Communication
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# Confusion and diffusion

In cryptography, confusion and diffusion are two properties of the operation of a secure cipher which were identified by Claude Shannon in his paper Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems, published in 1949. [1]

## Avalanche effect

In cryptography, the avalanche effect refers to a desirable property of cryptographic algorithms, typically block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions.

## Cipher

In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption&mdash;a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.

## Ciphertext

In cryptography, ciphertext (or cyphertext) is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher.

## Claude Shannon

Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electronic engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".

## Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems

Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems is a paper published in 1949 by Claude Shannon discussing cryptography from the viewpoint of information theory.

## Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology; from Greek κρυπτός kryptós, "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "writing", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties (called adversaries).

## Plaintext

In cryptography, plaintext is information a sender wishes to transmit to a receiver.

## Substitution-permutation network

In cryptography, an SP-network, or substitution-permutation network (SPN), is a series of linked mathematical operations used in block cipher algorithms such as AES (Rijndael).

## Symmetric-key algorithm

Symmetric-key algorithms are algorithms for cryptography that use the same cryptographic keys for both encryption of plaintext and decryption of ciphertext.

## References

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