122 relations: Acid, Acne, ACTH stimulation test, Adherence (medicine), Adrenal gland, Adrenal insufficiency, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Aldosterone, Allele, Amenorrhea, Amniocentesis, Andrea Prader, Androgen, Androstenedione, Anovulation, Anti-Müllerian hormone, Aromatase, Blood pressure, Body odor, Bone age, Cholesterol, Chordee, Chorionic villus sampling, Clitoris, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cortisol, Cryptorchidism, Cushing's syndrome, Cytochrome P450, Dehydration, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Dexamethasone, Dialysis, Disorders of sex development, DNA, Dominance (genetics), Electrolyte, Endoplasmic reticulum, Epiphysis, Estradiol, Fallopian tube, Fludrocortisone, Flutamide, Gender identity, Genetic carrier, Genetic recombination, Glucocorticoid, Gonad, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Growth hormone therapy, ..., Hirsutism, History of intersex surgery, Human leukocyte antigen, Human penis, Hydrocortisone, Hydroxylation, Hyperkalemia, Hypoglycemia, Hyponatremia, Hypospadias, Hypothalamus, Inborn errors of metabolism, Inborn errors of steroid metabolism, Infertility, Intersex, Intersex medical interventions, Intersex Society of North America, John Money, Karyotype, Labia, Leuprorelin, Lordosis behavior, Mammal, Maria New, Medical identification tag, Menstrual cycle, Metabolic acidosis, Milton Diamond, Mineralocorticoid, Newborn screening, Ovary, Ovulation, Pediatric endocrinology, Pediatric surgery, Pediatric urology, Phallus, Placenta, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Potassium, Prader scale, Precocious puberty, Prednisolone, Prednisone, Pregnenolone, Progesterone, Pseudogene, Pseudohermaphroditism, Puberty, Pubic hair, Renin, Rodent, Scrotum, Sensitivity and specificity, Sex assignment, Sex steroid, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual intercourse, Sexual orientation, Shock (circulatory), Sodium, Testicle, Testolactone, Testosterone, Urethra, Urinary retention, Urinary tract infection, Uterus, Vagina, Virilization, Zygosity, 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone, 21-Hydroxylase. Expand index (72 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
The ACTH test (also called the cosyntropin, tetracosactide, or Synacthen test) is a medical test usually ordered and interpreted by endocrinologists to assess the functioning of the adrenal glands stress response by measuring the adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; corticotropin) or another corticotropic agent such as tetracosactide (cosyntropin, tetracosactrin; Synacthen) or alsactide (Synchrodyn).
In medicine, compliance (also adherence, capacitance) describes the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
Amniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT) is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections, and also for sex determination, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and then the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities.
Andrea Prader (December 23, 1919 – June 3, 2001) was a Swiss scientist, physician, and pediatric endocrinologist.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Anovulation is when the ovaries do not release an oocyte during a menstrual cycle.
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), also known as Müllerian-inhibiting hormone (MIH), is a glycoprotein hormone structurally related to inhibin and activin from the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, whose key roles are in growth differentiation and folliculogenesis.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Body odor (American English) or body odour (British English; see spelling differences) is present in animals and humans, and its intensity can be influenced by many factors (behavioral patterns, survival strategies).
Bone age is the degree of maturation of a child's bones.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Chordee is a condition in which the head of the penis curves downward or upward, at the junction of the head and shaft of the penis.
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS), sometimes called "chorionic villous sampling" (as "villous" is the adjectival form of the word "villus"), is a form of prenatal diagnosis to determine chromosomal or genetic disorders in the fetus.
The clitoris is a female sex organ present in mammals, ostriches and a limited number of other animals.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
Disorders of sex development (DSD), sometimes referred to as disorders of sex differentiation or differences of sex development, are medical conditions involving the reproductive system.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
The epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone, at its joint with adjacent bone(s).
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or salpinges (singular salpinx), are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the uterotubal junction.
Fludrocortisone, sold under the brand name Florinef among others, is a corticosteroid which is used to treat adrenogenital syndrome, postural hypotension, and adrenal insufficiency.
Flutamide, sold under the brand name Eulexin among others, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) which is used primarily to treat prostate cancer.
Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender.
A hereditary carrier (or just carrier), is a person or other organism that has inherited a recessive allele for a genetic trait or mutation but usually does not display that trait or show symptoms of the disease.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
Growth hormone therapy refers to the use of growth hormone (GH) as a prescription medication—it is one form of hormone therapy.
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.
The history of intersex surgery is intertwined with the development of the specialities of pediatric surgery, pediatric urology, and pediatric endocrinology, with our increasingly refined understanding of sexual differentiation, with the development of political advocacy groups united by a human qualified analysis, and in the last decade by doubts as to efficacy, and controversy over when and even whether some procedures should be performed.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.
The human penis is an external male intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct.
Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
Hypospadias is a congenital disorder of the urethra where the urinary opening is not at the usual location on the head of the penis.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Inborn errors of metabolism form a large class of genetic diseases involving congenital disorders of metabolism.
An inborn error of steroid metabolism is an inborn error of metabolism due to defects in steroid metabolism.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".
Intersex medical interventions are surgical, hormonal and other medical interventions performed to modify atypical or ambiguous genitalia and other sex characteristics, primarily for the purposes of making a person's appearance more normal and to reduce the likelihood of future problems.
The Intersex Society of North America (ISNA) was a non-profit advocacy group founded in 1993 by Cheryl Chase to end shame, secrecy, and unwanted genital surgeries.
John William Money (8 July 1921 – 7 July 2006) was a psychologist, sexologist and author, specializing in research into sexual identity and biology of gender.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
The labia are part of the female genitalia; they are the major externally visible portions of the vulva.
Leuprorelin, also known as leuprolide, is a manufactured version of a hormone used to treat prostate cancer, breast cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and early puberty.
Lordosis behavior, also known as mammalian lordosis (Greek lordōsis, from lordos "bent backward") or presenting, is the naturally occurring body posture for sexual receptivity to copulation present in most mammals including rodents, elephants, and felines.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Maria Iandolo New is a professor of Pediatrics, Genomics and Genetics at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City.
A medical identification tag is a small emblem or tag worn on a bracelet, neck chain, or on the clothing bearing a message that the wearer has an important medical condition that might require immediate attention.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.
Milton Diamond (born March 6, 1934 in New York City) is a Professor Emeritus of anatomy and reproductive biology at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa.
Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.
Newborn screening is a public health program of screening in infants shortly after birth for a list of conditions that are treatable, but not clinically evident in the newborn period.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Pediatric endocrinology (British: Paediatric) is a medical subspecialty dealing with disorders of the endocrine glands, such as variations of physical growth and sexual development in childhood, diabetes and many more.
Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of surgery involving the surgery of fetuses, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults.
Pediatric urology is a surgical subspecialty of medicine dealing with the disorders of children's genitourinary systems.
A phallus is a penis (especially when erect), an object that resembles a penis, or a mimetic image of an erect penis.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
The Prader scale or Prader staging, named after Dr.
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.
Prednisolone is a steroid medication used to treat certain types of allergies, inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorders, and cancers.
Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.
Pregnenolone (P5), or pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one, is an endogenous steroid and precursor/metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of most of the steroid hormones, including the progestogens, androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.
Pseudohermaphroditism, or pseudo-hermaphroditism, is an old clinical term for an organism that is born with primary sex characteristics of one sex but develops the secondary sex characteristics that are different from what would be expected on the basis of the gonadal tissue (ovary or testis).
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Pubic hair is terminal body hair that is found in the genital area of adolescent and adult humans.
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
The scrotum is an anatomical male reproductive structure that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sack of skin and smooth muscle that is present in most terrestrial male mammals and located under the penis.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Sex assignment (sometimes known as gender assignment) is the determination of an infant's sex at birth.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testolactone (brand name Teslac) is a non-selective, irreversible, steroidal aromatase inhibitor which is used as an antineoplastic drug to treat advanced-stage breast cancer.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), or hydroxyprogesterone (OHP), is an endogenous progestogen steroid hormone related to progesterone.
Steroid 21-hydroxylase, also called steroid 21-monooxygenase, 21α-Hydroxylase, P450 21A2, and, less commonly 21β-Hydroxylase, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved with the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol.