215 relations: A Madman's Diary, Absolute (philosophy), Academies (Shuyuan), Age of Enlightenment, Altruism, Analects, Ancestor, Ancestor veneration in China, Ancestral shrine, Axis mundi, Ban Zhao, Beijing, Book of Documents, Book of Rites, Brahman, Buddhism, Celebrity, Celestial pole, Cheng Yi (philosopher), China, Chinese characters, Chinese classics, Chinese culture, Chinese dragon, Chinese folk religion, Chinese lineage associations, Chinese philosophy, Chinese poetry, Chinese salvationist religions, Chinese temple architecture, Chinese theology, Civil religion, Classic of Filial Piety, Classic of Poetry, Confucian Academy, Confucian art, Confucian church, Confucian ritual religion, Confucian view of marriage, Confucianism, Confucius, Convention (norm), Cosmos, Cultural Revolution, Culture of Hong Kong, Culture of Japan, Culture of Korea, Culture of Macau, Culture of Singapore, Culture of Taiwan, ..., Culture of Vietnam, Deism, Deity, Di (Chinese concept), Dominican Order, Draco (constellation), Duanmu Ci, East Asia, East Asian cultural sphere, Edo Neo-Confucianism, Egotism, Emotion, Emperor of China, Ethics, Ex nihilo, Family, Family as a model for the state, Filial piety, Four Books and Five Classics, Four occupations, Franciscans, Gentleman, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Great Learning, Guiyang, Guizhou, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, Han Fei, Han Kitab, Harmonious Society, Herbert Fingarette, Herman Kahn, Herrlee G. Creel, Hinduism, Holy Confucian Church, Hong Kong, Hu Shih, Huang–Lao, Hui people, Humanism, Hundred Schools of Thought, Hundun, I Ching, Imperial examination, Islam, Japan, Jiang Qing (Confucian), Kang Youwei, King, King Wen of Zhou, Kokugaku, Korean Confucianism, Korean shamanism, Laozi, Large seal script, Latin, Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Lessons for Women, Li (Confucianism), Li (Neo-Confucianism), Liu Zhi (scholar), Loyalty, Lu Xun, Ma Fuxiang, Malaysia, Mandate of Heaven, Maoism, Matteo Ricci, Meditation, Mencius, Meritocracy, Michele Ruggieri, Ming dynasty, Mohism, Monism, Mozi, Neo-Confucianism, New Culture Movement, New Life Movement, Nontheism, Orbital pole, Orthopraxy, Pantheism, Physis, Piety, Politician, Pope Benedict XIV, Poverty, Power (social and political), Prince, Prospero Intorcetta, Qi, Qi (state), Qing dynasty, Qufu, Reality, Reason, Rebellion, Ren (Confucianism), Republic of China (1912–1949), Rite, Ritual, Sacred, Sacrifice, Scholar-official, Secularity, Shamanism, Shang dynasty, Shangdi, Shanghai, Shen (Chinese religion), Shenzhen, Sima Guang, Singapore, Sino-Platonic Papers, Small seal script, Society of Jesus, Song dynasty, South Korea, Spring and Autumn Annals, Spring and Autumn period, State religion, Stephan Feuchtwang, Sui dynasty, Sun Lutang, Supreme Council for the Confucian Religion in Indonesia, Taiping Rebellion, Taiwan, Tang dynasty, Tao, Taoism, Temple of Confucius, The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation, The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars, Theism, Three Obediences and Four Virtues, Three Principles of the People, Tian, Tu Weiming, Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Vedas, Veneration of the dead, Vietnam War, Vietnamese folk religion, Vietnamese philosophy, Virtue, Voltaire, Warring States period, Way of the Gods according to the Confucian Tradition, Widow chastity, Work ethic, Wu (shaman), Wu wei, Wufang Shangdi, Xinzhong Yao, Xun Kuang, Yan Hui, Yi (Confucianism), Yin and yang, Zengzi, Zhou dynasty, Zhou Youguang, Zhu Xi. Expand index (165 more) » « Shrink index
"A Madman's Diary" is a short story published in 1918 by Lu Xun, a Chinese writer.
In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc.
The Shūyuàn, usually known in English as Academies or Academies of Classical Learning, were a type of school in ancient China.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual.
The Analects (Old Chinese: *run ŋ(r)aʔ), also known as the Analects of Confucius, is a collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries, traditionally believed to have been compiled and written by Confucius's followers.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
Chinese ancestor worship, or Chinese ancestor veneration, also called the Chinese patriarchal religion, is an aspect of the Chinese traditional religion which revolves around the ritual celebration of the deified ancestors and tutelary deities of people with the same surname organised into lineage societies in ancestral shrines.
An ancestral shrine, hall or temple, also called lineage temple, is a Chinese temple dedicated to deified ancestors and progenitors of surname lineages or families in the Chinese traditional religion.
The axis mundi (also cosmic axis, world axis, world pillar, center of the world, world tree), in certain beliefs and philosophies, is the world center, or the connection between Heaven and Earth.
Ban Zhao (45 – c. 116 CE), courtesy name Huiban, was a Chinese historian, philosopher, and politician.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.
The Book of Rites or Liji is a collection of texts describing the social forms, administration, and ceremonial rites of the Zhou dynasty as they were understood in the Warring States and the early Han periods.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Celebrity refers to the fame and public attention accorded by the mass media to individuals or groups or, occasionally, animals, but is usually applied to the persons or groups of people (celebrity couples, families, etc.) themselves who receive such a status of fame and attention.
The north and south celestial poles are the two imaginary points in the sky where the Earth's axis of rotation, indefinitely extended, intersects the celestial sphere.
Cheng Yi (1033–1107), courtesy name Zhengshu (正叔), also known as Yichuan Xiansheng (伊川先生), was a Chinese philosopher born in Luoyang during the Song Dynasty.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
Chinese dragons or East Asian dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology, Chinese folklore, and East Asian culture at large.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
Chinese lineage associations, also kinship or ancestral associations, are a type of social relationship institutions found in Han Chinese ethnic groups and the fundamental unit of Chinese ancestral religion.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language.
Chinese salvationist religions or Chinese folk religious sects are a Chinese religious tradition characterised by a concern for salvation (moral fulfillment) of the person and the society.
Chinese temple architecture refer to a type of structures used as place of worship of Chinese Buddhism, Taoism or Chinese folk religion/Shenism, where people revere ethnic Chinese gods and ancestors.
Chinese theology, which comes in different interpretations according to the classic texts and the common religion, and specifically Confucian, Taoist and other philosophical formulations, is fundamentally monistic, that is to say it sees the world and the gods of its phenomena as an organic whole, or cosmos, which continuously emerges from a simple principle.
Civil religion is a concept that originated in French political thought and became a major topic for American sociologists since its use by Robert Bellah in 1960.
The Classic of Filial Piety, also known by its Chinese name as the Xiaojing, is a Confucian classic treatise giving advice on filial piety: that is, how to behave towards a senior such as a father, an elder brother, or ruler.
The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.
The Confucian Academy is a non-governmental organization (NGO) founded in 1930 by Dr.
Confucian art is art inspired by the writings of Confucius, and Confucian teachings.
The Confucian church is a Confucian religious and social institution of the congregational type.
Confucian ritual religion (s 礼教, t 禮教 Lǐjiào, "rites' transmission", also called 名教 Míngjiào, the "names' transmission"), or the Confucian civil religion, defines the civil religion of China.
To the Confucians, marriage is of important significance both in the family and in society.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.
The cosmos is the universe.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
The culture of Hong Kong, or Hongkongese culture, can best be described as a foundation that began with Lingnan's Cantonese culture (which is distinct to begin with) and, to a much lesser extent, non-Cantonese branches of Han Chinese cultures.
The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric time Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia, Europe, and North America.
The traditional culture of Korea refers to the shared cultural heritage of the Korean Peninsula.
Macau is an autonomous territory within China.
The culture of Singapore is a combination of Asian and European cultures.
The culture of Taiwan is a blend of Confucianist Han Chinese and Taiwanese aborigines cultures, which are often perceived in both traditional and modern understandings.
The cultural of Vietnam (Văn hóa Việt Nam The culture of Vietnam) is one of the oldest in Southeast Asia, with the ancient Bronze age Đông Sơn culture being widely considered one of its most important progenitors.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Di (Chinese: 地, p Dì, w Ti, lit. "earth") is one of the oldest Chinese terms for the earth and a key concept or figure in Chinese mythology and religion.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Draco is a constellation in the far northern sky.
Duanmu Ci (520–456 BC), also known by his courtesy name Zigong, was one of the most important and loyal disciples of Confucius.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The "Sinosphere", or "East Asian cultural sphere", refers to a grouping of countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture.
Edo Neo-Confucianism, known in Japanese as, refers to the schools of Neo-Confucian philosophy that developed in Japan during the Edo period.
Egotism is the drive to maintain and enhance favorable views of oneself, and generally features an inflated opinion of one's personal features and importance.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Ex nihilo is a Latin phrase meaning "out of nothing".
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
The family as a model for the organization of the state is a theory of political philosophy.
In Confucian philosophy, filial piety (xiào) is a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors.
The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.
The four occupations or "four categories of the people"Hansson, pp.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
In modern parlance, a gentleman (from gentle + man, translating the Old French gentilz hom) is any man of good, courteous conduct.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
The Great Learning or Daxue was one of the "Four Books" in Confucianism.
Guiyang is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Han Fei (233 BC), also known as Han Fei Zi, was a Chinese philosopher of the Warring States period "Chinese Legalist" school.
The Han Kitab (d) was a collection of Chinese Islamic texts, written by Chinese Muslims, which synthesized Islam and Confucianism.
The Harmonious Society has been a socioeconomic vision in China.
Herbert Fingarette is an American philosopher and emeritus professor of philosophy at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Herman Kahn (February 15, 1922 – July 7, 1983) was a founder of the Hudson Institute and one of the preeminent futurists of the latter part of the twentieth century.
Herrlee Glessner Creel (January 19, 1905June 1, 1994) was an American Sinologist and philosopher who specialized in Chinese philosophy and history, and was a professor of Chinese at the University of Chicago for nearly 40 years.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The Holy Confucian Church or Holy Church of Confucius (孔圣会 Kǒngshènghuì) or Holy Confucian Church of China (中华孔圣会 Zhōnghuá Kǒngshènghuì) is a body formed of many local Confucian churches or halls (孔圣堂 Kǒngshèngtáng) in China.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hu Shih (17 December 1891 – 24 February 1962) was a Chinese philosopher, essayist and diplomat.
Huang–Lao or Huanglao was the most influential Chinese school of thought in the early 2nd-century BCE Han dynasty, having its origins in a broader political-philosophical drive looking for solutions to strengthen the feudal order as depicted in Zhou propaganda.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.
Hundun is both a "legendary faceless being" in Chinese mythology and the "primordial and central chaos" in Chinese cosmogony, comparable with the World egg.
The I Ching,.
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jiang Qing (born 1953) is a contemporary Chinese Confucian.
Kang Youwei (Cantonese: Hōng Yáuh-wàih; 19March 185831March 1927) was a Chinese scholar, noted calligrapher and prominent political thinker and reformer of the late Qing dynasty.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
King Wen of Zhou (1152 1056 BC) was king of Zhou during the late Shang dynasty in ancient China.
Kokugaku (kyūjitai: 國學/shinjitai: 国学; literally national study) was an academic movement, a school of Japanese philology and philosophy originating during the Tokugawa period.
Korean Confucianism is the form of Confucianism that emerged and developed in Korea.
Korean shamanism, also known as Shinism (Hangul 신교, Hanja 神敎; Shingyo or Shinkyo, "religion of the spirits/gods"), or Shindo (Hangul: 신도; Hanja: 神道, "way of the spirits/gods"), is the collective term for the ethnic religions of Korea which date back to prehistory, and consist in the worship of gods (신 shin) and ancestors (조상 josang).
Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.
Large Seal script or Great Seal script is a traditional reference to Chinese writing from before the Qin dynasty, and is now popularly understood to refer narrowly to the writing of the Western and early Eastern Zhou dynasties, and more broadly to also include the oracle bone script.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.
Lessons for Women, also translated as Admonitions for Women, Women's Pre-cepts, or Warnings for Women, is a work by the Han dynasty female intellectual Ban Zhao.
Li is a classical Chinese word which is commonly used in Chinese philosophy, particularly within Confucianism.
Li （理, pinyin lǐ）is a concept found in Neo-Confucian Chinese philosophy.
Liu Zhi (Xiao'erjing: ﻟِﯿَﻮْ جِ, ca. 1660 – ca. 1739), or Liu Chih, was a Chinese Sunni Muslim scholar and philosopher of the Qing dynasty, belonging to the Huiru (Muslim) school of Neoconfucian thought.
Loyalty, in general use, is a devotion and faithfulness to a nation, cause, philosophy, country, group, or person.
Lu Xun (Wade–Giles romanisation: Lu Hsün) was the pen name of Zhou Shuren (25 September 1881 – 19 October 1936), a leading figure of modern Chinese literature.
Ma Fuxiang (French romanization: Ma-Fou-hiang or Ma Fou-siang; 4 February 1876 – 19 August 1932) was a Chinese military and political leader spanning the Qing Dynasty through the early Republic of China and illustrated the power of family, the role of religious affiliations, and the interaction of Inner Asian China and the national government of China.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
Matteo Ricci, S.J. (Mattheus Riccius Maceratensis; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.
Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement, rather than factors such as sexuality, race, gender or wealth.
Michele or Michael Ruggieri (1543– 11 May 1607), born Pompilio Ruggieri and known in China as Luo Mingjian, was an Italian Jesuit priest and missionary.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under the ancient Chinese philosopher Mozi (c. 470 BC – c. 391 BC) and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
Mozi (Latinized as Micius; c. 470 – c. 391 BC), original name Mo Di (墨翟), was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (early Warring States period).
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912 to address China’s problems.
The New Life Movement was a government-led civic movement in 1930s China to promote cultural reform and Neo-Confucian social morality and to ultimately unite China under a centralised ideology following the emergence of ideological challenges to the status quo.
Nontheism or non-theism is a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of espoused belief in a God or gods.
An orbital pole is either point at the ends of an imaginary line segment that runs through the center of an orbit (of a revolving body like a planet) and is perpendicular to the orbital plane.
In the study of religion, orthopraxy is correct conduct, both ethical and liturgical, as opposed to faith or grace etc.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
Physis (Greek: italic phusis) is a Greek theological, philosophical, and scientific term usually translated into English as "nature".
In spiritual terminology, piety is a virtue that may include religious devotion, spirituality, or a mixture of both.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
Pope Benedict XIV (Benedictus XIV; 31 March 1675 – 3 May 1758), born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, served as the Pope of the Catholic Church from 17 August 1740 to his death in 1758.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
A prince is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family ranked below a king and above a duke.
Prospero Intorcetta (1626–1696), known to the Chinese as Yin Duoze, was an Italian Jesuit missionary to the Qing Empire.
In traditional Chinese culture, qi or ch'i is believed to be a vital force forming part of any living entity.
Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty-era in ancient China, variously reckoned as a march, duchy, and independent kingdom.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qufu is a city in southwestern Shandong Province, China.
Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
Ren is the Confucian virtue denoting the good feeling a virtuous human experiences when being altruistic.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
A rite is an established, ceremonial, usually religious, act.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.
Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shangdi, also written simply, "Emperor", is the Chinese term for "Supreme Deity" or "Highest Deity" in the theology of the classical texts, especially deriving from Shang theology and finding an equivalent in the later Tian ("Heaven" or "Great Whole") of Zhou theology.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Shen is the Chinese word for "god", "deity", "spirit" or theos.
Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China.
Sima Guang (17 November 1019 – 11 October 1086), courtesy name Junshi, was a Chinese historian, writer, and politician.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sino-Platonic Papers is a scholarly monographic series published by the University of Pennsylvania.
Small Seal Script (Chinese: 小篆, xiǎozhuàn), formerly romanized as Hsiao-chuan and also known as Seal Script, Lesser Seal Script and Qin Script (秦篆, Qínzhuàn), is an archaic form of Chinese calligraphy.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Stephan Feuchtwang (born 1937) is emeritus professor of anthropology at the London School of Economics (LSE).
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
Sun Lu-t'ang or Sun Lutang (1860-1933) was a renowned master of Chinese neijia (internal) martial arts and was the progenitor of the syncretic art of Sun-style t'ai chi ch'uan.
The Supreme Council for the Confucian Religion in Indonesia (Majelis Tinggi Agama Konghucu Indonesia, MATAKIN; HYPY: yìnní kǒngiào zǒnghuì; Chinese: 印尼孔教總會) is a Confucian church established in 1955 in Indonesia, comprising the communities of practitioners of Confucianism mostly among Chinese Indonesians.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tao or Dao (from) is a Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science' Dr Zai, J..
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
A temple of Confucius or Confucian temple is a temple for the veneration of Confucius and the sages and philosophers of Confucianism in Chinese folk religion and other East Asian religions.
The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation, written by John M. Hobson in 2004, is a book that argues against the historical theory of the rise of the West after 1492 as a "virgin birth", but rather as a product of Western interactions with more technically and socially advanced Eastern civilization.
The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars, also translated as The Twenty-four Paragons of Filial Piety, is a classic text of Confucian filial piety written by Guo Jujing (郭居敬)(郭居敬尤溪人。性至孝，事親，左右承順，得其歡心。嘗摭虞舜而下二十四人孝行之概序而詩之，名二十四孝詩，以訓童蒙。) Wang, Qi (王圻).
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
The Three Obediences and Four Virtues were a set of basic moral principles specifically for women in Confucianism.
The Three Principles of the People, also translated as Three People's Principles, San-min Doctrine, or Tridemism is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation.
Tiān (天) is one of the oldest Chinese terms for heaven and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion.
Tu Weiming (born February 26, 1940) is an ethicist and a New Confucian.
Ursa Major (also known as the Great Bear) is a constellation in the northern sky, whose associated mythology likely dates back into prehistory.
Ursa Minor (Latin: "Lesser Bear", contrasting with Ursa Major), also known as the Little Bear, is a constellation in the Northern Sky.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Vietnamese folk religion or Vietnamese indigenous religion (tín ngưỡng dân gian Việt Nam, tôn giáo bản địa Việt Nam) is the ethnic religion of the Vietnamese people.
Vietnamese philosophy includes both traditional Confucian philosophy, Vietnamese local religious traditions, and later philosophy introducing French, Marxist, Catholic and other influences.
Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
The Way of the Gods according to the Confucian Tradition (Chinese: 儒宗神教 Rúzōng Shénjiào), also called the Luandao (鸾道 "Phoenix Way" or 鸾门 Luánmén, "Phoenix Gate") or Luanism (鸾教 Luánjiào) or—from the name of its cell congregations—the phoenix halls or phoenix churches (鸾堂 luántáng), is a Confucian congregational religious movement of the Chinese traditional beliefs.
Widow chastity was an ideal in traditional Chinese cultural practices and beliefs that honored widowed women and discouraged their remarriage, encouraging them to instead live a life of "virtuous chastity".
Work ethic is a belief that hard work and diligence have a moral benefit and an inherent ability, virtue or value to strengthen character and individual abilities.
Wu are spirit mediums who have practiced divination, prayer, sacrifice, rainmaking, and healing in Chinese traditions dating back over 3,000 years.
Wu wei is a concept literally meaning non-action or non-doing.
The Wǔfāng Shàngdì (五方上帝 "Five Forms of the Highest Deity"), or simply Wǔdì (五帝 "Five Deities") or Wǔshén (五神 "Five Gods") are, in Chinese canonical texts and common Chinese religion, the fivefold manifestation of the supreme God of Heaven (天 Tiān).
Professor Yao Xinzhong (born 1957) is Dean of the School of Philosophy at Renmin University of China in Beijing, as well as author and editor of the Encyclopaedia of Confucianism.
Xun Kuang (c. 310c. 235 BC, alt. c. 314c. 217 BC), also widely known as Xunzi ("Master Xun"), was a Chinese Confucian philosopher who lived during the Warring States period and contributed to the Hundred Schools of Thought.
Yan Hui (–481 BC) was the favorite disciple of Confucius and one of the most revered figures of Confucianism.
Yi,, literally "justice, righteousness; meaning," is an important concept in Confucianism.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
Zengzi (505–435 BC), born Zeng Shen, courtesy name Ziyu, was an influential Chinese philosopher and disciple of Confucius.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Zhou Youguang (13 January 1906 – 14 January 2017) was a Chinese economist, banker, linguist, sinologist, publisher, and supercentenarian, known as the "father of Pinyin", a system for the writing of Mandarin Chinese in Roman script, or romanization, which was officially adopted by the government of the People's Republic of China in 1958, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1982, and the United Nations in 1986.
Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.
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