283 relations: A Dictionary of the English Language, Absence seizure, Ada Lovelace, Adaptation, Alan Turing, Allan Hobson, Altered state of consciousness, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Analytical Engine, Anesthesia, Animal consciousness, Anosognosia, Antahkarana, Anton–Babinski syndrome, Antonio Damasio, Artificial consciousness, Artificial intelligence, Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness, Attention, Attention schema theory, Automaton, Awareness, Bayesian approaches to brain function, Being, Bernard Baars, Binding problem, Bioethics, Blindsight, Bottlenose dolphin, Brain death, C. S. Lewis, Cannabis (drug), Case study, Categorization, Causality, Cerebral cortex, Chaitanya (consciousness), Charles Babbage, Charles Richard Elrington, Charles Tart, Chinese room, Christof Koch, Cicero, Cognitive closure (philosophy), Cognitive neuroscience, Cognitive psychology, Cognitive science, Columbidae, Coma, Computer, ..., Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Conscience, Consciousness and Cognition, Consciousness Explained, Daniel Dennett, Daniel Schacter, David Bohm, David Chalmers, Delirium, Dementia, Differential diagnosis, Disorders of consciousness, Donald Griffin, Douglas Hofstadter, Dream, Edmund Husserl, Edward Craig (philosopher), Electroencephalography, Elephant, Embodied cognition, Encyclopédie, Epiphenomenalism, Episodic memory, Ethanol, Eurasian magpie, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Exaptation, Executive functions, Experience, Explanation, Explanatory gap, Feeling, Fitness (biology), Francis Crick, Free will, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Functionalism (philosophy of mind), Gamma wave, General anaesthesia, Generalised tonic-clonic seizure, George Mandler, Gerald Edelman, Gilbert Ryle, Giulio Tononi, Glasgow Coma Scale, Golem, Gordon G. Gallup, Hard problem of consciousness, Hemispatial neglect, Heterophenomenology, Holonomic brain theory, Hominidae, Idealism, Ideasthesia, Immanuel Kant, In re Quinlan, Induced coma, Ineffability, Information, Information processing, Intentionality, International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Introspection, James J. Gibson, James Joyce, James Ussher, Jürgen Schmidhuber, Joaquin Fuster, John Archibald Wheeler, John Eccles (neurophysiologist), John Locke, John Searle, Joseph Levine (philosopher), Journal of Consciousness Studies, Julien Offray de La Mettrie, K. Anders Ericsson, Karl H. Pribram, Karl Marx, Karl Popper, Ken Wilber, Killer whale, Knowledge, Language, Leviathan (Hobbes book), Locked-in syndrome, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Man a Machine, Max Tegmark, Max Velmans, Measurement problem, Mechanism (philosophy), Medical research, Medicine, Memory, Mental substance, Merkwelt, Mescaline, Michael Graziano, Mind, Mind Stream, Mind–body dualism, Mind–body problem, Mindfulness, Minimally conscious state, Mirror neuron, Mirror test, Models of Consciousness, Modularity of mind, Monism, Morality, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Natural selection, Necker cube, Ned Block, Neon color spreading, Neural correlates of consciousness, Neural oscillation, Neurological examination, Neurology, Neuropsychological assessment, Neuropsychology, Neuroscience, Neuroscience of free will, Neutral monism, New mysterianism, Nikos Logothetis, Non-human, Objectivity (philosophy), Occam's razor, Operational definition, Optical illusion, Orchestrated objective reduction, Owen Flanagan, Paediatric Glasgow Coma Scale, Parietal lobe, Paul Tannery, Perception, Persistent vegetative state, Peter Carruthers (philosopher), Phenomenology (philosophy), Phenomenology (psychology), Phenotypic trait, Philosophical zombie, Philosophy of mind, Physicalism, Pineal gland, PLOS One, Prefrontal cortex, Prem Saran Satsangi, Priming (psychology), Problem of other minds, Property dualism, Pseudobulbar palsy, Psilocybin, Psyche (consciousness journal), Psychedelic drug, Psychoactive drug, Psychology, Pygmalion (mythology), Qualia, Quality (philosophy), Quantum decoherence, Quantum entanglement, Quantum mechanics, Quantum mind, Recurrent thalamo-cortical resonance, Reentry (neural circuitry), René Descartes, Res extensa, Response priming, Reverse engineering, Richard Maurice Bucke, Robert Stickgold, Robot, Robotics, Rodney Brooks, Rodolfo Llinás, Roger Penrose, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Samuel Johnson, Scholarpedia, Schrödinger's cat, Sedative, Self, Self-awareness, Sentience, Serotonin, Situated cognition, Sleep, Solipsism, Soul, Spirit, Stephen Hawking, Stevan Harnad, Stimulant, Stimulus (physiology), Stream of consciousness (narrative mode), Stream of consciousness (psychology), Stroke, Stuart Hameroff, Stuart Sutherland, Subhash Kak, Subjectivism, Subjectivity, Subliminal stimuli, Symbol grounding problem, Synesthesia, Temporal lobe, Tetraplegia, Thalamus, The Centipede's Dilemma, The Concept of Mind, The Mind's I, Thomas Henry Huxley, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Nagel, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Turing test, Ulysses (novel), Umbrella term, Unconsciousness, University of Cambridge, Virginia Woolf, Visual cortex, Wakefulness, Wave function collapse, Webster's Third New International Dictionary, What Is it Like to Be a Bat?, William James, William Lycan, Working memory. 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Published on 4 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary, is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language.
Absence seizures are one of several kinds of generalized seizures.
Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace (née Byron; 10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
John Allan Hobson (born June 3, 1933) is an American psychiatrist and dream researcher.
An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is a work by John Locke concerning the foundation of human knowledge and understanding.
The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Animal consciousness, or animal awareness, is the quality or state of self-awareness within an animal, or of being aware of an external object or something within itself.
Anosognosia (from Ancient Greek ἀ- a-, "without", νόσος nosos, "disease" and γνῶσις gnōsis, "knowledge") is a deficit of self-awareness, a condition in which a person with some disability seems unaware of its existence.
In Hindu philosophy, the antahkarana (Sanskrit: "the inner cause") refers to the totality of two levels of mind, namely the buddhi, the intellect or higher mind, and the manas, the middle levels of mind which (according to theosophy) exist as or include the mental body.
Anton–Babinski syndrome, also known as visual anosognosia, is a rare symptom of brain damage occurring in the occipital lobe.
Antonio Damasio (António Damásio) is a Portuguese-American neuroscientist.
Artificial consciousness (AC), also known as machine consciousness (MC) or synthetic consciousness, is a field related to artificial intelligence and cognitive robotics.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
The Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness (ASSC) is a professional membership organization that aims to encourage research on consciousness in cognitive science, neuroscience, philosophy, and other relevant disciplines in the sciences and humanities, directed toward understanding the nature, function, and underlying mechanisms of consciousness.
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
The attention schema theory (AST) of consciousness (or subjective awareness) is an evolutionary and neuropsychological scientific theory of consciousness which was developed by neuroscientist Michael Graziano at Princeton University.
An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.
Awareness is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events.
Bayesian approaches to brain function investigate the capacity of the nervous system to operate in situations of uncertainty in a fashion that is close to the optimal prescribed by Bayesian statistics.
Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.
Bernard J. Baars (born 1946, in Amsterdam) is a former Senior Fellow in Theoretical Neurobiology at The Neurosciences Institute in La Jolla, CA., and is currently an Affiliated Fellow there.
The binding problem is a term used at the interface between neuroscience, cognitive science and philosophy of mind that has multiple meanings.
Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine.
Blindsight is the ability of people who are cortically blind due to lesions in their striate cortex, also known as primary visual cortex or V1, to respond to visual stimuli that they do not consciously see.
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.
Brain death is the complete loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life).
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
In the social sciences and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case), as well as its related contextual conditions.
Categorization is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
The Sanskrit word, Chaitanya, means 'consciousness' or 'spirit' or 'intelligence' or 'sensation'.
Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.
Charles Richard Elrington (1787–1850) was a Church of Ireland cleric and academic, regius professor of divinity in the University of Dublin.
Charles T. Tart (born 1937) is an American psychologist and parapsychologist known for his psychological work on the nature of consciousness (particularly altered states of consciousness), as one of the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology, and for his research in parapsychology.
The Chinese room argument holds that a program cannot give a computer a "mind", "understanding" or "consciousness", regardless of how intelligently or human-like the program may make the computer behave.
Christof Koch (born November 13, 1956) is an American neuroscientist best known for his work on the neural bases of consciousness.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
In philosophy of science and philosophy of mind, cognitive closure is the proposition that human minds are constitutionally incapable of solving certain perennial philosophical problems.
The term cognitive neuroscience was coined by George Armitage Miller and Michael Gazzaniga in year 1976.
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Pigeons and doves constitute the animal family Columbidae and the order Columbiformes, which includes about 42 genera and 310 species.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
"Computing Machinery and Intelligence" is a seminal paper written by Alan Turing on the topic of artificial intelligence.
Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong.
The journal Consciousness and Cognition (ISSN 1053-8100) provides a forum for scientific approaches to the issues of consciousness, voluntary control, and self.
Consciousness Explained is a 1991 book by the American philosopher Daniel Dennett, in which the author offers an account of how consciousness arises from interaction of physical and cognitive processes in the brain.
Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.
Daniel Lawrence Schacter (born June 17, 1952) is an American psychologist.
David Joseph Bohm FRS (December 20, 1917 – October 27, 1992) was an American scientist who has been described as one of the most significant theoretical physicists of the 20th centuryF.
David John Chalmers (born 20 April 1966) is an Australian philosopher and cognitive scientist specializing in the areas of philosophy of mind and philosophy of language.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
Disorders of consciousness are medical conditions that inhibit consciousness.
Donald Redfield Griffin (August 3, 1915 - November 7, 2003) was an American professor of zoology at various universities who did seminal research in animal behavior, animal navigation, acoustic orientation and sensory biophysics.
Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American professor of cognitive science whose research focuses on the sense of self in relation to the external world, consciousness, analogy-making, artistic creation, literary translation, and discovery in mathematics and physics.
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Edward John Craig (born 26 March 1942) is an English academic philosopher, editor of the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and former Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Embodied cognition is the theory that many features of cognition, whether human or otherwise, are shaped by aspects of the entire body of the organism.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
Epiphenomenalism is a mind–body philosophy marked by the belief that basic physical events (sense organs, neural impulses, and muscle contractions) are causal with respect to mental events (thought, consciousness, and cognition).
Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
The Eurasian magpie or common magpie (Pica pica) is a resident breeding bird throughout northern part of Eurasian continent.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Exaptation (Stephen Jay Gould and Elisabeth Vrba's proposed replacement for what he considered the teleologically-loaded term "pre-adaptation") and the related term co-option describe a shift in the function of a trait during evolution.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context, and consequences of those facts.
In philosophy of mind and consciousness, the explanatory gap is the difficulty that physicalist theories have in explaining how physical properties give rise to the way things feel when they are experienced.
Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
Functionalism is a view in the theory of the mind.
A gamma wave is a pattern of neural oscillation in humans with a frequency between 25 and 100 Hz, though 40 Hz is typical.
General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.
A generalized tonic–clonic seizure (formerly known as a grand mal seizure) is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain.
George Mandler (June 11, 1924 – May 6, 2016) was an Austrian-born American psychologist, who became a distinguished professor of psychology at the University of California, San Diego.
Gerald Maurice Edelman (July 1, 1929 – May 17, 2014) was an American biologist who shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work with Rodney Robert Porter on the immune system.
Gilbert Ryle (19 August 1900 – 6 October 1976) was a British philosopher.
Giulio Tononi is a neuroscientist and psychiatrist who holds the David P. White Chair in Sleep Medicine, as well as a Distinguished Chair in Consciousness Science, at the University of Wisconsin.
The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable and objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment.
In Jewish folklore, a golem (גולם) is an animated anthropomorphic being that is magically created entirely from inanimate matter (specifically clay or mud).
Gordon G. Gallup Jr. (born 1941) is a psychologist in the University at Albany's Psychology department, researching biopsychology.
The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining how and why we have qualia or phenomenal experiences—how sensations acquire characteristics, such as colors and tastes.
Hemispatial neglect, also called hemiagnosia, hemineglect, unilateral neglect, spatial neglect, contralateral neglect, unilateral visual inattention,Unsworth, C. A. (2007).
Heterophenomenology ("phenomenology of another, not oneself") is a term coined by Daniel Dennett to describe an explicitly third-person, scientific approach to the study of consciousness and other mental phenomena.
The holonomic brain theory, developed by neuroscientist Karl Pribram initially in collaboration with physicist David Bohm, is a model of human cognition that describes the brain as a holographic storage network.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Ideasthesia (alternative spelling ideaesthesia) is defined as a phenomenon in which activations of concepts (inducers) evoke perception-like experiences (concurrents).
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
In re Quinlan (70 N.J. 10, 355 A.2d 647 (NJ 1976)) was a landmark 1975 court case in the United States in which the parents of a woman who was kept alive by artificial means were allowed to order her removal from artificial ventilation.
An induced coma, also known as a medically-induced coma, a barbiturate-induced coma, or a barb coma, is a temporary coma (a deep state of unconsciousness) brought on by a controlled dose of a barbiturate drug, usually pentobarbital or thiopental.
Ineffability is concerned with ideas that cannot or should not be expressed in spoken words (or language in general), often being in the form of a taboo or incomprehensible term.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.
Intentionality is a philosophical concept and is defined by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy as "the power of minds to be about, to represent, or to stand for, things, properties and states of affairs".
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organisation.
Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.
James Jerome Gibson (January 27, 1904 – December 11, 1979), was an American psychologist and one of the most important contributors to the field of visual perception.
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.
James Ussher (or Usher; 4 January 1581 – 21 March 1656) was the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625 and 1656.
Jürgen Schmidhuber (born 17 January 1963) is a computer scientist who works in the field of artificial intelligence.
Joaquin M. Fuster (born 1930)* is a Spanish neuroscientist whose research has made fundamental contributions to the understanding of the neural structures underlying cognition and behavior.
John Archibald Wheeler (July 9, 1911 – April 13, 2008) was an American theoretical physicist.
Sir John Carew Eccles (27 January 1903 – 2 May 1997) was an Australian neurophysiologist and philosopher who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Rogers Searle (born 31 July 1932) is an American philosopher.
Joseph Levine (born January 17, 1952) is an American philosopher at the University of Massachusetts Amherst who received his PhD from Harvard University in 1981.
The Journal of Consciousness Studies is an interdisciplinary peer-reviewed academic journal dedicated entirely to the field of consciousness studies.
Julien Offray de La Mettrie (November 23, 1709 – November 11, 1751) was a French physician and philosopher, and one of the earliest of the French materialists of the Enlightenment.
Karl H. Pribram (February 25, 1919 – January 19, 2015) was a professor at Georgetown University, in the United States, an emeritus professor of psychology and psychiatry at Stanford University and distinguished professor at Radford University.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Kenneth Earl Wilber II (born January 31, 1949) is an American writer on transpersonal psychology and his own integral theory, a four-quadrant grid which suggests the synthesis of all human knowledge and experience.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668). Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong, undivided government.
Locked-in syndrome (LIS), also known as pseudocoma, is a condition in which a patient is aware but cannot move or communicate verbally due to complete paralysis of nearly all voluntary muscles in the body except for vertical eye movements and blinking.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Man a Machine (French: L'homme Machine) is a work of materialist philosophy by the 18th-century French physician and philosopher Julien Offray de La Mettrie, first published in 1747.
Max Erik Tegmark (born Max Shapiro 5 May 1967) is a Swedish-American physicist and cosmologist.
Max Velmans (born 27 May 1942 in Amsterdam) is a British psychologist and Emeritus Professor of Psychology at Goldsmiths, University of London, principally known for the theory of consciousness called "reflexive monism," Reflexive monism bridges the materialist/dualist divide by noting that, in terms of their phenomenology, experiences of the external world are none other than the physical world-as-experienced, thereby placing aspects of human consciousness in the external phenomenal world, rather than exclusively within the head or brain.
The measurement problem in quantum mechanics is the problem of how (or whether) wave function collapse occurs.
Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Mental substance is the idea held by dualists and idealists, that minds are made-up of non-physical substance.
The merkwelt (Merkwelt, meaning "way of viewing the world", "peculiar individual consciousness") is a concept in robotics, ethology and biology that describes a creature or android's capacity to view things, manipulate information and synthesize to make meaning out of the universe.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
Michael Steven Anthony Graziano (born 1967) is an American scientist and novelist who is currently a professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at Princeton University.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Mind Stream (citta-santāna) in Buddhist philosophy is the moment-to-moment continuum (Sanskrit: saṃtāna) of sense impressions and mental phenomena, which is also described as continuing from one life to another.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
The mind–body problem is a philosophical problem concerning the relationship between the human mind and body, although it can also concern animal minds, if any, and animal bodies.
Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one's attention to experiences occurring in the present moment,Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review, by Ruth A. Baer, available at http://www.wisebrain.org/papers/MindfulnessPsyTx.pdf which can be developed through the practice of meditation and other training.
A minimally conscious state (MCS) is a disorder of consciousness distinct from persistent vegetative state and locked-in syndrome.
A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another.
The mirror test, sometimes called the mark test, mirror self-recognition test (MSR), red spot technique or rouge test is a behavioural technique developed in 1970 by psychologist Gordon Gallup Jr. as an attempt to determine whether a non-human animal possesses the ability of visual self-recognition.
Models of consciousness are used to illustrate and aid in understanding and explaining distinctive aspects consciousness.
Modularity of mind is the notion that a mind may, at least in part, be composed of innate neural structures or modules which have distinct established evolutionarily developed functions.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
The Necker cube is an optical illusion first published as a rhomboid in 1832 by Swiss crystallographer Louis Albert Necker.
Ned Joel Block (born 1942) is an American philosopher working in philosophy of mind who has made important contributions to the understanding of consciousness and the philosophy of cognitive science.
Neon color spreading (also referred to as neon-like color spreading) is an optical illusion in the category of transparency effects, characterized by fluid borders between the edges of a colored object and the background in the presence of black lines.
The neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) constitute the minimal set of neuronal events and mechanisms sufficient for a specific conscious percept.
Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.
A neurological examination is the assessment of sensory neuron and motor responses, especially reflexes, to determine whether the nervous system is impaired.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuropsychological assessment was traditionally carried out to assess the extent of impairment to a particular skill and to attempt to determine the area of the brain which may have been damaged following brain injury or neurological illness.
Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Neuroscience of free will, a part of neurophilosophy, is the study of the interconnections between free will and neuroscience.
In the philosophy of mind, neutral monism is the view that the mental and the physical are two ways of organizing or describing the same elements, which are themselves "neutral", that is, neither physical nor mental.
New mysterianism—or commonly just mysterianism—is a philosophical position proposing that the hard problem of consciousness cannot be resolved by humans.
Nikos Logothetis (Νίκος Λογοθέτης; born 1950 in Istanbul) is a Greek biologist and neuroscientist.
Non-human (also spelled nonhuman) is any entity displaying some, but not enough, human characteristics to be considered a human.
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.
Occam's razor (also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, the simplest explanation tends to be the right one.
An operational definition is the articulation of operationalization (or statement of procedures) used in defining the terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or phenomenon (a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc.
An optical illusion (also called a visual illusion) is an illusion caused by the visual system and characterized by a visual percept that (loosely said) appears to differ from reality.
Orchestrated objective reduction (Orch-OR) is a hypothesis that consciousness in the brain originates from processes inside neurons, rather than from connections between neurons (the conventional view).
Owen Flanagan (born 1949) is the James B. Duke Professor of Philosophy and Professor of Neurobiology at Duke University.
The Paediatric Glasgow Coma Scale (BrE) (also known as Pediatric Glasgow Coma Score (AmE) or simply PGCS) is the equivalent of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) used to assess the level of consciousness of child patients.
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".
Paul Tannery (20 December 1843 – 27 November 1904) was a French mathematician and historian of mathematics.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a disorder of consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage are in a state of partial arousal rather than true awareness.
Peter Carruthers (born 16 June 1952) is a British-American philosopher working primarily in the area of philosophy of mind, though he has also made contributions to philosophy of language and ethics.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Phenomenology within psychology (phenomenological psychology) is the psychological study of subjective experience.
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
A philosophical zombie or p-zombie in the philosophy of mind and perception is a hypothetical being that from the outside is indistinguishable from a normal human being but lacks conscious experience, qualia, or sentience.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
In philosophy, physicalism is the ontological thesis that "everything is physical", that there is "nothing over and above" the physical, or that everything supervenes on the physical.
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Prem Saran Satsangi is the eighth and current Sant Satguru of Radhasoami Faith, Dayalbagh.
Priming is a technique whereby exposure to one stimulus influences a response to a subsequent stimulus, without conscious guidance or intention.
The problem of other minds is a philosophical problem traditionally stated as the following epistemological challenge raised by the skeptic: given that I can only observe the behavior of others, how can I know that others have minds? It is a central tenet of the philosophical idea known as solipsism; the notion that for any person only one's own mind is known to exist.
Property dualism describes a category of positions in the philosophy of mind which hold that, although the world is composed of just one kind of substance—the physical kind—there exist two distinct kinds of properties: physical properties and mental properties.
Pseudobulbar palsy is a medical condition characterized by the inability to control facial movements (such as chewing and speaking) and caused by a variety of neurological disorders.
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.
Psyche was an online peer-reviewed academic journal covering studies on consciousness and its relation to the brain from perspectives provided by the disciplines of cognitive science, philosophy, psychology, physics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, and anthropology.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Pygmalion (Πυγμαλίων, Pugmalíōn, gen.: Πυγμαλίωνος) is a legendary figure of Cyprus.
In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.
In philosophy, a quality is an attribute or a property characteristic of an object.
Quantum decoherence is the loss of quantum coherence.
Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
The quantum mind or quantum consciousness group of hypotheses propose that classical mechanics cannot explain consciousness.
Recurrent thalamo-cortical resonance is an observed phenomenon of oscillatory neural activity between the thalamus and various cortical regions of the brain.
Reentry is a neural structuring of the brain, specifically in humans, which is characterized by the ongoing bidirectional exchange of signals along reciprocal axonal fibers linking two or more brain areas.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Res extensa is one of the three substances described by René Descartes in his Cartesian ontology (often referred to as "radical dualism"), alongside res cogitans and God.
In the psychology of perception and motor control, the term response priming denotes a special form of priming.
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
Richard Maurice Bucke (18 March 1837 – 19 February 1902), often called Maurice Bucke, was a prominent Canadian psychiatrist in the late 19th century.
Robert Stickgold is an associate professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.
Rodney Allen Brooks (born 30 December 1954) is an Australian roboticist, Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science, author, and robotics entrepreneur, most known for popularizing the actionist approach to robotics.
Rodolfo R. Llinás (Bogotá, Colombia 16 December 1934) is a Colombian neuroscientist.
Sir Roger Penrose (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science.
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.
Schrödinger's cat is a thought experiment, sometimes described as a paradox, devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
The self is an individual person as the object of his or her own reflective consciousness.
Self-awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals.
Sentience is the capacity to feel, perceive or experience subjectively.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Situated cognition is a theory that posits that knowing is inseparable from doing by arguing that all knowledge is situated in activity bound to social, cultural and physical contexts.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
A spirit is a supernatural being, often but not exclusively a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
Stevan Robert Harnad (Hernád István Róbert, Hesslein István, born June 2, 1945, Budapest) is a cognitive scientist.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a narrative mode or method that attempts to depict the multitudinous thoughts and feelings which pass through the mind.
Stream of consciousness refers to the flow of thoughts in the conscious mind.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Stuart Hameroff (born July 16, 1947) is an anesthesiologist and professor at the University of Arizona known for his studies of consciousness and his controversial contention that quantum states in neural microtubules are responsible for its emergence.
(Norman) Stuart Sutherland (26 March 1927 – 8 November 1998) was a British psychologist and writer.
Subhash Kak (born 26 March 1947 in Srinagar) is an Indian American computer scientist.
Subjectivism is the doctrine that "our own mental activity is the only unquestionable fact of our experience.", instead of shared or communal, and that there is no external or objective truth.
Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.
Subliminal stimuli (the prefix sup- literally "below, or less than", while the prefix sub- literally "up to"), contrary to supraliminal stimuli or "above threshold", are any sensory stimuli below an individual's threshold for conscious perception.
The symbol grounding problem is related to the problem of how words (symbols) get their meanings, and hence to the problem of what meaning itself really is.
Synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Tetraplegia, also known as quadriplegia, is paralysis caused by illness or injury that results in the partial or total loss of use of all four limbs and torso; paraplegia is similar but does not affect the arms.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
"The Centipede's Dilemma" is a short poem that has lent its name to a psychological effect called the centipede effect or centipede syndrome.
The Concept of Mind is a 1949 book by philosopher Gilbert Ryle, in which the author argues that "mind" is "a philosophical illusion hailing chiefly from René Descartes and sustained by logical errors and 'category mistakes' which have become habitual." The work has been cited as having "put the final nail in the coffin of Cartesian dualism" and has been seen as a founding document in the philosophy of mind, which received professional recognition as a distinct and important branch of philosophy only after 1950.
The Mind's I: Fantasies and reflections on self and soul is a 1981 collection of essays and other texts about the nature of the mind and the self, edited with commentary by popular science writers Douglas R. Hofstadter and Daniel C. Dennett.
Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Nagel (born July 4, 1937) is an American philosopher and University Professor of Philosophy and Law Emeritus at New York University, where he taught from 1980 to 2016.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current to flow in a small region of the brain via electromagnetic induction.
The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human.
Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce.
An umbrella term is a word or phrase that covers a wide range of concepts belonging to a common category.
Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 188228 March 1941) was an English writer, who is considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.
The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state and state of consciousness in which an individual is conscious and engages in coherent cognitive and behavioral responses to the external world such as communication, ambulation, eating, and sex.
In quantum mechanics, wave function collapse is said to occur when a wave function—initially in a superposition of several eigenstates—appears to reduce to a single eigenstate (by "observation").
Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (commonly known as Webster's Third, or W3) was published in September 1961.
"What is it like to be a bat?" is a paper by American philosopher Thomas Nagel, first published in The Philosophical Review in October 1974, and later in Nagel's Mortal Questions (1979).
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
William G. Lycan (born September 26, 1945) is an American philosopher and Professor Emeritus at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he was formerly the William Rand Kenan, Jr.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
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