197 relations: Abir Congo Company, Absolute monarchy, Adam Hochschild, Africa, African Studies Review, African trypanosomiasis, Alfred Sharpe, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Angola, Arab slave trade, Arthur Conan Doyle, Atrocities in the Congo Free State, Austria-Hungary, Barghash bin Said of Zanzibar, Batetela rebellion, Battle of Rejaf, Belgian Anti-Slavery Society, Belgian Congo, Belgian Federal Parliament, Belgium, Berlin Conference, Bertrand Russell, Blackwood's Magazine, Boma (enclosure), Boma, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Booker T. Washington, Boston, British Central Africa Protectorate, British South Africa Company, Brussels, Brussels Anti-Slavery Conference 1889–90, Brussels Conference Act of 1890, Brussels Geographic Conference, Cambridge University Press, Cape Colony, Casement Report, Catholic Church, Cause célèbre, Cecil Rhodes, Centime, Central Africa, Central African Republic, Chester A. Arthur, Christian de Bonchamps, Colonial Charter on the Belgian annexation of the Congo Free State, Colonization of the Congo, Colony, Commodity, Concession (contract), Congo Arab war, ..., Congo Basin, Congo Free State propaganda war, Congo Reform Association, Congo River, Congo rubber, Congolese franc, Congress of Berlin, Connecticut, Copper, Corvée, David Livingstone, De facto, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Detroit, Diogo Cão, Dutch language, E. D. Morel, Early day motion, Elder Dempster Lines, Emile Vandervelde, Equator, Eurasia, First Brazilian Republic, Force Publique, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Franc, Francis Dhanis, Frankfurt, Free trade, French language, French Third Republic, Genocide, George Grenfell, German Empire, German South West Africa, Google Books, Government of the United Kingdom, Governor, Greenwood Publishing Group, Harper (publisher), Harry Johnston, Heart of Darkness, Henry Morton Stanley, Henry Shelton Sanford, Herbert Ward (sculptor), Hevea brasiliensis, Hippolyte d'Ursel, Hippopotamus, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Howard University Press, International African Association, International Association of the Congo, Ituri Province, Ivory, Jan Vansina, John Boyd Dunlop, Joseph Conrad, Journal of Belgian History, Katanga Province, Khartoum, King Leopold's Ghost, King Leopold's Soliloquy, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Portugal, Kisangani, Kodok, Lado Enclave, Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Latin America, Leopold II of Belgium, List of colonial governors of the Congo Free State and Belgian Congo, Liverpool, London, London School of Economics, Louis-Napoléon Chaltin, Lualaba River, Macmillan Publishers, Mahdist State, Mahdist War, Malaria, Maniema, Mark Twain, Matadi–Kinshasa Railway, Military base, Missionary, Mortality displacement, Most favoured nation, Msiri, Natural rubber, New York City, Non-governmental organization, Novel, Omer Bodson, Order of the Crown (Belgium), Otto von Bismarck, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Paternalism, Personal union, Plantation, Pool Malebo, Postage stamp, Price, Prime Minister of Belgium, Project Gutenberg, Protestantism, Rainforest, Rape, Rejaf, Republic of the Congo, Roger Casement, Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Rudolph Rummel, Russian Empire, Sjambok, Slavery, South Africa, South Sudan, Southeast Asia, Stairs Expedition to Katanga, Sultanate of Zanzibar, Swahili coast, Swamp, Tanganyika Province, Tanzania, Telegraphy, Théophile Wahis, The Crime of the Congo, The Guardian, The King Incorporated, Tippu Tip, Uganda, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States, University College Dublin, Verney Lovett Cameron, Vers l'avenir, Walthère Frère-Orban, Westport, Connecticut, William Grant Stairs, William Henry Sheppard, Yeke Kingdom, Zanzibar, 1888. Expand index (147 more) » « Shrink index
The Abir Congo Company (founded as the Anglo-Belgian India Rubber Company and later known as the Compagnie du Congo Belge) was a company that exploited natural rubber in the Congo Free State, the private property of King Leopold II of Belgium.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Adam Hochschild (born October 5, 1942) is an American author, journalist, and lecturer.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The African Studies Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering African studies.
African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.
Sir Alfred Sharpe, KCMG, CB (19 May 1853 in Lancaster – 10 December 1935) was Commissioner and Consul-General for the British Central Africa Protectorate and first Governor of Nyasaland.
The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (السودان الإنجليزي المصري) was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt in the eastern Sudan region of northern Africa between 1899 and 1956, but in practice the structure of the condominium ensured full British control over the Sudan.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.
Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes.
In the period from 1885 to 1908, a number of well-documented atrocities were perpetrated in the Congo Free State (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) which, at the time, was a colony under the personal rule of King Leopold II of Belgium.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Sayyid Barghash bin Said Al-Busaid, GCMG, GCTE (1837 – March 26, 1888) (برغش بن سعيد البوسعيد), son of Said bin Sultan, was the second Sultan of Zanzibar.
The Batetela rebellion (Révolte des Batetela) was a series of three military mutinies and a subsequent low-level insurgency which was attributed to members of the Tetela ethnic group in the Congo Free State between 1895 and 1908.
The Battle of Rejaf, or the Battle of Bedden, was fought on 17 February 1897 between the Belgian-led forces of the Congo Free State and Mahdist rebels in South Sudan.
The Belgian Anti-Slavery Society (Société antiesclavagiste de Belgique, Antislavernijmaatschappij van België) was a 19th-century organization, with the goal of putting an end to the Arab slave trade in the African continent.
The Belgian Congo (Congo Belge,; Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
The Belgian Federal Parliament is the bicameral parliament of Belgium.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Blackwood's Magazine was a British magazine and miscellany printed between 1817 and 1980.
A boma is a livestock enclosure, stockade, corral, small fort or a district government office and community used in many parts of the African Great Lakes region, as well as Central and Southern Africa.
Boma is a port town on the Congo River, some 100 km upstream from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Kongo Central province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Booker Taliaferro Washington (– November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
The British Central Africa Protectorate (BCA) was a protectorate proclaimed in 1889 and ratified in 1891 that occupied the same area as present-day Malawi: it was renamed Nyasaland in 1907.
The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was established following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' Central Search Association and the London-based Exploring Company Ltd which had originally competed to exploit the expected mineral wealth of Mashonaland but united because of common economic interests and to secure British government backing.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
The Brussels Anti-Slavery Conference 1889–90 was held between 18 November 1889 - 2 July 1890 in Brussels.
The Brussels Conference Act of 1890 (full title: Convention Relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms, Ammunition, and Spiritous Liquors) was a collection of anti-slavery measures signed in Brussels on 2 July 1890 (and which entered into force on 31 August 1891) to, as the act itself puts it, "put an end to Negro Slave Trade by land as well as by sea, and to improve the moral and material conditions of existence of the native races".
The Brussels Geographic Conference was held in Brussels Belgium in September 1876 at the request of King Leopold II of Belgium.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.
The Casement Report was a 1904 document written by Roger Casement (1864–1916)—a diplomat and Irish independence fighter who was hanged on 3 August 1916 for treason, sabotage and espionage against the British Crown on the basis of collaboration with the German Empire during WWI—detailing abuses in the Congo Free State which was under the private ownership of King Leopold II of Belgium.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A cause célèbre (famous case; plural causes célèbres) is an issue or incident arousing widespread controversy, outside campaigning, and heated public debate.
Cecil John Rhodes PC (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896.
Centime (from centesimus) is French for "cent", and is used in English as the name of the fraction currency in several Francophone countries (including Switzerland, Algeria, Belgium, Morocco and France).
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American attorney and politician who served as the 21st President of the United States from 1881 to 1885; he succeeded James A. Garfield upon the latter's assassination.
The Marquis Christian de Bonchamps (15 June 1860 – 9 December 1919) was a French explorer in Africa and a colonial officer in the French Empire during the late 19th- early 20th-century epoch known as the "Scramble for Africa", who played an important role in two of the more notorious incidents of the period.
The Colonial Charter on the Belgian annexation of the Congo Free State was approved by the Belgian parliament on 18 October 1908.
Colonization of the Congo refers to the European colonization of the Congo region of tropical Africa.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
A concession or concession agreement is a grant of rights, land or property by a government, local authority, corporation, individual or other legal entity.
The Congo Arab war (also known as the Congolese-Arab war, Belgo-Arab War or Arab Wars) took place in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo between the forces of Belgian King Leopold II's Congo Free State and various Zanzibari "Arab" slave traders led by Sefu bin Hamid, the son of Tippu Tip.
The Congo Basin is the sedimentary basin of the Congo River.
The Congo Free State propaganda war was a worldwide media propaganda campaign waged by both King Leopold II of Belgium and the critics of the Congo Free State.
The Congo Reform Association was a movement formed with the declared intention to aid the exploited and impoverished workforce of the Congo by drawing attention to their plight.
The Congo River (also spelled Kongo River and known as the Zaire River) is the second longest river in Africa after the Nile and the second largest river in the world by discharge volume of water (after the Amazon), and the world's deepest river with measured depths in excess of.
Rubber was exported from the Belgian Congo, starting in 1890.
The franc is the currency of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro).
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.
David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish Christian Congregationalist, pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society, an explorer in Africa, and one of the most popular British heroes of the late-19th-century Victorian era.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.
Diogo Cão, anglicised as Diogo Cam and also known as Diego Cam, was a Portuguese explorer and one of the most notable navigators of the Age of Discovery.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Edmund Dene Morel (born Georges Eduard Pierre Achille Morel de Ville; 10 July 1873 – 12 November 1924) was a British journalist, author, pacifist, and politician.
An early day motion (EDM), in the Westminster system, is a motion, expressed as a single sentence, tabled by Members of Parliament that formally calls for debate "on an early day".
Elder Dempster Lines was a UK shipping company that traded from 1932 to 2000, but had its origins in the mid-19th century.
Emile Vandervelde (25 January 1866 – 27 December 1938) was a Belgian socialist politician.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The First Brazilian Republic or República Velha ("Old Republic") is the period of Brazilian history from 1889 to 1930.
The Force Publique ("Public Force"; Openbare Weermacht) was a gendarmerie and military force in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1885 (when the territory was known as the Congo Free State), through the period of Belgian colonial rule (Belgian Congo – 1908 to 1960).
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
The franc (₣) is the name of several currency units.
Francis Dhanis (1861–1909) was a Belgian colonial civil servant and soldier noted for his service for the Congo Free State during the Congo Arab War and Batetela Rebellion.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
George Grenfell (21 August 1849, in Sancreed, Cornwall – 1 July 1906, in Basoko, Congo Free State (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo)) was a Cornish missionary and explorer.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German South West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1919.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Harper is an American publishing house, currently the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins.
Sir Henry Hamilton Johnston (12 June 1858 – 31 July 1927), frequently known as Harry Johnston, was a British explorer who traveled widely in Africa, botanist, artist, linguist who spoke many African languages and colonial administrator.
Heart of Darkness (1899) is a novella by Polish-English novelist Joseph Conrad, about a voyage up the Congo River into the Congo Free State, in the heart of Africa, by the story's narrator Charles Marlow.
Sir Henry Morton Stanley (born John Rowlands; 28 January 1841 – 10 May 1904) was a Welsh journalist and explorer who was famous for his exploration of central Africa and his search for missionary and explorer David Livingstone.
Henry Shelton Sanford (June 15, 1823 – May 21, 1891) was a wealthy American diplomat, businessman, and aristocrat from Connecticut who served as United States Minister to Belgium from 1861 to 1869.
Herbert Ward (11 January 1863, London – 5 August 1919, Neuilly-sur-Seine) was a British sculptor, illustrator, writer and African explorer.
Hevea brasiliensis, the Pará rubber tree, sharinga tree, seringueira, or, most commonly, the rubber tree or rubber plant, is a tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae.
Count Marie Hippolyte Adrien Ludovic d'Ursel (Brussels, 17 November 1850 – 9 December 1937) was a Belgian politician and historian.
The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Howard University Press was a publisher that was part of Howard University, founded in 1972.
The International African Association (Association internationale africaine) was a front organization established by the guests at the Brussels Geographic Conference of 1876, an event hosted by King Leopold II of Belgium.
The International Association of the Congo (Association internationale du Congo), also known as the International Congo Society, was an association founded on 17 November 1879 by Leopold II of Belgium to further his interests in the Congo.
Ituri is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
Jan Vansina (14 September 1929 – 8 February 2017) was a Belgian historian and anthropologist regarded as an authority on the history of Central Africa.
John Boyd Dunlop (5 February 1840 – 23 October 1921) was a Scottish inventor and veterinary surgeon who spent most of his career in Ireland.
Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language.
The Journal of Belgian History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Centre for Historical Research and Documentation on War and Contemporary Society (Cegesoma).
Katanga was one of the eleven provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1966 and 2015, when it was split into the Tanganyika, Haut-Lomami, Lualaba and Haut-Katanga provinces.
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.
King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa (1998) is a best-selling popular history book by Adam Hochschild that explores the exploitation of the Congo Free State by King Leopold II of Belgium between 1885 and 1908, as well as the large-scale atrocities committed during that period.
King Leopold's Soliloquy is a 1905 pamphlet by Mark Twain.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville or Stanleystad) is the capital of Tshopo province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Kodok or Kothok (كودوك), formerly known as Fashoda, is a town in the north-eastern South Sudanese state of Western Nile.
The Lado Enclave was an exclave of the Congo Free State and later of Belgian Congo that existed from 1894 until 1910, situated on the west bank of the Upper Nile in what is now South Sudan and northwest Uganda.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a multilingual country where an estimated total of 242 languages are spoken.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Leopold II (9 April 183517 December 1909) reigned as the second King of the Belgians from 1865 to 1909 and became known for the founding and exploitation of the Congo Free State as a private venture.
This is a list of European colonial administrators responsible for the territory of the Congo Free State and Belgian Congo (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo).
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Louis-Napoléon Chaltin (1857–1933) was a Belgian career soldier and colonial official notable for his service in the Congo Free State during the late 19th century.
The Lualaba River flows entirely within the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
The Mahdist State, also known as Mahdist Sudan or the Sudanese Mahdiyya, was a religious and political movement launched in 1881 by Muammad Ahmad bin Abdullah (later Muhammad al-Mahdi) against the Khedivate of Egypt, which had ruled the Sudan since 1821.
The Mahdist War (الثورة المهدية ath-Thawra al-Mahdī; 1881–99) was a British colonial war of the late 19th century which was fought between the Mahdist Sudanese of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, who had proclaimed himself the "Mahdi" of Islam (the "Guided One"), and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Maniema is one of 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
The Matadi–Kinshasa Railway is a railway line in Bas-Congo Province between the port of Matadi and Kinshasa, the capital of Democratic Republic of the Congo.
A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
Mortality displacement denotes a temporal or temporary increase in the mortality rate (number of deaths) in a given population, also known as excess mortality or excess mortality rate.
In international economic relations and international politics, "most favoured nation" (MFN) is a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade.
Msiri (c. 1830 – December 20, 1891) founded and ruled the Yeke Kingdom (also called the Garanganze or Garenganze kingdom) in south-east Katanga (now in DR Congo) from about 1856 to 1891.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.
Omer Bodson (5 January 1856 – 20 December 1891) was the Belgian officer who shot and killed Msiri, King of Garanganze (Katanga) on 20 December 1891 at Bunkeya in what is now DR Congo.
The Order of the Crown (Ordre de la Couronne, Kroonorde) is a national order of the Kingdom of Belgium.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Paternalism is action limiting a person's or group's liberty or autonomy which is intended to promote their own good.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.
The Pool Malebo, formerly Stanley Pool, also known as Lake Nkunda by local indigenous people in pre-colonial times, is a lake-like widening in the lower reaches of the Congo River.
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage.
In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.
The Prime Minister of Belgium (Eerste minister van België; Premier ministre de Belgique; Premierminister von Belgien) or the Premier of Belgium is the head of the federal government in the Kingdom of Belgium.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
Rejaf, also Rajāf or Rageef, is a community in Jubek State in South Sudan, on the west bank of the White Nile.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa.
Roger David Casement (1 September 1864 – 3 August 1916), formerly known as Sir Roger Casement CMG, Between 1911 and shortly before his execution for high treason, when he was stripped of his knighthood and other honours.
The Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences (RAOS) (French: Académie royale des sciences d'outre-mer; Dutch: Koninklijke Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen) is a Belgian federal academy that contributes to the progress of scientific knowledge about overseas regions.
The Royal Museum for Central Africa or RMCA (Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika or KMMA; Musée royal de l'Afrique centrale or MRAC), colloquially known as the Africa Museum, is an ethnography and natural history museum situated in Tervuren in Flemish Brabant, Belgium, just outside Brussels.
Rudolph Joseph Rummel (October 21, 1932 – March 2, 2014) was professor of political science who taught at the Indiana University, Yale University, and University of Hawaii.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The sjambok or litupa is a heavy leather whip.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Stairs Expedition to Katanga of 1891−92 led by Captain William Stairs was the winner in a race between two imperial powers to claim Katanga, a vast mineral-rich territory in Central Africa for colonization, during which a local chief, (Mwenda Msiri) was killed.
The Sultanate of Zanzibar (Usultani wa Zanzibar, translit), also known as the Zanzibar Sultanate, comprised the territories over which the Sultan of Zanzibar is the sovereign.
The Swahili Coast is a coastal area in Southeast Africa inhabited by the Swahili people.
A swamp is a wetland that is forested.
Tanganyika is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
Lieutenant-General Baron Théophile-Théodore Wahis (1844–1921) was a Belgian soldier and colonial civil servant who served as Governor-General of the Congo Free State and, subsequently, the Belgian Congo for two terms between 1891 and 1912.
The Crime of the Congo is a 1909 book by British writer and physician Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, about human rights abuses in the Congo Free State, a private state established and controlled by the King of the Belgians, Leopold II.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The King Incorporated was the first history book published by award-winning Scottish journalist and historian Neal Ascherson exploring the course of the Congo Free State from its foundation to annexation, as well as the role of King Leopold II.
Tippu Tip, or Tippu Tib (1832 – June 14, 1905), real name Hamad bin Muhammad bin Juma bin Rajab el Murjebi (حمد بن محمد بن جمعة بن رجب بن محمد بن سعيد المرجبي), was a Swahili–Zanzibari slave trader, ivory trader, explorer, plantation owner and governor.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
University College, Dublin (commonly referred to as UCD; An Coláiste Ollscoile, Baile Átha Cliath) is a research university in Dublin, Ireland.
Verney Lovett Cameron (1 July 1844 – 24 March 1894) was an English traveller in Central Africa and the first European to cross (1875) equatorial Africa from sea to sea.
Vers l'avenir ("Towards the future"), less commonly known by its Dutch title Naar wijd en zijd, is a Belgian nationalist song which was also the national anthem of the Congo Free State.
Hubert Joseph Walthère Frère-Orban (24 April 1812 - 2 January 1896) was a Belgian liberal statesman.
Westport is an affluent town located in Connecticut, along Long Island Sound within Connecticut's Gold Coast in Fairfield County, Connecticut.
William Grant Stairs (1 July 1863 – 9 June 1892) was a Canadian-British explorer, soldier, and adventurer who had a leading role in two of the most controversial expeditions in the history of the colonisation of Africa.
William Henry Sheppard (March 8, 1865 – November 25, 1927) was one of the earliest African Americans to become a missionary for the Presbyterian Church.
The Yeke Kingdom (also called the Garanganze or Garenganze kingdom) of the Garanganze people in Katanga, DR Congo was short-lived, existing from about 1856 to 1891 under one king, Msiri, but it became for a while the most powerful state in south-central Africa, controlling a territory of about half a million square kilometres.
Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.
In Germany, 1888 is known as the Year of the Three Emperors.
Annexation of the Congo, Annexation of the Congo Free State, Belgian Congo Company, Congo free state, Etat independant du Congo, Free Congo State, Free State of Congo, Heads of State of the Congo Free State, Heads of state of the Congo Free State, Holocaust of the Congo, Independent State of the Congo, King Leopold's Congo, List of heads of state of the Congo Free State, Rubber Terror, The Congo Free State, État indépendant du Congo.