware as a political entity dates back to the early colonization of North America by European-American settlers.
This article pertains to the history of Nashville, the state capital of Tennessee.
The history of the Southern United States reaches back hundreds of years and includes the Mississippian people, well known for their mound building.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the world's oldest extant political parties.
The Holiness movement involves a set of beliefs and practices which emerged within 19th-century Methodism.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Thomas Howell Cobb (September 7, 1815 – October 9, 1868) was an American political figure.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land.
During the American Civil War, most of what is now the U.S. state of Oklahoma was designated as the Indian Territory.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
This article covers worldwide diplomacy and, more generally, the international relations of the major powers from 1814 to 1919, particularly the "Big Four".
An ironclad is a steam-propelled warship protected by iron or steel armor plates used in the early part of the second half of the 19th century.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart (February 6, 1833May 12, 1864) was a United States Army officer from the U.S. state of Virginia, who later became a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War.
James Johnston Pettigrew (July 4, 1828 – July 17, 1863) was an author, lawyer, linguist, diplomat, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War.
James Buchanan Jr. (April 23, 1791June 1, 1868) was an American politician who served as the 15th President of the United States (1857–61), serving immediately prior to the American Civil War.
James Chesnut Jr. (January 18, 1815 – February 1, 1885) was an American politician who served as a Deputy from South Carolina to the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1862.
James Dandridge Halyburton (February 23, 1803 – January 26, 1879) was a United States federal judge.
James Henry Hammond (November 15, 1807November 13, 1864) was an attorney, politician and planter from South Carolina.
James Longstreet (January 8, 1821January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse." He served under Lee as a corps commander for many of the famous battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia in the Eastern Theater, and briefly with Braxton Bragg in the Army of Tennessee in the Western Theater.
James M. "Jim" McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis '86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University.
James Murray Mason (November 3, 1798April 28, 1871) was a US Representative and US Senator from Virginia.
James Alexander Seddon (July 13, 1815 – August 19, 1880) was an American lawyer and politician who served two terms as a Representative in the U.S. Congress, as a member of the Democratic Party.
Jane Evans Elliot, born Jane Smith Evans (1820–1886), was a diarist during the American Civil War who lived on the Ellerslie Plantation outside of Fayetteville, North Carolina.
Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as the only President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865.
Jesse Johnson Finley (November 18, 1812 – November 6, 1904) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Florida and the mayor of Memphis, Tennessee.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Austin Wharton (July 23, 1828 – April 6, 1865) was a lawyer, plantation owner, and Confederate general during the American Civil War.
John Arthur Roebuck (28 December 1802 – 30 November 1879), British politician, was born at Madras, in India.
John Bell (February 18, 1796September 10, 1869) was an American politician, attorney, and planter.
John Bell Hood (June 1 or June 29, 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War.
John Belton O'Neall was a judge on the precursor of the South Carolina Supreme Court.
John Brown Gordon (February 6, 1832January 9, 1904) was an attorney, a planter, general in the Confederate States Army, and politician in the postwar years.
John Cabell Breckinridge (January 16, 1821 – May 17, 1875) was an American lawyer, politician, and soldier.
John Clifford Pemberton (August 10, 1814 – July 13, 1881), was a career United States Army officer who fought in the Seminole Wars and with distinction during the Mexican–American War.
John Henninger Reagan (October 8, 1818March 6, 1905) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Texas.
John Hunt Morgan (June 1, 1825 – September 4, 1864) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War.
John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known by his courtesy title Lord John Russell before 1861, was a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on two occasions during the early Victorian era.
John Singleton Mosby (December 6, 1833 – May 30, 1916), also known by his nickname, the "Gray Ghost", was a Confederate army cavalry battalion commander in the American Civil War.
John Smith Preston (April 20, 1809 – May 1, 1881) was a wealthy planter, soldier, and attorney who became prominent in South Carolina politics in the 19th century.
John Slidell (1793July 9, 1871) was an American politician, lawyer, and businessman.
John White Brockenbrough (December 23, 1806 – February 20, 1877) was a Virginia lawyer, federal judge, educator, and the founder of the Lexington Law School, now known as Washington and Lee University School of Law.
Jonathan Worth (November 18, 1802 – September 5, 1869) was the 39th governor of the U.S. state of North Carolina from 1865 to 1868, during the early years of Reconstruction.
Joseph Brevard Kershaw (January 5, 1822 – April 13, 1894) was a lawyer, judge, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War.
Joseph Emerson Brown (April 15, 1821 – November 30, 1894), often referred to as Joe Brown, was an attorney and politician, serving as the 42nd Governor of Georgia from 1857 to 1865, the only governor to serve four terms.
Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career United States Army officer, serving with distinction in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), and Seminole Wars.
Joseph Ruggles Wilson Sr. (February 28, 1822 – January 21, 1903) was a prominent Presbyterian theologian and father of President Woodrow Wilson, Nashville Banner editor Joseph Ruggles Wilson Jr., and Anne E. Wilson Howe.
Joseph "Fighting Joe" Wheeler (September 10, 1836 – January 25, 1906) was an American military commander and politician.
Josiah Abigail Patterson Campbell (March 2, 1830 – January 10, 1917) was an American politician who served as a Deputy from Mississippi to the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1862.
Commodore Josiah Tattnall, Jr. (9 November 1795 – 14 June 1871) was an officer in the United States Navy during the War of 1812, the Second Barbary War and the Mexican-American War.
Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.
Judah Philip Benjamin, QC (August 11, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was a lawyer and politician who was a United States Senator from Louisiana, a Cabinet officer of the Confederate States and, after his escape to the United Kingdom at the end of the American Civil War, an English barrister.
Juneteenth, also known as Juneteenth Independence Day or Freedom Day, is an American holiday that commemorates the June 19, 1865, announcement of the abolition of slavery in the U.S. state of Texas, and more generally the emancipation of enslaved African-Americans throughout the former Confederacy of the southern United States.
Captain Justus Scheibert (1831–1903) was a Prussian army officer, sent by Prussia to America to observe the American Civil War in order to learn the lessons to be learned and return to Prussia to teach these lessons to the Prussian troops.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
Kentucky was a border state of key importance in the American Civil War.
"King Cotton" is a slogan which summarized the strategy used before the American Civil War (of 1861–1865) by pro-secessionists in the southern states (the future Confederate States of America) to claim the feasibility of secession and to prove there was no need to fear a war with the northern states.
The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith–Rigdon movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
Lawrence Sullivan "Sul" Ross (September 27, 1838January 3, 1898) was the 19th Governor of Texas, a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War, and a president of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, now called Texas A&M University.
Leonidas Polk (April 10, 1806 – June 14, 1864) was a planter in Maury County, Tennessee, and a second cousin of President James K. Polk.
LeRoy Pope Walker (February 7, 1817 – August 23, 1884) was the first Confederate States Secretary of War.
A letter of marque and reprisal (lettre de marque; lettre de course) was a government license in the Age of Sail that authorized a person, known as a privateer or corsair, to attack and capture enemy vessels.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The line-item veto, or partial veto, is a special form of veto that authorizes a chief executive to reject particular provisions of a bill enacted by a legislature without vetoing the entire bill.
This is a list of Confederate arms manufacturers.
This is a list of Confederate arsenals and armories.
This is a list of Confederate monuments and memorials that were established as public displays and symbols of the Confederate States of America (CSA), Confederate leaders, or Confederate soldiers of the American Civil War.
These lists of historical unrecognized or partially recognized states or governments give an overview of extinct geopolitical entities that wished to be recognized as sovereign states, but did not enjoy worldwide diplomatic recognition.
The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has defined 383 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for the United States and seven for Puerto Rico.
A number of polities have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international community as de jure sovereign states, but have not been universally recognised as such.
This is a list of treaties of the Confederate States of America.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Antebellum Louisiana was a slave state, where enslaved African Americans had comprised the majority of the population during the eighteenth century French and Spanish colonial period.
The Louisiana State University Press (LSU Press) is a university press that was founded in 1935.
Louisville in the American Civil War was a major stronghold of Union forces, which kept Kentucky firmly in the Union.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Macon, officially Macon–Bibb County, is a consolidated city-county located in the state of Georgia, United States.
Marcus H. MacWillie was a politician who represented the Confederate Arizona Territory in the Congress of the Confederate States during the American Civil War.
Margaret Kernochan Leech (November 7, 1893 – February 24, 1974), also known as Margaret Pulitzer, was an American historian and fiction writer.
Mark E. Neely Jr. (born November 10, 1944 in Amarillo, Texas) is an American historian best known as an authority on the U.S. Civil War in general and Abraham Lincoln in particular.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
During the American Civil War, Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the South and North.
Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
Mesilla (also known as La Mesilla and Old Mesilla) is a town in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, United States.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, or Methodist Episcopal Church South (MEC,S), was the Methodist denomination resulting from the 19th-century split over the issue of slavery in the Methodist Episcopal Church (MEC).
The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the United States and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848.
Mississippi was the second southern state to declare its secession from the United States of America, on January 9, 1861.
The Mississippi Law Journal is a law review published at the University of Mississippi School of Law.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
The Missouri Constitutional Convention of 1861–1863 was a constitutional convention held in the state of Missouri during the American Civil War.
The Missouri General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Missouri.
During the American Civil War, Missouri was a hotly contested border state populated by both Union and Confederate sympathizers.
During the American Civil War, the secession of Missouri was controversial because of the disputed status of the state of Missouri.
Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, Alabama, United States.
Montgomery is the capital city of the U.S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Montgomery County.
Morgan's Raid was a highly publicized incursion by Confederate cavalry into the northern U.S. states of Indiana and Ohio during the American Civil War.
The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the seat of Davidson County.
Nathan Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821 – October 29, 1877), called Bedford Forrest in his lifetime, was a cotton farmer, slave owner, slave trader, Confederate Army general during the American Civil War, first leader of the Ku Klux Klan, and president of the Selma, Marion, & Memphis Railroad.
The National Civil War Naval Museum at Port Columbus, located in Columbus, Georgia, United States, is a facility that features two original American Civil War military naval vessels, uniforms, equipment and weapons used by the United States (Union) Navy from the North and the Confederate States Navy (Southern /Rebel) forces.
Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Naval stores are all products derived from pine sap, which are used to manufacture soap, paint, varnish, shoe polish, lubricants, linoleum, and roofing materials.
The Necessary and Proper Clause, also known as the elastic clause, is a clause in Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution that is as follows.
The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War from February to April 1862 in which Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the Southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports of California.
The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed (with varying boundaries) from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912, when the remaining extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of New Mexico, making it the longest-lived organized incorporated territory of the United States, lasting approximately 62 years.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
New Orleans, in Louisiana, was the largest city in the Southern states during the American Civil War.
The New Orleans Mint (Monnaie de La Nouvelle-Orléans) operated in New Orleans, Louisiana, as a branch mint of the United States Mint from 1838 to 1861 and from 1879 to 1909.
The New York City draft riots (July 13–16, 1863), known at the time as Draft Week, were violent disturbances in Lower Manhattan, widely regarded as the culmination of working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War.
Nonpartisan democracy (also no-party democracy) is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic elections take place without reference to political parties.
Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
The state of North Carolina, though raising a significant number of troops in regiments for the Union, provided an important source of soldiers, supplies and war materiel to the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.
Opelika (pronounced) is a city in and the county seat of Lee County in the east central part of the State of Alabama.
The Overland Campaign, also known as Grant's Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War.
The Ozarks, also referred to as the Ozark Mountains and Ozark Plateau, is a physiographic region in the U.S. states of Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
Pierre Gustave Toutant-Beauregard (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893) was an American military officer who was the first prominent general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne (March 17, 1828 – November 30, 1864) was an Irish and later American soldier, best known for his service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, where he rose to the rank of major general.
Pendleton Murrah (1824/1826August 4, 1865) was the tenth Governor of Texas.
The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.
Petersburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Plantations were an important aspect of the history of the American South, particularly the antebellum (pre-American Civil War) era.
Pope Pius IX (Pio; 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was head of the Catholic Church from 16 June 1846 to his death on 7 February 1878.
The postage stamps and postal system of the Confederate States of America carried the mail of the Confederacy for a brief period in American history.
The Presbyterian Church in the United States (PCUS, originally Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America) was a Protestant Christian denomination in the Southern and border states of the United States that existed from 1861 to 1983.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
On April 15, 1861, at the start of the American Civil War, the President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, called for a 75,000-man militia to serve for three months following the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter.
The President of the Confederate States of America was the elected head of state and government of the Confederate States.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Protective tariffs are tariffs that are enacted with the aim of protecting a domestic industry.
The Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America was an Anglican Christian denomination which existed from 1861 to 1865.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Provisional Congress of the Confederate States, also known as the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States of America, was a congress of deputies and delegates called together from the Southern States which became the governing body of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America (CSA) from February 4, 1861, to February 17, 1862.
The Provisional Constitution of the Confederate States, formally the Constitution for the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, was an agreement among all seven original states in the Confederate States of America that served as its first constitution.
Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.
Raphael Semmes (September 27, 1809 – August 30, 1877) was an officer in the Confederate navy during the American Civil War.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Restoration Movement (also known as the American Restoration Movement or the Stone-Campbell Movement, and pejoratively as Campbellism) is a Christian movement that began on the United States frontier during the Second Great Awakening (1790–1840) of the early 19th century. The pioneers of this movement were seeking to reform the church from within and sought "the unification of all Christians in a single body patterned after the church of the New Testament."Rubel Shelly, I Just Want to Be a Christian, 20th Century Christian, Nashville, TN 1984, Especially since the mid-20th century, members of these churches do not identify as Protestant but simply as Christian.. Richard Thomas Hughes, Reviving the Ancient Faith: The Story of Churches of Christ in America, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1996: "arguably the most widely distributed tract ever published by the Churches of Christ or anyone associated with that tradition."Samuel S Hill, Charles H Lippy, Charles Reagan Wilson, Encyclopedia of Religion in the South, Mercer University Press, 2005, pp. 854 The Restoration Movement developed from several independent strands of religious revival that idealized early Christianity. Two groups, which independently developed similar approaches to the Christian faith, were particularly important. The first, led by Barton W. Stone, began at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, and identified as "Christians". The second began in western Pennsylvania and Virginia (now West Virginia) and was led by Thomas Campbell and his son, Alexander Campbell, both educated in Scotland; they eventually used the name "Disciples of Christ". Both groups sought to restore the whole Christian church on the pattern set forth in the New Testament, and both believed that creeds kept Christianity divided. In 1832 they joined in fellowship with a handshake. Among other things, they were united in the belief that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; that Christians should celebrate the Lord's Supper on the first day of each week; and that baptism of adult believers by immersion in water is a necessary condition for salvation. Because the founders wanted to abandon all denominational labels, they used the biblical names for the followers of Jesus. Both groups promoted a return to the purposes of the 1st-century churches as described in the New Testament. One historian of the movement has argued that it was primarily a unity movement, with the restoration motif playing a subordinate role. The Restoration Movement has since divided into multiple separate groups. There are three main branches in the U.S.: the Churches of Christ, the unaffiliated Christian Church/Church of Christ congregations, and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Some characterize the divisions in the movement as the result of the tension between the goals of restoration and ecumenism: the Churches of Christ and unaffiliated Christian Church/Church of Christ congregations resolved the tension by stressing restoration, while the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) resolved the tension by stressing ecumenism.Leroy Garrett, The Stone-Campbell Movement: The Story of the American Restoration Movement, College Press, 2002,, 573 pp. A number of groups outside the U.S. also have historical associations with this movement, such as the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada and the Churches of Christ in Australia. Because the Restoration Movement lacks any centralized structure, having originated in a variety of places with different leaders, there is no consistent nomenclature for the movement as a whole.. The term "Restoration Movement" became popular during the 19th century; this appears to be due to the influence of Alexander Campbell's essays on "A Restoration of the Ancient Order of Things" in the Christian Baptist. The term "Stone-Campbell Movement" emerged towards the end of the 20th century as a way to avoid the difficulties associated with some of the other names that have been used, and to maintain a sense of the collective history of the movement.
The Restored Government of Virginia, also known as the Reorganized Government of Virginia, was the Unionist government of Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Richard Heron Anderson (October 7, 1821 – June 26, 1879) was a career U.S. Army officer, fighting with distinction in the Mexican-American War.
Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career United States Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War.
Richard Scott "Dick" Taylor (January 27, 1826 – April 12, 1879) was an American planter, politician, military historian, and Confederate general.
The Richmond Examiner, a newspaper which was published during the American Civil War under the masthead of Daily Richmond Examiner, was one of the newspapers published in the Confederate capital of Richmond.
Richmond, Virginia, served as the capital of the Confederate States of America for almost the whole of the American Civil War.
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was an American and Confederate soldier, best known as a commander of the Confederate States Army.
Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter (April 21, 1809 – July 18, 1887) was a Virginia lawyer, politician and plantation owner.
Robert McDonald Jones (October 1, 1808 – February 22, 1872) was a member of the Choctaw Nation, Pro-Tempore of the Choctaw Senate, and prominent Confederate politician.
Robert Augustus Toombs (July 2, 1810 – December 15, 1885) was an American politician who was a founding father of the Confederacy and its first Secretary of State.
Robert Woodward Barnwell (August 10, 1801 – November 5, 1882) was an American planter, lawyer, and educator from South Carolina who served as a Senator in both the United States Senate and that of the Confederate States of America.
Roger Brooke Taney (March 17, 1777 – October 12, 1864) was the fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864.
Russell Frank Weigley (WY-glee), PhD, (July 2, 1930 – March 3, 2004) was the Distinguished University Professor of History at Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and a noted military historian.
Sam Houston (March 2, 1793July 26, 1863) was an American soldier and politician.
Samuel Benton Callahan (January 26, 1833 – February 17, 1911) was an influential, mixed blood Creek politician, born in Mobile, Alabama, to a white father and a mixed-blood Creek woman.
Samuel Cooper (June 12, 1798 – December 3, 1876) was a career United States Army staff officer, serving during the Second Seminole War and the Mexican-American War.
Samuel Eliot Morison (July 9, 1887 – May 15, 1976) was an American historian noted for his works of maritime history and American history that were both authoritative and popular.
Savannah is the oldest city in the U.S. state of Georgia and is the county seat of Chatham County.
Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance.
In the context of the United States, secession primarily refers to the withdrawal of one or more States from the Union that constitutes the United States; but may loosely refer to leaving a State or territory to form a separate territory or new State, or to the severing of an area from a city or county within a State.
The Second Battle of Bull Run or Battle of Second Manassas was fought August 28–30, 1862 in Prince William County, Virginia, as part of the American Civil War.
The Second Battle of Charleston Harbor, also known as the Siege of Charleston Harbor, Siege of Fort Wagner, or Battle of Morris Island, took place during the American Civil War in the late summer of 1863 between a combined Union Army/Navy force and the Confederate defenses of Charleston, South Carolina.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
The Seminole are a Native American people originally from Florida.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
Sherman's March to the Sea (also known as the Savannah Campaign) was a military campaign of the American Civil War conducted through Georgia from November 15 until December 21, 1864, by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army.
The Siege of Fort Pulaski (or the Siege and Reduction of Fort Pulaski) concluded with the Battle of Fort Pulaski fought April 10–11, 1862, during the American Civil War.
The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War.
The Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana (May 22 – July 9, 1863), was the final engagement in the Union campaign to recapture the Mississippi in the American Civil War.
The Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 – July 4, 1863) was the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Simon Bolivar Buckner (April 1, 1823 – January 8, 1914) was an American soldier and politician who fought in the United States Army in the Mexican–American War and in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Solid South or Southern bloc was the electoral voting bloc of the states of the Southern United States for issues that were regarded as particularly important to the interests of Democrats in the southern states.
South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union in December 1860, and was one of the founding member states of the Confederacy in February 1861.
The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a Christian denomination based in the United States.
The Southern Historical Association (SHA) is an organization of historians focusing on the history of the Southern United States (commonly referred to as southern history).
The city of St. Louis, Missouri was a strategic location during the American Civil War which held significant value for both Union and Confederate forces.
Stand Watie (lit) (December 12, 1806 – September 9, 1871) — also known as Standhope Uwatie, Tawkertawker, and Isaac S. Watie — was a leader of the Cherokee Nation, and the only Native American to attain a general's rank in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
Star of the West was an American civilian steamship that was launched in 1852 and scuttled by Confederate forces in 1863.
In American political discourse, states' rights are political powers held for the state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment.
Stephen Arnold Douglas (April 23, 1813 – June 3, 1861) was an American politician from Illinois and the designer of the Kansas–Nebraska Act.
Stephen Dill Lee (September 22, 1833 – May 28, 1908) was an American soldier, and the youngest Confederate lieutenant general of the American Civil War.
Stephen Dodson Ramseur (May 31, 1837 – October 20, 1864) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War, at one point the youngest in the army.
Stephen Russell Mallory (1812 – November 9, 1873) served in the United States Senate as Senator (Democrat) from Florida from 1850 to the secession of his home state and the outbreak of the American Civil War.
Sterling "Old Pap" Price (September 14, 1809September 29, 1867) was an American lawyer, planter, soldier, and politician from the U.S. state of Missouri, who served as the 11th Governor of the state from 1853 to 1857.
Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863) served as a Confederate general (1861–1863) during the American Civil War, and became one of the best-known Confederate commanders after General Robert E. Lee.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
The Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution (Article VI, Clause 2) establishes that the Constitution, federal laws made pursuant to it, and treaties made under its authority, constitute the supreme law of the land.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
A swamp is a wetland that is forested.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
To a large extent, the American Civil War was fought in cities and farms of Tennessee, as only Virginia saw more battles.
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States (U.S.) federal government.
The U.S. state of Texas declared its secession from the United States of America on February 1, 1861, and joined the Confederate States on March 2, 1861, after it replaced its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy.
Texas v. White, was a case argued before the United States Supreme Court in 1869.
The American Historical Review is the official publication of the American Historical Association.
"The Bonnie Blue Flag", also known as "We Are a Band of Brothers", is an 1861 marching song associated with the Confederate States of America.
The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, commonly referred to simply as The Citadel, is a state-supported, comprehensive college located in Charleston, South Carolina, United States.
The Journal of American History is the official academic journal of the Organization of American Historians.
The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government (1881) is a book written by Jefferson Davis, who served as President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.
Theophilus Hunter Holmes (November 13, 1804 – June 21, 1880) was a career United States Army officer and a Confederate Lieutenant General in the American Civil War.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Thomas Bragg (November 9, 1810January 21, 1872) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 34th Governor of the U.S. state of North Carolina from 1855 through 1859.
Thomas Corwin (July 29, 1794 – December 18, 1865), also known as Tom Corwin, The Wagon Boy, and Black Tom was a politician from the state of Ohio.
Thomas Hill Watts (January 3, 1819September 16, 1892) was the 18th Governor of the U.S. state of Alabama from 1863 to 1865, during the Civil War.
Thomas Lafayette "Tex" Rosser (October 15, 1836 – March 29, 1910) was a Confederate major general during the American Civil War, and later a railroad construction engineer and in 1898 a brigadier general of volunteers in the United States Army during the Spanish–American War.
Thomas Salem Bocock (May 18, 1815 – August 5, 1891) was a nineteenth-century politician and lawyer from Virginia.
In rail transport, track gauge is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails.
The Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War consists of the major military operations west of the Mississippi River.
The Trent Affair was a diplomatic incident in 1861 during the American Civil War that threatened a war between the United States and the United Kingdom.
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona.
Turner Ashby, Jr. (October 23, 1828 – June 6, 1862) was a Confederate cavalry commander in the American Civil War.
The "Twenty Negro Law", also known as the "Twenty Slave Law" and the "Twenty Nigger Law", was a piece of legislation enacted by the Confederate Congress during the American Civil War.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it.
The Union blockade in the American Civil War was a naval strategy by the United States to prevent the Confederacy from trading.
The United Kingdom (the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) remained officially neutral throughout the American Civil War (1861–1865).
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Presidential Election of 1860 was the nineteenth quadrennial presidential election to select the President and Vice President of the United States.
The University of North Carolina is a multi-campus public university system composed of all 16 of North Carolina's public universities, as well as the NC School of Science and Mathematics, the nation's first public residential high school for gifted students.
The terms Upland South and Upper South refer to the northern section of the Southern United States, in contrast to the Lower South or Deep South.
Atlanta was a casemate ironclad that served in the Confederate and Union Navies during the American Civil War.
The Vice President of the Confederate States of America was the office held by Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia, who served under President Jefferson Davis of Mississippi from February 18, 1861 to May 11, 1865.
The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.
The Commonwealth of Virginia became a prominent part of the Confederate States of America when it joined the Confederacy during the American Civil War.
The Virginia Military Institute (VMI) is a state-supported military college in Lexington, Virginia, the oldest such institution in the United States.
The Virginia State Capitol is the seat of state government of the Commonwealth of Virginia, located in Richmond, the third capital city of the U.S. state of Virginia.
In law, void means of no legal effect.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.
Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818April 11, 1902) was a Confederate States of America military officer during the American Civil War and politician from South Carolina.
Washington, D.C., during the American Civil War was a significant civilian leadership, military headquarters, and logistics center.
West Hughes Humphreys (August 26, 1806 – October 16, 1882) was a United States district court judge and a judge of the Confederate States of America.
The U.S. state of West Virginia was formed out of western Virginia and added to the Union as a direct result of the American Civil War (see History of West Virginia), in which it became the only state to declare its independence from the Confederacy.
The 1861 Wheeling Convention was an assembly of Virginia Southern Unionist delegates from the northwestern counties of Virginia, aimed at repealing the Ordinance of Secession, which had been approved by referendum, subject to a vote.
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States.
William Charles "Jack" Davis (born 1946) is an American historian who was a Professor of History at Virginia Tech and the former Director of Programs at that school's Virginia Center for Civil War Studies.
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
William Gannaway "Parson" Brownlow (August 29, 1805April 29, 1877) was an American newspaper publisher, Methodist minister, book author, prisoner of war, lecturer, and politician.
William Giles Jones (November 7, 1808 – April 1, 1883) was a United States federal judge.
William Henry Seward (May 16, 1801 – October 10, 1872) was United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as Governor of New York and United States Senator.
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee (May 31, 1837 – October 15, 1891), known as Rooney Lee (often spelled "Roony" among friends and family) or W.H.F. Lee, was the second son of General Robert E. Lee and Mary Anna Custis.
William Henry Gist (August 22, 1807 – September 30, 1874) was the 68th Governor of South Carolina from 1858 to 1860 and a leader of the secession movement in South Carolina.
William Joseph Hardee (October 12, 1815 – November 6, 1873) was a career U.S. Army officer, serving during the Second Seminole War and in the Mexican-American War, where he was captured and exchanged.
William Lowndes Yancey (August 10, 1814 – July 27, 1863) was a journalist, politician, orator, diplomat and an American leader of the Southern secession movement.
William Mahone (December 1, 1826October 8, 1895) was an American civil engineer, railroad executive, Confederate general, and politician.
William Nelson Pendleton (December 26, 1809 – January 15, 1883) was an American teacher, Episcopal priest, and soldier.
William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author.
William Wing Loring (December 4, 1818 – December 30, 1886) was an American soldier who served in the armies of the United States, the Confederacy, and Egypt.
Wilmington is a port city and the county seat of New Hanover County in coastal southeastern North Carolina, United States.
Wilmington, North Carolina, was a major Atlantic Ocean port city for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
Work ethic is a belief that hard work and diligence have a moral benefit and an inherent ability, virtue or value to strengthen character and individual abilities.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The term "Yankee" and its contracted form "Yank" have several interrelated meanings, all referring to people from the United States; its various senses depend on the context.
Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850.
Zebulon Baird Vance (May 13, 1830 – April 14, 1894) was a Confederate military officer in the American Civil War, the 37th and 43rd Governor of North Carolina, and U.S. Senator.
The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States starting June 1, 1860, and lasting five months.
The First Confederate States Congress, consisting of the Confederate States Senate and the Confederate States House of Representatives, met from February 18, 1862, to February 17, 1864, during the first two years of Jefferson Davis's presidency, at the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond, Virginia.
The Second Confederate States Congress, consisting of the Confederate States Senate and the Confederate States House of Representatives, met from May 2, 1864, to March 18, 1865, during the last year of Jefferson Davis's presidency, at the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond, Virginia.
The 34th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 34 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The Thirty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.
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