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A Famosa (Kota A Famosa; "The Famous" in Portuguese) is a former Portuguese fortress located in Malacca, Malaysia.
Abraham Zacuto (אברהם זכות, Abraão ben Samuel Zacuto, also Abraham ben Samuel Zacut and Abraham Zacut) (Salamanca, August 12, 1452 – Damascus, probably 1515) was a Portuguese astronomer, astrologer, mathematician, rabbi and historian who served as Royal Astronomer in the 15th century to King John II of Portugal.
Abu Abdallah Mohammed II, Al-Mutawakkil, often simply Abdallah Mohammed (died 4 August 1578) was Sultan of Morocco from 1574 to 1576.
Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, south of Mexico City.
Adelantado (meaning "advanced") was a title held by Spanish nobles in service of their respective kings during the Middle Ages.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa (1453 – 16 December 1515) (also spelled Aphonso or Alfonso), was a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror",, Vol.
Afonso de Paiva (c. 1443 – c. 1490) was a Portuguese diplomat and explorer of Ethiopia and the Barbary Coast together with Pêro da Covilhã.
Mvemba a Nzinga or Nzinga Mbemba (c. 1456–1542 or 1543), also known as King Afonso I, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo in the first half of the 16th century.
Afonso V KG (15 January 1432 – 28 August 1481), called the African, was King of Portugal and of the Algarves.
An aftercastle (or sterncastle, sometimes aftcastle) is the stern structure behind the mizzenmast and above the transom on large sailing ships, such as carracks, caravels, galleons and galleasses.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
The Agulhas Current is the western boundary current of the southwest Indian Ocean.
Ahmad al-Mansur (أبو العباس أحمد المنصور, Ahmad Abu al-Abbas al-Mansur, also El-Mansour Eddahbi, أحمد المنصور الذهبي; and Ahmed el-Mansour; 1549 in Fes – 25 August 1603, outskirts of Fes) was Sultan of the Saadi dynasty from 1578 to his death in 1603, the sixth and most famous of all rulers of the Saadis.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Alano Español, sometimes called the Spanish Bulldog in English (though the correct translation would rather be the Spanish Alaunt), is a large breed of dog of the molosser dog type, originating in Spain.
Aleixo Garcia, also known in Spanish as Alejo García (d. 1525 Paraguay) was a Portuguese explorer and conquistador who explored the Rio de la Plata in service to Spain, and later Paraguay and Bolivia.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
Alonso de Alvarado Montaya González de Cevallos y Miranda (1508–1555) was a Spanish conquistador and knight of the Order of Santiago.
Alonso de Ribera de Pareja (1560 – March 9, 1617) was a Spanish soldier and twice Spanish royal governor of Chile (1601–1605 and 1612–1617).
Alonso de Sotomayor y Valmediano (1545–1610) was a Spanish conquistador from Extremadura, and a Royal Governor of Chile.
Alonso del Castillo Maldonado (died c. 1540) was one of the first Spanish explorers in the Americas.
Alonso Fernández de Lugo (died 1525) was a Spanish military man, conquistador, city founder, and administrator.
Alta California (Upper California), founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain, and, after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico.
Alvise Cadamosto or Alvide da Ca' da Mosto (also known in Portuguese as Luís Cadamosto; c. 1432 – July 18, 1488) was an Venetian slave trader and explorer, who was hired by the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator and undertook two known journeys to West Africa in 1455 and 1456, accompanied by the Genoese captain Antoniotto Usodimare.
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ἀμαζόνες,, singular Ἀμαζών) were a tribe of women warriors related to Scythians and Sarmatians.
Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia.
Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Andrés Dorantes de Carranza (ca. 1500 – 1550), was an early Spanish explorer in the Americas.
Angelino Dulcert (fl. 1339), probably also the same person known as Angelino de Dalorto (fl. 1320s), and whose real name was probably Angelino de Dulceto or Dulceti or possibly Angelí Dolcet, was an Italian-Majorcan cartographer.
Annobón is a small province of Equatorial Guinea consisting of the island of Annobón and its associated islets in the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean's Cameroon line.
The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.
Antão Gonçalves was a 15th-century Portuguese explorer and slave trader who was the first European to buy Africans as slaves from black slave traders.
António Correia (c. 1487 - 1566) was a Portuguese commander who in 1521 conquered Bahrain, beginning eighty years of Portuguese rule in the Persian Gulf.
António de Abreu (c. 1480 – c. 1514) was a 16th-century Portuguese navigator and naval officer.
Antonio de Noli (born 1415 or possibly 1419) was a 15th-century Genoese nobleman and navigator, and the first governor of the earliest European overseas colony in Subsaharan Africa.
Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco (1495 – July 21, 1552) was the first Viceroy of New Spain, serving from November 14, 1535 to November 25, 1550, and the third Viceroy of Peru, from September 23, 1551, until his death on July 21, 1552.
Antonio de Montezinos, also known as Aharon Levi was a Portuguese traveler and a Marrano Sephardic Jew who in 1644 persuaded Menasseh Ben Israel, a rabbi of Amsterdam, that he had found one of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel living in the jungles of the "Quito Province" (that is, the Pichincha Province) of Ecuador.
Fra Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Henestrosa y Lasso de la Vega, Marquis of Vallehermoso and Count of Jerena (sometimes spelled Bucareli y Urzúa) (January 21, 1717, Seville, Spain – April 9, 1779, Mexico City) was a Spanish military officer, governor of Cuba, and viceroy of New Spain (1771—1779).
Apalachee Bay is a bay in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico occupying an indentation of the Florida coast to the west of where the Florida peninsula joins the United States mainland.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
The arquebus, derived from the German Hakenbüchse, was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe during the 15th century.
Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island, 7°56' south of the Equator in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Asilah (أزيلا or أصيلا; Aẓila, ⴰⵥⵉⵍⴰ) is a fortified town on the northwest tip of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, about south of Tangier.
An astrolabe (ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; ٱلأَسْطُرلاب al-Asturlāb; اَختِرِیاب Akhteriab) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night.
Atahualpa, also Atahuallpa, Atabalipa (in Hispanicized spellings) or Atawallpa (Quechua) (c. 1502–26 July 1533) was the last Inca Emperor.
Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and together with ocean circulation is the means by which thermal energy is redistributed on the surface of the Earth.
An attack dog is any dog trained by a human to defend or attack persons, a territory, or property either on command, on sight, or by inferred provocation.
The Ayutthaya Kingdom (อยุธยา,; also spelled Ayudhya or Ayodhaya) was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767.
The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance (Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, ˈjéːʃkaːn̥ t͡ɬaʔtoːˈlóːjaːn̥), began as an alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states: italic, italic, and italic.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (Jerez de la Frontera, 1488/1490/1492"Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Núñez (1492?-1559?)." American Eras. Vol. 1: Early American Civilizations and Exploration to 1600. Detroit: Gale, 1997. 50-51. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 Dec. 2014.Seville, 1557/1558/1559/1560"Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 08 Dec. 2014.) was a Spanish explorer of the New World, and one of four survivors of the 1527 Narváez expedition.
Álvaro Caminha was appointed by King John II of Portugal in 1492 Captain-major (governor) – apparently the third – of the Portuguese colony of São Tomé and Príncipe which had been discovered 22 years earlier.
Álvaro Martins, also known as Álvaro Martins Homem, was a 15th-century Portuguese alleged to have explored the western Atlantic and later the African coast.
The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب, "Gate of Tears") is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.
Bahia (locally) is one of the 26 states of Brazil and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Baja CaliforniaSometimes informally referred to as Baja California Norte (North Lower California) to distinguish it from both the Baja California Peninsula, of which it forms the northern half, and Baja California Sur, the adjacent state that covers the southern half of the peninsula.
The Banda Islands (Kepulauan Banda) are a volcanic group of ten small volcanic islands in the Banda Sea, about south of Seram Island and about east of Java, and constitute an administrative district (kecamatan) within the Central Maluku Regency in the Indonesian province of Maluku.
Banda Oriental, or more fully Banda Oriental del Uruguay (Eastern Bank), was the name of the South American territories east of the Uruguay River and north of Río de la Plata that comprise the modern nation of Uruguay; the modern state of Brazil Rio Grande do Sul; and some of Santa Catarina, Brazil.
The Bandeirantes were 17th-century Portuguese settlers in Brazil and fortune hunters.
Bartolomé de las Casas (1484 – 18 July 1566) was a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar.
Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.
The Battle of Alcácer Quibir (also known as "Battle of Three Kings" (معركة الملوك الثلاثة) or "Battle of Oued al-Makhazin" (معركة وادي المخازن) in Morocco) was fought in northern Morocco, near the town of Ksar-el-Kebir (variant spellings: Ksar El Kebir, Alcácer-Quivir, Alcazarquivir, Alcassar, etc.) and Larache, on 4 August 1578.
The Battle of Diu was a naval battle fought on 3 February 1509 in the Arabian Sea, in the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Zamorin of Calicut with support of the Republic of Venice.
The Bay of Fundy (or Fundy Bay; Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bernal Díaz del Castillo (c. 1496 – 1584) was a Spanish conquistador, who participated as a soldier in the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés and late in his life wrote an account of the events.
Bimini is the westernmost district of the Bahamas and comprises a chain of islands located about due east of Miami.
Bintan Island or Negeri Segantang Lada is an island in the Riau archipelago of Indonesia.
Bioko (also spelled Bioco, in Europe traditionally called Fernando Poo or Fernando Po from the period of Portuguese colonization) is an island 32 km off the west coast of Africa, and the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea.
The Bissagos Islands, also spelled Bijagós (Arquipélago dos Bijagós), are a group of about 88 islands and islets located in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the African nation of Guinea-Bissau.
Blasco Núñez Vela y Villalba (c. 1490 – January 18, 1546) was the first Spanish viceroy of Peru.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Boundary delimitation (or simply delimitation) is the drawing of boundaries, particularly of electoral precincts, states, counties or other municipalities.
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).
The bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) is a species of the family Balaenidae, in suborder Mysticeti, and genus Balaena, which once included the right whale.
The bowsprit of a sailing vessel is a spar extending forward from the vessel's prow.
A breastplate or chestplate is a device worn over the torso to protect it from injury, as an item of religious significance, or as an item of status.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bruno de Heceta (Hezeta) y Dudagoitia (1743–1807) was a Spanish Basque explorer of the Pacific Northwest.
A buckler (French bouclier 'shield', from Old French bocle, boucle 'boss') is a small shield, up to 45 cm (up to 18 in) in diameter, gripped in the fist with a central handle behind the boss.
The Burji dynasty (المماليك البرجية) was a Circassian Mamluk dynasty which ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517, during the Mamluk Sultanate.
The Danture campaign comprised a series of encounters between the Portuguese and the Kingdom of Kandy in 1594, part of the Sinhalese–Portuguese War.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
The Canton System (1757–1842) served as a means for China to control trade with the west within its own country by focusing all trade on the southern port of Canton (now Guangzhou).
Cape Breton Island (île du Cap-Breton—formerly Île Royale; Ceap Breatainn or Eilean Cheap Breatainn; Unama'kik; or simply Cape Breton, Cape is Latin for "headland" and Breton is Latin for "British") is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Cape Cross (Afrikaans: Kaap Kruis; German: Kreuzkap; Portuguese: Cabo da Cruz) is a small headland in the South Atlantic in Skeleton Coast, western Namibia, on the C34 highway some 60 kilometres north of Hentiesbaai and 120 km north of Swakopmund on the west coast of Namibia.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.
The Capture of Malacca in 1511 occurred when the governor of Portuguese India Afonso de Albuquerque conquered the city of Malacca in 1511.
Caramuru (-1557) was the Tupi name of the Portuguese colonist Diogo Álvares-Correia, also known as Diego Alvarez-Correa, who is notable for being the first European to establish contact with the native population in modern-day Brazil and was instrumental in its subsequent colonization by the Portuguese crown.
A caravel (Portuguese: caravela) is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.
The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by synecdoche; Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) is a Roman Catholic religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel in the Crusader States, hence the name Carmelites.
A carrack was a three- or four-masted ocean-going sailing ship that was developed in the 14th and 15th centuries in Europe.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
The Roman Catholic Church arrived in the Kingdom of Kongo shortly after the first Portuguese explorers reached its shores in 1483.
The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
Ceará (locally in Ceará or in Northeast Region of Brazil the pronunciation is) is one of the 27 states of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country, on the Atlantic coast.
Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
The Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition visited New Mexico in 1581-1582.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Chetumal (Modern Maya: Chactemàal, "Place of the Red Wood") (coordinates) is a city on the east coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico.
Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
Circumnavigation is navigation completely around an entire island, continent, or astronomical body (e.g. a planet or moon).
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza (Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The Cochinchina Campaign (Campagne de Cochinchine; Expedición franco-española a Cochinchina; Chiến dịch Nam Kỳ; Filipino: Expedisiyong pranses-espanyol sa Cochinchina); (1858–1862), fought between the French and Spanish on one side and the Vietnamese on the other, began as a limited punitive campaign for the murder of several Spanish and French missionaries in Vietnam.
Between 1545-1548 A.D., a mysterious illness, which was characterized by high fevers and bleeding, ravished the Mexican highlands in epidemic proportions.
The cocoliztli epidemic or The great pestilence refers to millions of deaths in the territory of New Spain in present-day Mexico in the 16th century attributed to one or more illnesses collectively called cocoliztli.
The Codex Mendoza is an Aztec codex, created between 1529 and 1553 and perhaps circa 1541.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colombo (translit,; translit) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.
Colonia del Sacramento (formerly the Portuguese Colónia do Sacramento) is a city in southwestern Uruguay, by the Río de la Plata, facing Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers of the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Rio Grande).
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
In geography, a confluence (also: conflux) occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel.
The Congo Basin is the sedimentary basin of the Congo River.
The Congo River (also spelled Kongo River and known as the Zaire River) is the second longest river in Africa after the Nile and the second largest river in the world by discharge volume of water (after the Amazon), and the world's deepest river with measured depths in excess of.
The conquest of the Canary Islands by the Crown of Castille took place between 1402 and 1496.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
A converso (feminine form conversa), "a convert", (from Latin, "converted, turned around") was a Jew who converted to Roman Catholicism in Spain or Portugal, particularly during the 14th and 15th centuries, or one of their descendants.
Coos Bay is an S-shaped inlet where the Coos River enters the Pacific Ocean, approximately 10 miles (16 km) long and two miles (three km) wide, on the Pacific Ocean coast of southwestern Oregon in the United States.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
Corisco, or Mandj, is a small island of Equatorial Guinea, located southwest of the Rio Muni estuary that defines the border with Gabon.
Corte-Real, sometimes Corte Real, is a surname of Portuguese origin, which means literally "Royal Court".
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
The Council of Castile (Real y Supremo Consejo de Castilla), known earlier as the Royal Council (Consejo Real), was a ruling body and key part of the domestic government of the Crown of Castile, second only to the monarch himself.
The Council of the Indies; officially, the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies (Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias), was the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire for the Americas and the Philippines.
The Criollo is a term which, in modern times, has diverse meanings, but is most commonly associated with Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial (and not necessarily Spanish) European immigrant origin.
Cristóbal de Olid (1487–1524) was a Spanish adventurer, conquistador and rebel who played a part in the conquest of Mexico and Honduras.
Cristóvão da Gama (c. 1516 – 29 August 1542), anglicised as Christopher da Gama, was a Portuguese military commander who led a Portuguese army of 400 musketeers on a crusade in Ethiopia and Somalia (1541–1543) against the far larger Adal Muslim army of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (also known as Ahmad Gragn) aided by the Ottoman Empire.
Cristóvão de Mendonça (Mourão?, 1475 – Ormus, 1532) was a Portuguese noble and explorer who was active in South East Asia in the 16th century.
A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
Crux is a constellation located in the southern sky in a bright portion of the Milky Way.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus), sometimes known as the zorro culpeo or Andean fox, is a South American fox species.
A deck is a permanent covering over a compartment or a hull of a ship.
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
Denis (9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 in Santarém), called the Farmer King (Rei Lavrador) and the Poet King (Rei Poeta), was King of Portugal and the Algarve.
Dido was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first queen of Carthage.
Diego Columbus (Diogo Colombo; Diego Colón; also, in Diego Colombo) (1479/1480-1526) was a Portuguese navigator and explorer under the Kings of Castile and Aragón.
Diego de Almagro, (– July 8, 1538), also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish conquistador and a companion.
Diego de Almagro II (1520 – September 16, 1542) called El Mozo (the lad), was the son of Spanish conquistador Diego de Almagro and a native Panamanian Indian.
Diego de Nicuesa (died 1511) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer.
Diego de Ordaz (also Diego de Ordás; 1480 in Castroverde de Campos, Zamora province, Spain – 1532 in Venezuela) was a Spanish explorer and soldier.
Diego Durán (c. 1537 – 1588) was a Dominican friar best known for his authorship of one of the earliest Western books on the history and culture of the Aztecs, The History of the Indies of New Spain, a book that was much criticised in his lifetime for helping the "heathen" maintain their culture.
Diego Hernández de Serpa (c. 1510 – May 10, 1570) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer, who under the patronage of Philip II of Spain was part of the European conquest and colonization of the New Andalusia Province (Venezuela region) in northern South America.
Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar (1465 in Cuéllar, Spain – c. June 12, 1524 in Santiago de Cuba) was a Spanish conquistador.
Dinis Dias was a 15th-century Portuguese explorer.
Diogo Cão, anglicised as Diogo Cam and also known as Diego Cam, was a Portuguese explorer and one of the most notable navigators of the Age of Discovery.
Diogo de Azambuja or Diego de Azambuja (born Montemor-o-Velho, 1432; died 1518) was a Portuguese noble.
Diogo Dias, also known as Diogo Gomes, was a 15th-century Portuguese explorer.
Diogo Gomes was a Portuguese navigator, explorer and writer.
Diogo Ribeiro, also known as Diego Ribero, was a Portuguese cartographer and explorer who worked most of his life in Spain.
Dom Diogo Rodrigues, Dom Diogo Roiz (1490-1496; Lagos, Portugal – 21 April 1577; Colvá, Goa) was a Portuguese explorer of the Indian Ocean who sailed as an ordinary helmsmanAuguste Toussaint, History of the Indian Ocean (Chicago: University Press, 1966), pp. 109 under the command of Dom Pedro Mascarenhas around Goa.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
The Discovery doctrine is a concept of public international law expounded by the United States Supreme Court in a series of decisions, most notably Johnson v. M'Intosh in 1823.
Divide and rule (or divide and conquer, from Latin dīvide et imperā) in politics and sociology is gaining and maintaining power by breaking up larger concentrations of power into pieces that individually have less power than the one implementing the strategy.
Dogs in warfare have a long history starting in ancient times.
Dom is an honorific prefixed to the given name.
Domingo Martínez de Irala (c. 1509 Bergara, Gipuzkoa – c. 1556 Asunción, Paraguay) was a Spanish Basque conquistador.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Don (Dom, from Latin dominus, roughly 'Lord'), abbreviated as D., is an honorific title used in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Iberoamerica, and the Philippines.
A donatário (Portuguese for "donated" or "endowed "), sometimes anglicized as donatary, was a private person—often a noble—who was granted a considerable piece of land (a donataria) by the Kingdom of Portugal.
Duarte Fernandes (16th century) was a Portuguese diplomat, explorer, and was the first European to establish diplomatic relations with Thailand, when in 1511 he led a diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya Kingdom (Kingdom of Siam), after the Portuguese conquest of Malacca.
Duarte Pacheco Pereira (c. 1460 – 1533), called the Portuguese Achilles (Aquiles Lusitano) by the poet Camões, was a Portuguese sea captain, soldier, explorer and cartographer.
Dutch Brazil, also known as New Holland, was the northern portion of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, ruled by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas between 1630 and 1654.
Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWIC; Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors.
The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire.
A dynastic union is a kind of federation with only two different states that are governed by the same dynasty, while their boundaries, their laws and their interests remain distinct.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
El Dorado (Spanish for "the golden one"), originally El Hombre Dorado ("The Golden Man") or El Rey Dorado ("The Golden King"), was the term used by the Spanish Empire to describe a mythical tribal chief (zipa) of the Muisca native people of Colombia, who, as an initiation rite, covered himself with gold dust and submerged in Lake Guatavita.
Eleni or Helena (died April, 1522) also known as Queen of Zeila was an Empress of Ethiopia by marriage to Zara Yaqob (r. 1434–1468), and served as regent between 1507 and 1516 during the minority of emperor Dawit II.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elmina is a town and the capital of the Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem District on the south coast of South Ghana in the Central Region, situated on a south-facing bay on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana, west of Cape Coast.
Elmina Castle was erected by the Portuguese in 1482 as São Jorge da Mina (St. George of the Mine) Castle, also known simply as Mina or Feitoria da Mina) in present-day Elmina, Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast). It was the first trading post built on the Gulf of Guinea, so is the oldest European building in existence south of the Sahara. First established as a trade settlement, the castle later became one of the most important stops on the route of the Atlantic slave trade. The Dutch seized the fort from the Portuguese in 1637, and took over all the Portuguese Gold Coast in 1642. The slave trade continued under the Dutch until 1814; in 1872, the Dutch Gold Coast, including the fort, became a possession of the British Empire. Britain granted the Gold Coast its independence in 1957, and control of the castle was transferred to the nation formed out of the colony, present-day Ghana. Today Elmina Castle is a popular historical site, and was a major filming location for Werner Herzog's 1987 drama film Cobra Verde. The castle is recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
Elobey Chico, or Little Elobey, is a small island off the coast of Equatorial Guinea, lying near the mouth of the Mitémélé River.
Elobey Grande, or Great Elobey, is an island of Equatorial Guinea, lying at the mouth of the Mitémélé River.
Encomienda was a labor system in Spain and its empire.
In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris (plural: ephemerides) gives the positions of naturally occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky at a given time or times.
Equinoctial France (French France équinoxiale) was the contemporary name given to the colonization efforts of France in the 17th century in South America, around the line of Equator, before "tropical" had fully gained its modern meaning: Equinoctial means in Latin "of equal nights", i.e., on the Equator, where the duration of days and nights is nearly the same year round.
Estêvão da Gama (ca. 1505–1576) was the Portuguese governor of Portuguese Gold Coast (1529–15??) and Portuguese India (1540–1542).
Estêvão Gomes, also known in the Spanish versions of his name as Estevan Gómez or Esteban Gómez (Porto, Kingdom of Portugal, c. 1483 - Paraguay River, 1538), was a Portuguese cartographer and explorer.
Estevanico (c. 1500–1539) was one of the first native Africans to reach the present-day continental United States.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.
Eusebio Francisco Kino (Eusebio Francesco Chini, Eusebio Francisco Kino; 10 August 1645 – 15 March 1711) was an Italian Jesuit, missionary, geographer, explorer, cartographer and astronomer.
Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.
Extremadura (is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha) to the east, and by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by Portugal to the west. Its official language is Spanish. It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park (Parque Natural Tajo Internacional). The government of Extremadura is called. The Day of Extremadura is celebrated on 8 September. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.
The Siege of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire, was a decisive event in the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
Ferdinand Konščak (Fernando Consag) (December 2, 1703 – September 10, 1759) was a Croatian Jesuit missionary, explorer and cartographer.
Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, offshore from the Brazilian coast.
Fernão do Pó, also known as Fernão Pó, Fernando Pó or Fernando Poo, was a 15th-century Portuguese navigator and explorer of the West African coast.
Captain Fernão Pires de Andrade (also spelled as Fernão Peres de Andrade; in contemporary sources, Fernam (Fernã) Perez Dandrade) (died 1552) was a Portuguese merchant, pharmacist, and official diplomat under the explorer and Portuguese Malacca governor Afonso de Albuquerque.
Fernão Vaz Dourado (c. 1520 in Goa - Portuguese India – c. 1580) was a Portuguese cartographer of the sixteenth century, belonging to the third period of the old Portuguese nautical cartography, which is characterised by the abandonment of Ptolemaic influence in the representation of the Orient and introduction of better accuracy in the depiction of lands and continents.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
A flower war or flowery war (xōchiyāōyōtl, guerra florida) was a ritual war fought intermittently between the Aztec Triple Alliance and its enemies from the "mid-1450s to the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519." Enemies included the city-states of Tlaxcala, Huejotzingo, and Cholula in the Tlaxcala-Pueblan Valley in central Mexico.
The forecastle (abbreviated fo'c'sle or fo'c's'le) is the upper deck of a sailing ship forward of the foremast, or the forward part of a ship with the sailors' living quarters.
The Fountain of Youth is a spring that supposedly restores the youth of anyone who drinks or bathes in its waters.
France Antarctique (formerly also spelled France antartique) was a French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567, and had control over the coast from Rio de Janeiro to Cabo Frio.
Francis Xavier, S.J. (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta, in Latin Franciscus Xaverius, Basque: Frantzisko Xabierkoa, Spanish: Francisco Javier; 7 April 15063 December 1552), was a Navarrese Basque Roman Catholic missionary, born in Javier (Xavier in Navarro-Aragonese or Xabier in Basque), Kingdom of Navarre (present day Spain), and a co-founder of the Society of Jesus.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Francisco Álvares (c. 1465 in Coimbra – 1536~1541, Rome) was a Portuguese missionary and explorer.
Francisco Barreto (occasionally Francisco de Barreto, 1520 – July 9, 1573) was a Portuguese soldier and explorer.
Francisco de Aguirre (1507–1581) was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the conquest of Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.
Dom Francisco de Almeida, also known as "the Great Dom Francisco" (c. 1450–1 March 1510), was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer.
Francisco de Garay (Sopuerta, Biscay, 1475 - died 1523) was a Spanish Basque conquistador.
Francisco de Montejo y Álvarez (c. 1479 in Salamanca – c. 1553 in Spain) was a Spanish conquistador in Mexico and Central America.
Francisco de Orellana (1511 – November 1546) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador.
Francisco de Ulloa (died 1540) was a Spanish explorer who explored the west coast of present-day Mexico under the commission of Hernán Cortés.
Francisco Hermenegildo Tomás Garcés, O.F.M., (April 12, 1738 – July 18, 1781) was a Spanish Franciscan friar who served as a missionary and explorer in the colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain.
Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (1475 ? - 1526) is usually reputed as the founder of Nicaragua, and in fact he founded two important Nicaraguan cities, Granada and León.
Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (died 1517) was a Spanish conquistador, known to history mainly for the ill-fated expedition he led in 1517, in the course of which the first European accounts of the Yucatán Peninsula were compiled.
Francisco López de Gómara (c. 1511 - c. 1566) was a Spanish historian who worked in Seville, particularly noted for his works in which he described the early 16th century expedition undertaken by Hernán Cortés in the Spanish conquest of the New World.
Francisco Pizarro González (– 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire.
Francisco Serrão (died 1521) was a Portuguese explorer and a cousin of Ferdinand Magellan.
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (1510 – 22 September 1554) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.
The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere.
Fuerteventura (literally meaning "strong fortune" but translated by some as "Strong Winds" or a corruption of the French term for "Great Adventure") is one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean and is part of the North Africa region, politically part of Spain.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Galleons were large, multi-decked sailing ships first used by the Spanish as armed cargo carriers and later adopted by European states from the 16th to 18th centuries during the age of sail and were the principal fleet units drafted for use as warships until the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the mid-1600s.
Galveston Island is a barrier island on the Texas Gulf Coast in the United States, about southeast of Houston.
García López de Cárdenas y Figueroa was a Spanish conquistador who was the first European to see the Grand Canyon.
Don Diego García Sarmiento de Sotomayor, Marquis of Sobroso and 2nd Count of Salvatierra (Don García Sarmiento de Sotomayor, Marqués de Sobroso y segundo Conde de Salvatierra) (c. 1595, Spain – June 26, 1659, Lima) was a Spanish viceroy of New Spain (November 23, 1642 to May 13, 1648) and of Peru (1648 to 1655).
Gaspar Corte-Real (1450 – 1501) was a Portuguese explorer who alongside his father João Vaz Corte-Real (c. 1420-1496) and brother Miguel, participated in various exploratory voyages sponsored jointly by the Portuguese and Danish Crowns.
Gaspar da Cruz (1520 – 5 February 1570; sometimes also known under an Hispanized version of his name, Gaspar de la Cruz) was a Portuguese Dominican friar born in Évora, who traveled to Asia and wrote one of the first detailed European accounts about China.
Georg von Speyer (1500, Speyer, Holy Roman Empire – 11 June 1540, Coro, Venezuela) was a German conquistador in New Granada, now Venezuela and Colombia.
Jerónimo de Aguilar O.F.M. (1489–1531) was a Franciscan friar born in Écija, Spain.
Gil Eanes (or Eannes, in the old Portuguese spelling) was a 15th-century Portuguese navigator and explorer.
Gil González Dávila or Gil González de Ávila was a Spanish Conquistador and the first European to arrive in present-day Nicaragua.
Giovanni Battista Ramusio (July 20, 1485 – July 10, 1557) was an Italian geographer and travel writer.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
Goiás is a state of Brazil, located in the Center-West region of the country. The name Goiás (formerly, Goyaz) comes from the name of an indigenous community. The original word seems to have been guaiá, a compound of gua e iá, meaning "the same person" or "people of the same origin." It borders the Federal District and the states of (from north clockwise) Tocantins, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. The most populous state of its region, Goiás is characterized by a landscape of chapadões (plateaus). In the height of the drought season, from June to September, the lack of rain makes the level of the Araguaia River go down and exposes almost of beaches, making it the main attraction of the State. At the Emas National Park in the municipality of Mineiros, it is possible to observe the typical fauna and flora from the region. At the Chapada dos Veadeiros the attractions are the canyons, valleys, rapids and waterfalls. Other attractions are the historical city of Goiás (or Old Goiás), from Goiânia, established in the beginning of 18th Century, and Caldas Novas, with its hot water wells attracting more than one million tourists per year. In Brazil's geoeconomic division, Goiás belongs to the Centro-Sul (Center-South), being the northernmost state of the southern portion of Brazil.
Gonçalo Velho Cabral (1400 – c. 1460) was a Portuguese monk and Commander in the Order of Christ, explorer (credited with the discovery of the Formigas, the re-discovery of the islands of Santa Maria and São Miguel in the Azores) and hereditary landowner responsible for administering Crown lands on the same islands, during the Portuguese Age of Discovery.
Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés (August 14781557) was a Spanish historian and writer.
Gonzalo Guerrero (also known as Gonzalo Marinero, Gonzalo de Aroca and Gonzalo de Aroza) was a sailor from Palos, in Spain who shipwrecked along the Yucatán Peninsula and was taken as a slave by the local Maya.
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada y Rivera, also spelled as De Quezada and Ximénez, (1496 – other sources state 1506 or 1509Graham (1922) Suesca, 16 February 1579) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador in northern South America, territories currently known as Colombia. He explored the northern part of South America. As a well-educated lawyer he was one of the intellectuals of the Spanish conquest. He was an effective organizer and leader, designed the first legislation for the government of the area, and was its historian. After 1569 he undertook explorations toward the east, searching for the elusive El Dorado, but returned to New Granada in 1573. He has been suggested as a possible model for Cervantes' Don Quixote.
Gonzalo Pizarro y Alonso (1510 – April 10, 1548) was a Spanish conquistador and younger paternal half-brother of Francisco Pizarro, the conqueror of the Inca Empire.
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.
The Governorate of the Río de la Plata (1549−1776) (Gobernación del Río de la Plata) was one of the governorates of the Spanish Empire.
The Gran Chaco or Dry Chaco is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland natural region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided among eastern Bolivia, western Paraguay, northern Argentina and a portion of the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, where it is connected with the Pantanal region.
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
The Granada War (Guerra de Granada) was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1492, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs (los Reyes Católicos) Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Nasrid dynasty's Emirate of Granada.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Guanahani is an island in the Bahamas that was the first land in the New World sighted and visited by Christopher Columbus' first voyage, on October 12, 1492.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Southern United States meets the Gulf of Mexico.
The Gulf Islands are the islands in the Strait of Georgia (also known as the Salish Sea or the Gulf of Georgia), between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia, Canada.
The Gulf of Guinea is the northeasternmost part of the tropical Atlantic Ocean between Cape Lopez in Gabon, north and west to Cape Palmas in Liberia.
The Gulf or Bay of Honduras is a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea, indenting the coasts of Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras.
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent) is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
A halberd (also called halbard, halbert or Swiss voulge) is a two-handed pole weapon that came to prominent use during the 14th and 15th centuries.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Harem (حريم ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Hawikuh (Hawikku, "gum leaves" in ZuniLanmon, Dwight P. and Harlow, Francis, "A brief history of the Ashiwi (Zuni) pueblos", in The pottery of Zuni Pueblo, 2008, Museum of New Mexico Press.), was one of the largest of the Zuni pueblos at the time of the Spanish entrada.
Heavy infantry refers to heavily armed and armoured infantrymen trained to mount frontal assaults and/or anchor the defensive center of a battle line.
Henry Farmer Dobyns, Jr. (July 3, 1925 – June 21, 2009) was an anthropologist, author and researcher specializing in the ethnohistory and demography of native peoples in the American hemisphere.
Hernando de Alarcón (born 1500) was a Spanish explorer and navigator of the 16th century, noted for having led an early expedition to the Baja California Peninsula, during which he became one of the first Europeans to ascend the Colorado River from its mouth and perhaps the first to reach Alta California.
Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda (c. 1536 – after 1575, dates uncertain) was a Spanish shipwreck survivor who lived among the Indians of Florida for 17 years.
Hernando de Soto (1495 – May 21, 1542) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the first Spanish and European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States (through Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and most likely Arkansas).
Hernando Pizarro y de Vargas (born between 1478 and 1508, died 1578) was a Spanish conquistador and one of the Pizarro brothers who ruled over Peru.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
An hidalgo or a fidalgo is a member of the Spanish or Portuguese nobility; the feminine forms of the terms are hidalga, in Spanish, and fidalga, in Portuguese and Galician.
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil.
Little is known of the history of Gabon prior to European contact.
The history of Morocco spans several millennia, succeeding the prehistoric cultures of Jebel Irhoud and Taforalt.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
The Sacrament of Holy Orders in the Catholic Church includes three orders: bishop, priest, and deacon.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
The House of Aviz (modern Portuguese: Avis) known as the Joanine Dynasty was the second dynasty of the kings of Portugal.
Huayna Capac, Huayna Cápac, Guayna Capac (in Hispanicized spellings) or Wayna Qhapaq (Quechua wayna young, young man, qhapaq the mighty one, "the young mighty one") (1464/1468–1527) was the third Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire, born in Tomebamba sixth of the Hanan dynasty, and eleventh of the Inca civilization.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Inés Suárez, (c. 1507–1580) was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the Conquest of Chile with Pedro de Valdivia, successfully defending Santiago against a Mapuche attack in 1541.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
India Catalina (c. 1495 – ?) was an indigenous woman (almost certainly Calamari) from the Colombian Atlantic coast, who accompanied Pedro de Heredia and played a role in the Spanish conquest of Colombia, acting as interpreter and intermediary.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Infante (f. infanta), also anglicised as Infant or translated as Prince, is the title and rank given in the Iberian kingdoms of Spain (including the predecessor kingdoms of Aragon, Castile, Navarre and León), and Portugal, to the sons and daughters (infantas) of the king, sometimes with the exception of the heir apparent to the throne who usually bears a unique princely or ducal title.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Inga Vivienne Clendinnen, (17 August 1934 – 8 September 2016) was an Australian author, historian, anthropologist, and academic.
The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Isaac Aboab da Fonseca (or Isaak Aboab Foonseca) (February 1, 1605 – April 4, 1693) was a rabbi, scholar, kabbalist and writer.
The Island of California refers to a long-held Spanish misconception, dating from the 16th century, that the Baja California Peninsula was not part of mainland North America but rather a large island separated from the continent by a strait now known as the Gulf of California.
The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.
The term Jacob's staff, also known as cross-staff, a ballastella, a fore-staff, or a balestilha, is used to refer to several things.
Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.
The Jaffna Kingdom (யாழ்ப்பாண அரசு) (1215–1624 CE), also known as Kingdom of Aryacakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka was a historic monarchy that came into existence around the town of Jaffna on the Jaffna peninsula traditionally thought to be established after the invasion of Magha, who is credited with the founding of the Jaffna kingdom and is said to have been from Kalinga, in India.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
The Javanese (Ngoko Javanese:, Madya Javanese:,See: Javanese language: Politeness Krama Javanese:, Ngoko Gêdrìk: wòng Jåwå, Madya Gêdrìk: tiyang Jawi, Krama Gêdrìk: priyantun Jawi, Indonesian: suku Jawa) are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java.
Jehudà Cresques (1360-1410), also known as Jafudà Cresques, Jaume Riba, and Cresques lo Juheu ("Cresques the Jew"), was a converso cartographer in the early 15th century.
Jerónimo de Alderete y Mercado (c. 1518 – April 7, 1556) was a Spanish conquistador who was later named governor of Chile, but died before he could assume his post.
João Álvares Fagundes (born c. 1460, Kingdom of Portugal, died 1522, Kingdom of Portugal), an explorer and ship owner from Viana do Castelo in Northern Portugal, organized several expeditions to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia around 1520-1521.
João da Nova (Galician spelling Xoán de Novoa or Joam de Nôvoa, Spanish spelling Juan de Nova;; born c. 1460 in Maceda, Ourense, Galicia; died July 16, 1509 in Kochi, India) was a Galician explorer of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans at the service of Portugal.
João de Barros (1496 – 20 October 1570), called the Portuguese Livy, is one of the first great Portuguese historians, most famous for his Décadas da Ásia ("Decades of Asia"), a history of the Portuguese in India, Asia, and southeast Africa.
João de Santarém (15th century) was a Portuguese explorer who discovered São Tomé (in December 21, 1471), Annobón (in January 1472) and Príncipe (January 17, 1472) together with Pêro Escobar, he also encountered the town of Sassandra in the Ivory Coast in 1471 and in 1472 explored the African land from Ghana up to the Niger Delta.
João Fernandes Lavrador was a Portuguese explorer of the late 15th century.
João Gonçalves Zarco (1390 – 21 November 1471) was a Portuguese explorer who established settlements and recognition of the Madeira Islands, and was appointed first captain of Funchal by Henry the Navigator.
João Grego (15th century) was a Portuguese explorer of the African coast.
João Infante was a Portuguese explorer of the African coast.
João Ramalho is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil.
João Vaz Corte-Real (c. 1420 – 1496) was a Portuguese sailor, claimed by some accounts to have been an explorer of a land called Terra Nova do Bacalhau (New Land of the Codfish), speculated to possibly have been a part of North America.
John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto; c. 1450 – c. 1500) was a Venetian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of the coast of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England was the first European exploration of coastal North America since the Norse visits to Vinland in the eleventh century.
John I (João, ʒuˈɐ̃w̃; 11 April 1357 – 14 August 1433) was King of Portugal and the Algarve in 1385–1433.
John II (Portuguese: João II,; 3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495), the Perfect Prince (o Príncipe Perfeito), was the king of Portugal and the Algarves in 1477/1481–1495.
John III (João III; 7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557) nicknamed "o Colonizador" (English: "The Colonizer") was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557.
John Maurice of Nassau (Dutch: Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen; German: Johann Moritz von Nassau-Siegen; Portuguese: João Maurício de Nassau-Siegen; 17 June 1604 – 20 December 1679) was called "the Brazilian" for his fruitful period as governor of Dutch Brazil.
Jorge Álvares (died July 8, 1521) was a Portuguese explorer.
Jorge Reinel (c. 1502 – after 1572) born in Lisbon was a Portuguese cartographer and instructor in cartography, son of the well-known cartographer Pedro Reinel.
Jorge Robledo (1500, Úbeda, Jaén, Spain – 5 October, 1546, La Merced, Caldas, New Kingdom of Granada) was a Spanish conquistador.
José Antonio Roméu (1742? – 1792) was sixth Spanish governor of Alta California, from 1791 to 1792.
José de Anchieta y Díaz de Clavijo, S.J. (19 March 1534 – 9 June 1597) was a Spanish Jesuit missionary to the Portuguese colony of Brazil in the second half of the 16th century.
Juan Bautista de Anza Bezerra Nieto (July 6/7, 1736 – December 19, 1788) was a New-Spanish explorer of Basque descent, and Governor of New Mexico for the Spanish Crown.
Juan Díaz de Solís (1470 – 20 January 1516) was a 16th-century navigator and explorer.
Juan de Castellanos (Alanís, Sevilla, Spain, March 9, 1522 - Tunja, Boyacá, New Kingdom of Granada, November 1606) - Boyacá Cultural was a Criollo poet, soldier and Catholic priest.
Ioannis Phokas (Ἰωάννης Φωκᾶς), better known by the Spanish translation of his name, Juan de Fuca (born 1536 on the Ionian island of Cefalonia; died there 1602Greek Consulate of Vancouver, "".), was a Greek maritime pilot in the service of the King of Spain, Philip II.
Juan de Grijalva (born around 1489 in Cuéllar, Crown of Castille - 21 January 1527 in Nicaragua) was a Spanish conquistador, and relation of Diego Velázquez.
Juan de Oñate y Salazar (1550–1626) was a conquistador from New Spain, explorer, and colonial governor of the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México in the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Blessed Juan de Palafox y Mendoza (June 26, 1600October 1, 1659) was a Spanish politician, administrator, and Catholic clergyman in 17th century Spain and viceregal Mexico.
Juan de Salcedo (1549 – March 11, 1576) was a Spanish conquistador.
Juan Garrido (c. 1480 – c. 1550) was a conquistador who was born in the Kingdom of Kongo.
Juan José Pérez Hernández (born Joan Perés ca. 1725 – November 3, 1775), often simply Juan Pérez, was an 18th-century Spanish explorer.
Juan Pizarro y Alonso (born c. 1511 in Trujillo; died July 1536) was a Spanish conquistador who accompanied his brothers Francisco, Gonzalo and Hernando Pizarro for the conquest of Peru in 1532.
Juan Ponce de León (1474 – July 1521) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador born in Santervás de Campos, Valladolid, Spain in 1474.
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (Portuguese:João Rodrigues Cabrilho) (born 1499, died January 3, 1543) was a maritime navigator, known for exploring the West Coast of North America on behalf of the Spanish Empire.
Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca (1451–1524) was a Spanish archbishop, a courtier and bureaucrat, whose position as royal chaplain to Queen Isabella enabled him to become a powerful counsellor to Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic Monarchs, serving as the president of the Council of the Indies.
Juan Sebastián Elcano (sometimes misspelled del Cano; c.14864 August 1526) was a Spanish explorer of Basque origin who completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth.
Juan Vázquez de Coronado y Anaya (Salamanca, 1523 – Sanlúcar de Barrameda, 1565) was a Spanish conquistador, remembered especially for his role in the colonization of Costa Rica, in Central America, where he gained a reputation for fairness, effective administration, and good relationships with the native population.
Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers.
Kamaran Island (كمران Kamarān) is the largest Yemeni island in the Red Sea.
Keelung, officially known as Keelung City, is a major port city situated in the northeastern part of Taiwan.
Gampola is a town located near Kandy in the Central Province of Sri Lanka.
The Kingdom of Kandy was an independent monarchy of the island of Sri Lanka, located in the central and eastern portion of the island.
The Kingdom of Kongo (Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo; Portuguese: Reino do Congo) was an African kingdom located in west central Africa in what is now northern Angola, Cabinda, the Republic of the Congo, the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as the southernmost part of Gabon.
The Kingdom of Kotte (Sinhala: කෝට්ටේ රාජධානිය Kottay Rajadhaniya), centered on Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, was a kingdom that flourished in Sri Lanka during the 15th century.
The Kingdom of Sitawaka (Sinhala: සීතාවක) was a kingdom located in south-central Sri Lanka.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Kozhikode, or Calicut, is a city in Kerala, India on the Malabar Coast.
La Malinche (c. 1496 or c. 1501 – c. 1529), known also as Malinalli, Malintzin or Doña Marina, was a Nahua woman from the Mexican Gulf Coast, who played a key role in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, acting as an interpreter, advisor, and intermediary for the Spanish conquistador, Hernán Cortés.
Labrador is the continental-mainland part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Lancelotto Malocello (Latin: Lanzarotus Marocelus; Lancelot Maloisel; fl. 1312) was a Genoese navigator, who gave his name to the island of Lanzarote, one of the Canary Islands.
Lanzarote is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean.
A lateen (from French latine, meaning "Latin") or latin-rig is a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
The Leyes de Burgos ("Laws of Burgos"), promulgated on 27 December 1512 in Burgos, Kingdom of Castile (Spain), was the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spaniards in the Americas, particularly with regard to the Indigenous people of the Americas ('native Caribbean Indians').
León is the second largest city in Nicaragua, after Managua.
Libertadores ("Liberators") refers to the principal leaders of the Latin American wars of independence from Spain and Portugal.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
List of Colonial Heads of Cuba Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office.
The following is a list of conquistadors.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
This article is a list of epidemics of infectious disease.
Below is a list of the Governors of early California (1769–1850), before its admission as the 31st U.S. state.
A livestock guardian dog (LGD) is a type of pastoral dog bred for the purpose of protecting livestock from predators.
The Loaísa expedition was a 16th-century voyage of discovery to the Pacific Ocean, commanded by Garcia Jofre de Loaísa (1490 – 20 July 1526) and ordered by King Charles I of Spain to colonize the Spice Islands in the East Indies.
Lobos (Isla de Lobos) is a small island of the Canary Islands (Spain) located just north of the island of Fuerteventura.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lope de Aguirre (8 November 1510 – 27 October 1561) was a Basque Spanish conquistador who was active in South America.
Lopo Homem (16th century) was a Portuguese cartographer and cosmographer.
Lopo Soares de Albergaria (c. 1460 in Lisbon – c. 1520 in Torres Vedras) was the third Governor of Portuguese India, having reached India in 1515 to supersede governor Afonso de Albuquerque.
Lourenço de Almeida (c.1480 - March 1508) was a Portuguese explorer and military commander.
Luanda, formerly named São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda, is the capital and largest city in Angola, and the country's most populous and important city, primary port and major industrial, cultural and urban centre.
Luís de Velasco (1511 – July 31, 1564) was the second viceroy of New Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the mid-sixteenth century.
Luís Pires (15th century/16th century), was a Portuguese explorer who accompanied Pedro Álvares Cabral in the discovery of Brazil, being one of the captains of the fleet.
Luís Vaz de Torres (Galician and Portuguese), or Luis Váez de Torres in the Spanish spelling (born c. 1565; fl. 1607), was a 16th- and 17th-century maritime explorer of a Spanish expedition noted for the first recorded European navigation of the strait which separates the continent of Australia from the island of New Guinea, and which now bears his name (Torres Strait).
Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón (c. 1475, probably Castile, Spain – 18 October 1526) was a Spanish explorer who in 1526 established the short-lived San Miguel de Guadalupe colony, the first European attempt at a settlement in what is now the continental United States.
In sailing, luffing refers to when a sailing vessel is steered far enough toward the direction of the wind ("windward"), or the sheet controlling a sail is eased so far past optimal trim, that airflow over the surfaces of the sail is disrupted and the sail begins to "flap" or "luff" (the luff of the sail is usually where this first becomes evident).
M'banza-Kongo (or, known as São Salvador in Portuguese from 1570 to 1975), is the capital of Angola's northwestern Zaire Province.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Madeira is a Portuguese island, and is the largest and most populous of the Madeira Archipelago.
Sultan Mahmud Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah (died 1528) ruled the Sultanate of Malacca from 1488 to 1511, and again as pretender to the throne from 1513 to 1528.
Mail or maille (also chain mail(le) or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.
The Malabar Coast is a long, narrow coastline on the southwestern shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
The Manila Galleons (Galeón de Manila; Kalakalang Galyon ng Maynila at Acapulco) were Spanish trading ships which for two and a half centuries linked the Philippines with Mexico across the Pacific Ocean, making one or two round-trip voyages per year between the ports of Acapulco and Manila, which were both part of New Spain.
Manuel da Nóbrega (old spelling Manoel da Nóbrega) (18 October 1517 – 18 October 1570) was a Portuguese Jesuit priest and first Provincial of the Society of Jesus in colonial Brazil.
Dom Manuel I (31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521), the Fortunate (Port. o Afortunado), King of Portugal and the Algarves, was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal.
María de Estrada (c. 1475 or 1486 – between 1537–48) was a Spanish woman who participated in the expedition of Hernán Cortés to Mexico in 1519–24.
Fray Marcos de Niza (March 25, 1558) was a Spanish missionary and Franciscan friar.
Mariano Luis de Urquijo y Muga (1769 in Bilbao, Spain – 1817 in Paris, France) was Secretary of State (Prime Minister) of Spain from 12 February 1799 to 13 December 1800, during the reign of King Carlos IV of Spain, and between 7 July 1808 and 27 June 1813 under the King Joseph Bonaparte.
Martín de Aguilar (fl. 1603) was a Spanish explorer whose log contains one of the first written descriptions of the coast of the U.S. state of Oregon.
Martín de Ursúa (or Urzúa) y Arizmendi (February 22, 1653 – February 4, 1715), Count of Lizárraga and of Castillo, was a Spanish Basque conquistador in Central America during the late colonial period of New Spain.
Martín Ruiz de Gamboa de Berriz (1533 – 1590) was a Spanish Basque conquistador, and served as a Royal Governor of Chile.
Martim Afonso de Sousa (c. 1500 – 21 July 1564) was a Portuguese fidalgo, explorer and colonial administrator.
Martin Behaim (6 October 1459 – 29 July 1507), also known as and by various forms of (Martinus Bohemus and de Boëmia; Martinho da Boémia; Martin Behaim von Schwarzbach) was a German mariner, artist, cosmographer, astronomer, philosopher, geographer, and explorer in service to King John II.
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
The Mascarene Islands or Mascarenes or Mascarenhas Archipelago is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar consisting of Mauritius, Réunion and Rodrigues.
Massawa (Maṣṣawa‘, Mitsiwa), also known as Miṣṣiwa‘ (مِـصِّـوَع) and Bāḍiʿ (بَـاضِـع),Matt Phillips, Jean-Bernard Carillet, Lonely Planet Ethiopia and Eritrea, (Lonely Planet: 2006), p.340.
The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat.
Mateus (Portuguese for Matthew), also known as Matthew the Armenian (died May, 1520), was an Ethiopian ambassador sent by regent queen Eleni of Ethiopia to king Manuel I of Portugal and to the Pope in Rome, in search of a coalition to help on the increasing threat that Ethiopia faced from the growing Ottoman influence in the region, with the counsel of Pêro da Covilhã.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
Mato Grosso (– lit. "Thick Bushes") is one of the states of Brazil, the third-largest by area, located in the western part of the country.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Melchior Díaz was an early Spanish explorer of Western North America who "was a hard worker and skillful organizer and leader.
Mem de Sá (c. 1500 – 2 March 1572) was a Governor-General of the Portuguese colony of Brazil from 1557-1572.
UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
A merchant vessel, trading vessel or merchantman is a boat or ship that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire.
A (geographical) meridian (or line of longitude) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Miguel Corte-Real (c. 1448 – 1502?) was a Portuguese explorer who charted about 600 miles of the coast of Labrador.
Miguel López de Legazpi (c. 1502 – August 20, 1572), also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo (The Elder), was a Basque-Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in modern-day Mexico, arrived in Cebu of the Philippine Islands, 1565.
The Miller Atlas, also known as Lopo Homem-Reineis Atlas, is a Portuguese richly illustrated atlas dated from 1519, including a dozen charts.
The Minas Basin is an inlet of the Bay of Fundy and a sub-basin of the Fundy Basin located in Nova Scotia, Canada.
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil.
Mission Puerto de Purísima Concepción was founded near what is now Yuma, Arizona, U.S.A. on the California side of the Colorado River, in October, 1780, by Father Francisco Garcés.
Mission San Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuñer was founded on January 7, 1781 by Spanish Padre Francisco Garcés, to protect the Anza Trail where it forded the Colorado River, between colonial Mexico and Alta California.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – 29 June 1520), variant spellings include Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma, Motēuczōmah, and referred to in full by early Nahuatl texts as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (Moctezuma the Young),moteːkʷˈsoːma ʃoːkoˈjoːtsin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520.
Molosser is a category of solidly built, large dog breeds that all descend from the same common ancestor.
Mombasa is a city on the coast of Kenya.
A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland from ancient times until, for what became the Republic of Ireland, the mid-twentieth century.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
A morion is a type of open helmet originally from the Kingdom of Castile (Spain), used from the middle 16th to early 17th centuries, usually having a flat brim and a crest from front to back.
Moriscos (mouriscos,; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity, after Spain finally outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population (termed mudéjar) in the early 16th century.
Morotai Island (Pulau Morotai) is an island in the Halmahera group of eastern Indonesia's Maluku Islands (Moluccas).
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
The Mozambique Channel (Canal du Mozambique, Lakandranon'i Mozambika, Canal de Moçambique) is an arm of the Indian Ocean located between the Southeast African countries of Madagascar and Mozambique.
Muscat (مسقط) is the capital and largest city of Oman.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The Narváez expedition was a Spanish journey of exploration and colonization started in 1527 that intended to establish colonial settlements and garrisons in Florida.
Nassau-Siegen was a principality within the Holy Roman Empire that existed briefly between 1303 and 1328 and again from 1606 to 1743.
European diseases and epidemics pervade many aspects of Native American life, both throughout history and in the present day.
The New Laws (Spanish: Leyes Nuevas), also known as the New Laws of the Indies for the Good Treatment and Preservation of the Indians (Spanish:Leyes y ordenanzas nuevamente hechas por su Majestad para la gobernación de las Indias y buen tratamiento y conservación de los Indios), were issued on November 20, 1542, by King Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (Charles I of Spain) and regard the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
New York Harbor, part of the Port of New York and New Jersey, is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay and into the Atlantic Ocean at the East Coast of the United States.
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Nicolau Coelho (c.1460, in Felgueiras – 1502, off the coast of Mozambique) was an expert Portuguese navigator and explorer during the age of discovery.
Frey Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres (Brozas, Extremadura, Spain 1460 – Madrid, Spain 29 May 1511) was a Spanish soldier from a noble family and a Knight of the Order of Alcántara, a military order of Spain.
Nikolaus Federmann (Nicolás de Federmán) (c. 1505, Ulm – February 1542, Valladolid) was a German adventurer and conquistador in the colonies of Venezuela and Colombia.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
Nueva Vizcaya (Probinsia ti Nueva Vizcaya; Probinsia na Nueva Vizcaya; Lalawigan ng Nueva Vizcaya) is a province of the Philippines located in Cagayan Valley region in Luzon, though it is geographically and culturally part of the Cordilleras.
Nuevo León, or New Leon, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León (Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
D. Nuno da Cunha (c. 1487 – March 5, 1539) was a governor of Portuguese possessions in India from 1528 to 1538.
Nuno Tristão was a 15th-century Portuguese explorer and slave trader, active in the early 1440s, traditionally thought to be the first European to reach the region of Guinea (legendarily, as far as Guinea-Bissau, but more recent historians believe he did not go beyond the Gambia River).
Oaxaca (from Huāxyacac), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
In oceanography, a gyre is any large system of circulating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
The Odiel (Río Odiel) is a river in the Atlantic basin in southern Spain, more precisely in the province of Huelva, Andalusia.
Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
The Oregon Historical Society (OHS) is an organization that encourages and promotes the study and understanding of the history of the Oregon Country, within the broader context of U.S. history.
The Kingdom of Ormus (also known as Ohrmuzd, Hormuz, and Ohrmazd; Portuguese Ormuz) was a 10th- to 17th-century kingdom located within the Persian Gulf and extending as far as the Strait of Hormuz.
The Pacific Islands are the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
Palma de Mallorca, frequently used name for the city of Palma, is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
Paraíba (Tupi: pa'ra a'íba: "bad for navigation") is a state of Brazil.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
The Paraguay River (Río Paraguay in Spanish, Rio Paraguai in Portuguese, Ysyry Paraguái in Guarani) is a major river in south-central South America, running through Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina.
The Paraná River (Río Paraná, Rio Paraná, Ysyry Parana) is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina for some.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
Paubrasilia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae.
Paulo da Gama (ca. 1465 in Olivença, Kingdom of Portugal – June or July 1499 at Angra do Heroísmo, Kingdom of Portugal) was a Portuguese explorer, son of Estêvão da Gama and Isabel Sodré, and the older brother of Vasco da Gama.
Paulo Dias de Novais (c. 1510 – 1589), a fidalgo of the Royal Household, was a Portuguese colonizer of Africa in the 16th century and the first Captain-Governor of Portuguese Angola.
Pánfilo de Narváez (147?–1528) was a Spanish conquistador and soldier in the Americas.
Pedro, or Pêro da Covilhã or (c. 1460 – after 1526), sometimes written: Pero de Covilhăo, was a Portuguese diplomat and explorer.
Pêro de Alenquer was a 15th-century Portuguese explorer of the African coast.
Pêro Dias (15th century) was a Portuguese explorer of the African coast.
Pedro Escobar, also known as Pêro Escobar, was a 15th-century Portuguese navigator who discovered São Tomé (December 21, 1471), Annobon (January 1, 1472), Príncipe (January 17, 1472) islands, together with João de Santarém c. 1470.
Pêro Vaz de Caminha (c. 1450 – 15 December 1500;,; also spelled Pedro Vaz de Caminha) was a Portuguese knight that accompanied Pedro Álvares Cabral to India in 1500 as a secretary to the royal factory.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Pedro Arias de Ávila (c. 1440 - March 6, 1531) (often Pedrarias Dávila) was a Spanish soldier and colonial administrator.
Pedro Álvares Cabral (or; c. 1467 or 1468 – c. 1520) was a Portuguese nobleman, military commander, navigator and explorer regarded as the discoverer of Brazil.
Pedro Cieza de León (Llerena, Spain c. 1520 – Seville, Spain 1554) was a Spanish conquistador and chronicler of Peru.
Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. 1485 – Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala.
Pedro de Candia (1485 - 1542) was a Greek Conquistador and explorer.
Pedro de la Gasca (June 1485 – November 13, 1567) was a Spanish bishop, diplomat and the second (acting) viceroy of Peru, from April 10, 1547 to January 27, 1550.
Pedro de los Ríos y Gutiérrez de Aguayo (died 1547) was a Spanish colonial administrator who succeeded Pedrarias Dávila as governor of Castilla del Oro (1526–1529) and of Nicaragua (1526–1527).
Pedro de Mendoza y Luján (c. 1487 – June 23, 1537) was a Spanish conquistador, soldier and explorer, and the first adelantado of New Andalusia.
Pedro de Ursúa (1526 – 1561) was a Spanish conquistador from Baztan in Navarre.
Pedro Gutiérrez de Valdivia or Valdiva (April 17, 1497 – December 25, 1553) was a Spanish missionary and the first Cardinal of Chile.
Pedro Lopes de Sousa was the 1st Governor of Portuguese Ceylon.
Dom Pedro Mascarenhas (1470 – 16 June 1555) was a Portuguese explorer and colonial administrator.
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (15 February 1519 – 17 September 1574) was a Spanish admiral and explorer from the region of Asturias, Spain, who is remembered for planning the first regular trans-oceanic convoys and for founding St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565.
Don Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto (c. 1460 – 28 August 1528) was a Spanish military engineer and general who participated in the War of the League of Cambrai.
Pedro Reinel (c. 1462 – c. 1542) was a Portuguese cartographer, author of one of the oldest signed Portuguese nautical charts (c. 1485).
Fray Pedro Simón (San Lorenzo de la Parrilla, Spain, 1574 - Ubaté, Colombia, ca. 1628) was a Spanish franciscan friar, professor and chronicler of the indigenous peoples of Colombia and Venezuela, at the time forming the New Kingdom of Granada.
Pedro Teixeira (died 4 July 1641) was a Portuguese explorer who became, in 1637, the first European to travel up the entire length of the Amazon River.
Pemba Island (الجزيرة الخضراء al-Jazīra al-khadrā, literally "The Green Island"), is an island forming part of the Zanzibar Archipelago, lying within the Swahili Coast in the Indian Ocean.
Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
The Philippine Dynasty, also known as the House of Habsburg in Portugal, was the third royal house of Portugal.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pieter Pietersen Heyn (Hein) (25 November 1577 – 18 June 1629) was a Dutch admiral and privateer for the Dutch Republic during the Eighty Years' War between the United Provinces and Spain.
Pike and shot is a historical infantry combat formation that evolved during the Italian Wars before the late seventeenth century evolution of the bayonet.
The Pinzón brothers were Spanish sailors, pirates, explorers and fishermen, natives of Palos de la Frontera, Huelva, Spain.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
The Pizarro brothers were Spanish conquistadors who came to Peru in 1530.
Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja (de Borja, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death.
Portolan or portulan charts are navigational maps based on compass directions and estimated distances observed by the pilots at sea.
Point of San Francisco Bay Discovery The Portolá expedition was the first recorded Spanish (or any European) land entry and exploration of the present-day state of California, in 1769–1770, that led to the founding of Alta California.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
The Portuguese India Armadas (Armadas da Índia) were the fleets of ships, organized by the crown of the Kingdom of Portugal and dispatched on an annual basis from Portugal to India, principally Goa.
The Portuguese Inquisition (Portuguese: Inquisição Portuguesa) was formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of its king, John III.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Potosí is a capital city and a municipality of the department of Potosí in Bolivia.
Potosí (P'utuqsi) is a department in southwestern Bolivia.
Príncipe is the smaller, northern major island of the country of São Tomé and Príncipe lying off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
Prester John (Presbyter Johannes) was a legendary Christian patriarch, presbyter (elder) and king who was popular in European chronicles and tradition from the 12th through the 17th centuries.
The price revolution, sometimes known as the Spanish Price Revolution, was a series of economic events that occurred between the second half of the 15th century and the first half of the 17th century, and most specifically to the high rate of inflation that occurred during this period across Western Europe.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.
Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator (Infante Dom Henrique, o Navegador), was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
The Purépecha or Tarascans (endonym P'urhépecha) are a group of indigenous people centered in the northwestern region of Michoacán, Mexico, mainly in the area of the cities of Cherán and Pátzcuaro.
The push of pike was a particular feature of late medieval and Early Modern warfare that occurred when two opposing columns of pikemen (often Swiss mercenaries or Landsknechte) met and became locked in position along a front of interleaved pikes.
A quadrant is an instrument that is used to measure angles up to 90°.
The Quechan (or Yuma) (Quechan: Kwtsaan 'those who descended') are a Native American tribe who live on the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation on the lower Colorado River in Arizona and California just north of the Mexican border.
Quito (Kitu; Kitu), formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital city of Ecuador, and at an elevation of above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, and the one which is closest to the equator.
Quivira is a place named by explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1541, for the mythical "Seven Cities of Gold" that he never found.
Chettathirat (เชษฐาธิราช) or (upon accession to the Ayutthayan throne) Ramathibodi II (รามาธิบดีที่ 2) (1473–1529) was the King of Sukhothai from 1485 and King of Ayutthaya from 1491 to 1529.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
The Río de la Plata ("river of silver") — rendered River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth and La Plata River (occasionally Plata River) in other English-speaking countries — is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay and the Paraná rivers.
The Real Audiencia, or simply Audiencia (Reial Audiència, Audiència Reial, or Audiència), was an appellate court in Spain and its empire.
Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 3,995,949 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America.
Red Bay is a fishing village in Labrador, notable as one of the most precious underwater archaeological sites in the Americas.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Right whales or black whales are three species of large baleen whales of the genus Eubalaena: the North Atlantic right whale (E. glacialis), the North Pacific right whale (E. japonica) and the Southern right whale (E. australis).
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
The Rio Grande (or; Río Bravo del Norte, or simply Río Bravo) is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Colorado River).
The Río Tinto (red river) is a river in southwestern Spain that rises in the Sierra Morena mountains of Andalusia.
Rodeleros ("shield bearers"), also called espadachines ("swordsmen") and colloquially known as "Sword and Buckler Men", were Spanish troops in the early 16th (and again briefly in the 17th) century, equipped with steel shields or bucklers known as rodela and swords (usually of the side-sword type).
Rodrigo de Bastidas (Triana, Seville, Andalusia, c. 1465 – Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 28 July 1527) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who mapped the northern coast of South America, discovered Panama, and founded the city of Santa Marta.
Rodrigues (Île Rodrigues) is a autonomous outer island of the Republic of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, about east of Mauritius.
Roger Smith (born May 21, 1951 in St. Catharines, Ontario) is a Canadian journalist.
Russian America (Русская Америка, Russkaya Amerika) was the name of the Russian colonial possessions in North America from 1733 to 1867.
Ruy López de Villalobos (ca. 1500 – April 4, 1544) was a Spanish explorer who sailed the Pacific from Mexico to establish a permanent foothold for Spain in the East Indies, which was near the Line of Demarcation between Spain and Portugal according to the Treaty of Zaragoza in 1529.
Sagres is a civil parish in the municipality of Vila do Bispo, in the southern Algarve of Portugal.
Saint Brendan’s Isle, also spelled St Brendan’s Isle, is a phantom island or mythical island, supposedly situated in the North Atlantic somewhere west of Northern Africa.
St Catherine (capital Spanish Town) is a parish in the south east of Jamaica.
Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (Arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo) is a group of 15 small islets and rocks in the central equatorial Atlantic Ocean.
Salvador, also known as São Salvador, Salvador de Bahia, and Salvador da Bahia, is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia.
Samuel Purchas (1577? – 1626), an English cleric, published several volumes of reports by travellers to foreign countries.
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the US state of California.
San Pedro de Ycuamandiyú is a city and distrito in Paraguay.
Sancti Spiritu was a fortification established in 1527 near the Paraná River by the explorer Sebastian Cabot.
Santa Catarina Island (Ilha de Santa Catarina) is an island in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, located off the southern coast.
Santa Fe de Nuevo México (Santa Fe of New Mexico; shortened as Nuevo México or Nuevo Méjico, and translated as New Mexico) was a province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later a territory of independent Mexico.
Santa María la Antigua del Darién, formerly also known as Dariena, was a Spanish colonial town founded in 1510 by Vasco Núñez de Balboa, located in present-day Colombia approximately 40 miles south of Acandí, within the municipality of Unguía in the Chocó Department.
The Sargasso Sea is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean bounded by four currents forming an ocean gyre.
São Luís (Saint Louis) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Maranhão.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
São Tomé Island, at, is the largest island of São Tomé and Príncipe and is home to about 157,000 or 96% of the nation's population.
São Vicente (after Saint Vincent of Saragossa, the patron Saint of Lisbon, Portugal) is a coastal municipality at southern São Paulo, Brazil.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
Sebastian Cabot (Italian and Venetian: Sebastiano Caboto, Spanish: Sebastián Caboto, Gaboto or Cabot; c. 1474 – c. December 1557) was an Italian explorer, likely born in the Venetian Republic.
Dom Sebastian I (Portuguese: Sebastião I; 20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578) was King of Portugal and the Algarves from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz.
Sebastián de Belalcázar (1479 or 1480, Córdoba – Cartagena, 1551) was a Spanish conquistador.
Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548–1624) was a Spanish soldier, entrepreneur, explorer, and diplomat whose varied roles took him to New Spain, the Philippines, the Baja California peninsula, the California coast and Japan.
The Senegal River (نهر السنغال, Fleuve Sénégal) is a long river in West Africa that forms the border between Senegal and Mauritania.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Sergipe, officially State of Sergipe, is a state of Brazil.
The Seven Cities of Gold is a myth that was popular in the 16th century.
The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century.
Sevilla La Nueva or New Seville was the first permanent European settlement in Jamaica, the first capital of Jamaica and the third capital established by Spain in the Americas.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Sinaloa, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa (Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The Sinhala Kingdom or Sinhalese Kingdom refers to the successive Sinhalese kingdoms that existed in what is today Sri Lanka.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Socotra سُقُطْرَى Suqadara, also called Soqotra, located between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea, is the largest of four islands of the Socotra archipelago.
A soldier is one who fights as part of an army.
Sonora, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sonora (Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora), is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States.
The spada da lato or side-sword is the Italian term for the type of sword popular during the late 16th century, corresponding to the Spanish espada ropera.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
The Spanish conquest of Guatemala was a protracted conflict during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, in which Spanish colonisers gradually incorporated the territory that became the modern country of Guatemala into the colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain.
Spanish conquest of the Iberian part of Navarre was commenced by Ferdinand II of Aragon and completed by Charles V in a series of military campaigns extending from 1512 to 1524, while the war lasted until 1528 in the Navarre to the north of the Pyrenees.
The Spanish conquest of Petén was the last stage of the conquest of Guatemala, a prolonged conflict during the Spanish colonisation of the Americas.
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, or the Spanish–Aztec War (1519–21), was the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Empire within the context of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The Spanish conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities in the Yucatán Peninsula, a vast limestone plain covering south-eastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and all of Belize.
The Spanish East Indies (Spanish: Indias orientales españolas; Filipino: Silangang Indiyas ng Espanya) were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery.
Spanish Formosa (Formosa Española) was a Spanish colony established in the north of Taiwan from 1626 to 1642.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The mastín Español or Spanish mastiff, is a giant breed of dog, originating in Spain, originally bred to be a guard dog whose specialized purpose is to be a livestock guardian dog protecting flocks (and occasionally herds) from wolves and other predators.
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.
Spanish Sahara (Sahara Español; الصحراء الإسبانية As-Sahrā'a Al-Isbānīyah), officially the Overseas Province of the Spanish Sahara, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled as a territory by Spain between 1884 and 1975.
Spanish Town is the capital and the largest town in the parish of St. Catherine in the historic county of Middlesex, Jamaica.
The Spanish treasure fleet, or West Indies Fleet from Spanish Flota de Indias, also called silver fleet or plate fleet (from the Spanish plata meaning "silver"), was a convoy system adopted by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790, linking Spain with its territories in America across the Atlantic.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The stern is the back or aft-most part of a ship or boat, technically defined as the area built up over the sternpost, extending upwards from the counter rail to the taffrail.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
The Strait of Juan de Fuca (officially named Juan de Fuca Strait in Canada) is a large body of water about long that is the Salish Sea's outlet to the Pacific Ocean.
Suez (السويس; Egyptian Arabic) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
A swamp is a wetland that is forested.
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
The Taíno people are one of the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean.
Tabasco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tabasco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tabasco), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
In sailing, tack is a corner of a sail on the lower leading edge.
Tamaulipas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Tampa Bay is a large natural harbor and shallow estuary connected to the Gulf of Mexico on the west central coast of Florida, comprising Hillsborough Bay, McKay Bay, Old Tampa Bay, Middle Tampa Bay, and Lower Tampa Bay.
The ten lost tribes were the ten of the twelve tribes of ancient Israel that were said to have been deported from the Kingdom of Israel after its conquest by the Neo-Assyrian Empire circa 722 BCE.
A tercio ("third") or tercio español ("Spanish third") was a Spanish infantry organization during the time that Habsburg Spain dominated Europe in the Early Modern era.
Ternate is an island in the Maluku Islands (Moluccas) of eastern Indonesia.
Ternate, officially the Municipality of Ternate (Bayan ng Ternate; or Bahra, Municipio de Bahra), is a fourth-class municipality in the province of Cavite, Philippines.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Californias (Spanish: Las Californias), occasionally known as the Three Californias or Two Californias, are a region of North America, shared between Mexico and the United States of America, consisting of the U.S. state of California and the Mexican states of Baja California and Baja California Sur.
The Guianas, sometimes called by the Spanish loan-word Guayanas (Las Guayanas), are a region in north-eastern South America which includes the following three territories.
Book of the Marvels of the World (French: Livre des Merveilles du Monde) or Description of the World (Devisement du Monde), in Italian Il Milione (The Million) or Oriente Poliano and in English commonly called The Travels of Marco Polo, is a 13th-century travelogue written down by Rustichello da Pisa from stories told by Marco Polo, describing Polo's travels through Asia between 1271 and 1295, and his experiences at the court of Kublai Khan.
The theory of Portuguese discovery of Australia claims that early Portuguese navigators were the first Europeans to sight Australia between 1521 and 1524, well before the arrival of Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606 on board the Duyfken who is generally considered to be the first European discoverer.
Tidore (Kota Tidore Kepulauan) is a city, island, and archipelago in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia, west of the larger island of Halmahera.
Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, north of the Timor Sea.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tomé de Sousa (1503-1579) was the first governor-general of the Portuguese colony of Brazil from 1549 until 1553.
Toribio of Benavente, O.F.M. (1482, Benavente, Spain – 1568, Mexico City, New Spain), also known as Motolinía, was a Franciscan missionary who was one of the famous Twelve Apostles of Mexico who arrived in New Spain in May 1524.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
The Treaty of Zaragoza, or Treaty of Saragossa, also referred to as the Capitulation of Zaragoza, was a peace treaty between the Spanish Crown and Portugal, signed on 22 April 1529 by King John III and the Emperor Charles V, in the Aragonese city of Zaragoza.
Trindade and Martin Vaz (Trindade e Martim Vaz) is an archipelago located in the Southern Atlantic Ocean about east of the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil, which it constitutes a part of.
Tristan da Cunha, colloquially Tristan, is both a remote group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean and the main island of that group.
Tristão da Cunha (sometimes misspelled Tristão d'Acunha;; c. 1460 – c. 1540) was a Portuguese explorer and naval commander.
Tristão Vaz Teixeira (c. 1395–1480) was a Portuguese navigator and explorer who, together with João Gonçalves Zarco and Bartolomeu Perestrelo, was the official discoverer and one of the first settlers of the archipelago of Madeira (1419–1420).
The Tupi people were one of the most important indigenous peoples in Brazil.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
The Uruguay River (Río Uruguay,; Rio Uruguai) is a river in South America.
Vancouver Island is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, just off the coast of Canada.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa (c. 1475around January 12–21, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
The Viceroyalty of Peru (Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima.
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses in which fever and hemorrhage are caused by a viral infection.
Sir Walter Raleigh (or; circa 155429 October 1618) was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Wenceslaus Linck (Wenceslau Linck) (1736 – after 1790) was the last of the outstanding Jesuit missionary-explorers in Baja California.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
A wind rose is a graphic tool used by meteorologists to give a succinct view of how wind speed and direction are typically distributed at a particular location.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
Yucatán, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán (Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Yuma Crossing is a site in Arizona and California that is significant for its association with transportation and communication across the Colorado River.
Yuma (Yuum) is a city in and the county seat of Yuma County, Arizona, United States.
Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.
The Zuni (A:shiwi; formerly spelled Zuñi) are Native American Pueblo peoples native to the Zuni River valley.
The Zuni-Cibola Complex is a collection of prehistoric and historic archaeological sites on the Zuni Pueblo in western New Mexico.
1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus is a 2005 non-fiction book by American author and science writer Charles C. Mann about the pre-Columbian Americas.
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on the morning of Saturday, 1 November, the holy day of All Saints' Day, at around 09:40 local time.