265 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Active duty, Al-Mu'tasim, Alternative civilian service, Anarchy at Samarra, Anno Domini, Aristotle, Armed Forces & Society, Arrière-ban, Article One of the United States Constitution, Aruba, Ashgate Publishing, Austria, Austrian Armed Forces, Auxiliary Territorial Service, Ayn Rand, Ayyubid dynasty, Åland Islands, Babylonia, Baghdad, Bahri dynasty, Bangladesh Ansar, Barbary pirates, Bedouin, Benefit–cost ratio, Bevin Boys, Black Guard, Bolivia, British Army, Bundeswehr, Burji dynasty, Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, Caste, CBC News, Central Intelligence Agency, Chad, Children in the military, Circassians, Civil conscription, Civil defense, Civil service, Civilian Public Service, Code of Hammurabi, Cold War, Combat, Compulsory military training in New Zealand, Conscientious objector, Conscription Crisis of 1917, Conscription Crisis of 1944, ..., Conscription in Australia, Conscription in Denmark, Conscription in Egypt, Conscription in Finland, Conscription in France, Conscription in Germany, Conscription in Greece, Conscription in Mexico, Conscription in Norway, Conscription in Russia, Conscription in Serbia, Conscription in South Korea, Conscription in Sweden, Conscription in Switzerland, Conscription in Taiwan, Conscription in the Netherlands, Conscription in the Ottoman Empire, Conscription in the Russian Empire, Constitution of Denmark, Constitution of Finland, Constitution of the Republic of China, Corvée, Crusades, Curaçao, Cypriot National Guard, Cyprus, Danish language, Declaration of war, Desertion, Deutsche Welle, Devshirme, Disability, Druze, Due Process Clause, Dutch language, East Germany, Eastern Front (World War II), Economic conscription, Egypt, Emma Goldman, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, English language, Ephebic Oath, Eritrea, Europe, Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Finnish Border Guard, Finnish Defence Forces, Frederick IV of Denmark, Frederick the Great, Free area of the Republic of China, French First Republic, French Revolution, Friends World Committee for Consultation, Fyrd, Gerald Ford, Gerhard von Scharnhorst, German reunification, Ghulam, Gibraltar, Grande Armée, Great Wall of China, Greece, Greek Cypriots, Hammurabi, Harold Macmillan, History of Anglo-Saxon England, Hong Kong, Ilkhanate, Impressment, Initiation, Internal Troops, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Involuntary servitude, Islam, Ismail Ibn Sharif, Israel, Janissaries, Japan Self-Defense Forces, Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jimmy Carter, John Wiley & Sons, Jonathan Alter, Judicial Yuan, Kapıkulu, Kipchaks, Krasimir Karakachanov, Lapinjärvi (municipality), Latin, Levée en masse, Libertarian Party (United States), Libertarianism in the United States, List of Abbasid caliphs, List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, List of monarchs of the Netherlands, Louis Bonaparte, Macau, Mahmud II, Mamluk, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Men's rights movement, Mickey Kaus, Middle Ages, Military, Military dictatorship, Military history, Military nurse, Military recruitment, Military reserve force, Military Selective Service Act, Military service, Military Service Act (Canada), Milton Friedman, Mobilization, Moldova, Mozambique, Murad I, Napoleon, National Assembly (Serbia), National Guard of the United States, National service, National service in Singapore, National Service Training Programme (Malaysia), National Transitional Council, NATO, Nazi Germany, Netherlands, Niccolò Machiavelli, Non-commissioned officer, North Korea, Northern Ireland, Norway, Norwegian language, Old Norse, Operation Downfall, Ottoman Empire, Pacifism, Parable of the broken window, Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha, Parole, Patriarchy, Patriotism, Peace churches, Peoples of the Caucasus, Police, Politika, Portuguese language, Pospolite ruszenie, Post-industrial society, ProQuest, Prussian Army, Quota System (Royal Navy), Republic of Ireland, Rescue, Reuters, Richard Nixon, Right of asylum, Rite of passage, Roman Republic, Ron Paul, Rostker v. Goldberg, Royal Air Force, Royal Bermuda Regiment, Royal Navy, Russian Empire, Scandinavia, Selective Draft Law Cases, Selective Service Act of 1917, Selective Service System, Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, Serbia, Serfdom in Russia, Sexism, Sherut Leumi, Slavery, Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Springer Science+Business Media, State of Defence (Germany), Storting, Sudan, Supreme Court of the United States, Sweden, Swedish Armed Forces, Swedish language, Switzerland, Syracuse University, Taiwan, The Atlantic, The Canadian Encyclopedia, Thegn, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Transsexual, Travel visa, Turkic peoples, United Kingdom, United Nations Human Rights Committee, United States Congress, United States Constitution, Viking Age, Volkssturm, Volunteer military, War, War Resisters' International, West Germany, William James, Women in the military, World War I, World War II, Yeshiva, Zivildienst, Zivildienst in Austria. 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The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Active duty is a full-time occupation as part of a military force, as opposed to reserve duty.
Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو إسحاق محمد بن هارون الرشيد; October 796 – 5 January 842), better known by his regnal name al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (المعتصم بالله, "he who seeks refuge in God"), was the eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 to his death in 842.
Alternative civilian service is a form of national service performed in lieu of conscription for various reasons, such as conscientious objection, inadequate health, or political reasons.
The term "Anarchy at Samarra" refers to the period 861–870 in the history of the Abbasid Caliphate, which was marked by extreme internal instability and the violent succession of four caliphs, who became puppets in the hands of powerful rival military groups.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Armed Forces & Society is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic publication that publishes scholarly articles and book reviews on political science, civil–military relations, military sociology, military psychology, military institutions, conflict management, arms control, peacekeeping, conflict resolution, military contracting, terrorism, and military ethics.
In medieval France, the arrière-ban (Latin retrobannumTheodore Evergates, "Ban, Banalité", in W. W. Kibler and G. A. Zinn (eds.), Medieval France: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland, 1995), pp. 175–76.) is a general proclamation whereby the king summons to war all his vassals and their vassals.
Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.
Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer) are the military forces of the Republic of Austria and the main military organisation responsible for the national defense.
The Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS; often pronounced as an acronym) was the women's branch of the British Army during the Second World War.
Ayn Rand (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks (translit) was a Mamluk dynasty of mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate from 1250 to 1382.
The Bangladesh Ansar (also known as the Ansar Bahini) is a paramilitary auxiliary force responsible for the preservation of internal security and law enforcement in Bangladesh.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
A benefit-cost ratio (BCR) is an indicator, used in cost-benefit analysis, that attempts to summarize the overall value for money of a project or proposal.
Bevin Boys were young British men conscripted to work in the coal mines of the United Kingdom, between December 1943 and March 1948.
The Black Guard (عبيد البوخاري, meaning "slaves of al-Bukhari"), were the corps of West African and Moroccan soldiers assembled by the Alaouite sultan of Morocco, Moulay Ismail (reigned 1672–1727).
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.
The Burji dynasty (المماليك البرجية) was a Circassian Mamluk dynasty which ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517, during the Mamluk Sultanate.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Children in the military are children (defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child as persons under the age of 18) who are associated with military organisations, such as state armed forces and non-state armed groups.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
Civil conscription is conscription used for forcing people to work in non-military projects.
Civil defense or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military attacks and natural disasters.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
The Civilian Public Service (CPS) was a program of the United States government that provided conscientious objectors with an alternative to military service during World War II.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Combat (French for fight) is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, establish dominance over, or kill the opposition, or to drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed.
Compulsory military training (CMT), a form of conscription, was practised for males in New Zealand between 1909 and 1972.
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.
The Conscription Crisis of 1917 (Crise de la conscription de 1917) was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. It was mainly caused by disagreement on whether men should be conscripted to fight in the war.
The Conscription Crisis of 1944 was a political and military crisis following the introduction of forced military service for men in Canada during World War II.
Conscription in Australia, or mandatory military service also known as national service, has a controversial history dating back to the first years of nationhood.
Conscription in Denmark is mandatory for all physically fit men over the age of 18, according to the Constitution of Denmark, §81 and the Danish Law of Conscription, §2.
Conscription in Egypt (translit) is a form of a compulsory military service in Egypt.
Conscription in Finland is part of a general compulsion for national military service for all adult males (maanpuolustusvelvollisuus; totalförsvarsplikt) defined in the 127§ of the Constitution of Finland.
France was the first modern nation state to introduce universal military conscription as a condition of citizenship.
Germany had conscription (Wehrpflicht) for male citizens between 1956 and 2011.
Since 1914, Greece (Hellenic Republic) has mandatory military service (conscription) of 9 months for men between the ages of 16 and 45.
Military Service in Mexico (in Spanish, Servicio Militar Nacional, or SMN) currently involves all males reaching the age of eighteen years.
Conscription in Norway means the manner in which citizens of Norway are required to serve the military.
Conscription in Russia (in Russia is known as or "universal military obligation" or "liability for military service") is a 12-month draft, mandatory for all male citizens age 18–27, with a number of exceptions.
As of 1 January, 2011, Serbia no longer practises mandatory military service.
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.
Sweden had mandatory military service (värnplikt) for men between 1901 and 2010.
Switzerland has mandatory military service (Militärdienst; service militaire; servizio militare) in the Swiss Army for all able-bodied male citizens, who are conscripted when they reach the age of majority, though women may volunteer for any position.
The Republic of China (Taiwan) has maintained a policy of conscription for all qualified males of military age.
Conscription in the Netherlands (dienstplicht) was first employed in 1810 by French occupying forces.
Conscription in the Ottoman Empire examined by close reference to what period ("Classic Army (1451–1606)," "Reform Period (1826–1858)" or "Modern Army (1861–1922)") or a complex set of rules which included a poll-tax (in the very early times named cizye on non-Muslims, later it was Bedl-i askeri, an exemption tax, which applied to everyone), which was theoretically a substitute for military service.
Conscription in the Russian Empire was introduced by Peter I of Russia.
The Constitutional Act of the Kingdom of Denmark (Danmarks Riges Grundlov), or simply the Constitution (Grundloven), is the constitution of the Kingdom of Denmark, applying equally in Denmark proper, Greenland and the Faroe Islands.
The Constitution of Finland (Suomen perustuslaki or Finlands grundlag) is the supreme source of national law of Finland.
During the National Constituent Assembly session on 25 December 1946 in Nanking, the fifth and current Chinese constitution was officially adopted on 25 December 1947, at a time when the ROC still had nominal control of Mainland China and to which this constitution applied.
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
The Cypriot National Guard (Εθνική Φρουρά, Ethnikí Frourá; Milli Muhafız Ordusu), also known as the Greek Cypriot National Guard or simply National Guard, is the combined arms military force of the Republic of Cyprus.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission (a pass, liberty or leave) and is done with the intention of not returning.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
Devshirme (دوشيرمه, devşirme, literally "lifting" or "collecting"), also known as the blood tax or tribute in blood, was chiefly the practice where by the Ottoman Empire sent military officers to take Christian boys, ages 8 to 18, from their families in Eastern and Southeastern Europe in order that they be raised to serve the state.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution each contain a due process clause.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Economic conscription is the mechanisms for recruitment of personnel for the armed forces through the use of economic conditions, particularly when geographical areas within a country are neglected in terms of their economic development, leading to a situation where a high proportion of young people consider a career within the armed forces as an attractive career choice; the premise is that if these areas enjoyed favourable conditions, this would not be the case, and that governments using this mechanism know this, and choose not to change the situation.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Emma Goldman (1869May 14, 1940) was an anarchist political activist and writer.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Ephebic Oath was an oath sworn by young men of Classical Athens, typically eighteen-year-old sons of Athenian citizens, upon induction into the military academy, the Ephebic College, graduation from which was required to attain status as citizens.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and, among other things, protects individuals from being compelled to be witnesses against themselves in criminal cases.
The Finnish Border Guard is the national security agency responsible for enforcing the security of Finland's borders.
The Finnish Defence Forces (Puolustusvoimat, Försvarsmakten) are responsible for the defence of Finland.
Frederick IV (11 October 1671 – 12 October 1730) was the king of Denmark and Norway from 1699 until his death.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
The Free area of the Republic of China is a term used by the government of the Republic of China (ROC) to refer to the territories under its actual control.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The Friends World Committee for Consultation (FWCC) is a Quaker organisation that works to communicate between all parts of Quakerism.
A fyrd was a type of early Anglo-Saxon army that was mobilised from freemen to defend their shire, or from selected representatives to join a royal expedition.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
Gerhard Johann David Waitz von Scharnhorst (12 November 1755 – 28 June 1813), was a Hanoverian-born general in Prussian service from 1801.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Ghulam (غلام.) is an Arabic word meaning servant, boy, youth.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
Greek Cypriots (Ελληνοκύπριοι, Kıbrıs Rumları or Kıbrıs Yunanları) are the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus, forming the island's largest ethnolinguistic community.
Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology).
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Impressment, colloquially "the press" or the "press gang", is the taking of men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice.
Initiation is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society.
The Internal Troops, full name Internal Troops of the Ministry for Internal Affairs (MVD) (Внутренние войска Министерства внутренних дел, Vnutrenniye Voiska Ministerstva Vnutrennikh Del; abbreviated ВВ, VV), alternatively translated as "Interior (Troops or Forces)", is a paramilitary gendarmerie-like force in the now-defunct Soviet Union and in some of its successor countries, including in Russia (until 2016), Ukraine (until 2014), Georgia (until 2004), Azerbaijan and Tajikistan.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.
Involuntary servitude or involuntary slavery is a United States legal and constitutional term for a person laboring against that person's will to benefit another, under some form of coercion other than the worker's financial needs.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Moulay Ismail ibn Sharif (مولاي إسماعيل بن الشريف ابن النصر) (1634– 22 March 1727), reigned 1672–1727, was the second ruler of the Moroccan Alaouite dynasty. He is also known in his native country as the "Warrior King".
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
The (JSDF), occasionally referred to as the Japan Defense Forces (JDF), Self-Defense Forces (SDF), or Japanese Armed Forces, are the unified military forces of Japan that were established in 1954, and are controlled by the Ministry of Defense.
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, 1st Comte Jourdan (29 April 1762 – 23 November 1833), enlisted as a private in the French royal army and rose to command armies during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Jonathan Alter (born October 6, 1957) is a liberal / progressive American journalist, best-selling author, and television producer who was a columnist and senior editor for Newsweek magazine from 1983 until 2011, and has written three New York Times best-selling books about American presidents.
The Judicial Yuan is one of the five branches of the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan, and serves as the highest judicial organ.
Kapıkulu (قپوقولو اوجاغی, Kapıkulu Ocağı, "Slaves of the Porte") was the collective name for the household troops of the Ottoman Sultans.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
Krasimir Donchev Karakachanov (Красимир Дончев Каракачанов; born 29 March 1965) is a Bulgarian politician, PhD in international law and international relations and historian.
Lapinjärvi (Lappträsk) is a municipality of Finland.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
An example of levée en masse (or, in English, "mass levy") was the policy of forced mass military conscription of all able-bodied, unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 25 adopted in the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789.
The Libertarian Party (LP) is a libertarian political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties, non-interventionism, laissez-faire capitalism and shrinking the size and scope of government.
Libertarianism in the United States is a movement promoting individual liberty and minimized government.
The Abbasid caliphs were the holders of the Islamic title of caliph who were members of the Abbasid dynasty, a branch of the Quraysh tribe descended from the uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib.
This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.
This is a list of monarchs of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koningen der Nederlanden).
Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (born Luigi Buonaparte; 2 September 1778 – 25 July 1846) was a younger brother of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
The men's rights movement (MRM) is a part of the larger men's movement.
Robert Michael "Mickey" Kaus (born July 6, 1951) is an American journalist, pundit, and author, known for writing Kausfiles, a "mostly political" blog which was featured on Slate until 2010.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing local and international relationships.
Most professional militaries employ specialised military nurses.
Military recruitment refers to the activity of attracting people to, and selecting them for, military training and employment.
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career.
The Selective Service Act of 1948, also known as the Elston Act, was a major revision of the Articles of War of the United States enacted June 24, 1948 that established the current implementation of the Selective Service System.
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
The Military Service Act, 1917 was an act passed by the Parliament of Canada in an effort to recruit more soldiers.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
Murad I (مراد اول; I. (nicknamed Hüdavendigâr, from Persian: خداوندگار, Khodāvandgār, "the devotee of God" – but meaning "sovereign" in this context); 29 June 1326 – 15 June 1389) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1362 to 1389.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Assembly (Народна скупштина/Narodna skupština) is the unicameral legislature of Serbia.
The National Guard of the United States, part of the reserve components of the United States Armed Forces, is a reserve military force, composed of National Guard military members or units of each state and the territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, for a total of 54 separate organizations.
National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service.
National Service in Singapore, (commonly known as NS), is a statutory requirement for all male Singaporean citizens and second-generation permanent residents to undergo a period of compulsory service in the uniformed services.
The National Service Training Programme, or Program Latihan Khidmat Negara (PLKN), known locally as the Khidmat Negara ("National Service") is Malaysia's national service program.
The National Transitional Council of Libya (المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the de facto government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War, in which rebel forces overthrew the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya of Muammar Gaddafi.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is a military officer who has not earned a commission.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Operation Downfall was the proposed Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
The parable of the broken window was introduced by French economist Frédéric Bastiat in his 1850 essay Ce qu'on voit et ce qu'on ne voit pas (That Which We See and That Which We Do Not See) to illustrate why destruction, and the money spent to recover from destruction, is not actually a net benefit to society.
Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha ("Ibrahim Pasha of Parga"; c. 1495 – 15 March 1536), also known as Frenk Ibrahim Pasha ("the Westerner"), Makbul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Favorite"), which later changed to Maktul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Executed") after his execution in the Topkapı Palace, was the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire appointed by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
Parole is a temporary release of a prisoner who agrees to certain conditions before the completion of the maximum sentence period, originating from the French parole ("voice, spoken words").
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.
Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating Christian pacifism or Biblical nonresistance.
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
Politika (Политика; Politics) is a Serbian daily newspaper, published in Belgrade.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Pospolite ruszenie (lit. mass mobilization; "Noble Host", motio belli, the French term levée en masse is also used) is a name for the mobilisation of armed forces during the period of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
In sociology, the post-industrial society is the stage of society's development when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector of the economy.
ProQuest LLC is an Ann Arbor, Michigan-based global information-content and technology company, founded in 1938 as University Microfilms by Eugene B. Power.
The Royal Prussian Army (Königlich Preußische Armee) served as the army of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Quota System (also known as The Quod), introduced by Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger in 1790, required each English county to provide a quota of men for the Royal Navy, based on its population and the number of its seaports: London, for example, had to provide 5,704 quotamen while Yorkshire had to provide 1,081.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Rescue comprises responsive operations that usually involve the saving of life, or prevention of injury during an incident or dangerous situation.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Ronald Ernest Paul (born August 20, 1935) is an American author, physician and retired politician who served as the U.S. Representative for Texas's 22nd congressional district from 1976 to 1977 and again from 1979 to 1985, and for Texas's 14th congressional district from 1997 to 2013.
Rostker v. Goldberg, 453 U.S. 57 (1981), was a decision of the United States Supreme Court holding that the practice of requiring only men to register for the draft was constitutional.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Bermuda Regiment (RBR), formerly the Bermuda Regiment, is the home defence unit of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Arver v. United States,, also known as the Selective Draft Law Cases, was a United States Supreme Court decision which upheld the Selective Service Act of 1917, and more generally, upheld conscription in the United States.
The Selective Service Act of 1917 or Selective Draft Act authorized the United States federal government to raise a national army for service in World War I through conscription.
The Selective Service System is an independent agency of the United States government that maintains information on those potentially subject to military conscription.
The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, also known as the Burke-Wadsworth Act,, was the first peacetime conscription in United States history.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The term serf, in the sense of an unfree peasant of the Russian Empire, is the usual translation of krepostnoi krestyanin (крепостной крестьянин).
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sherut Leumi (שירות לאומי, lit. National Service) is an alternative voluntary national service in Israel for those that cannot or do not wish to serve in the Israel Defense Forces.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha (سوکلو محمد پاشا, Sokollu Mehmet Paşa in modern Turkish; Мехмед-паша Соколовић, Arebica: مەحمەد-پاشا سۉقۉلۉوٖىݘ,; 1506 – 11 October 1579) was an Ottoman statesman.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The state of defence (in German: Verteidigungsfall or V-Fall) is the constitutional state of emergency in Germany if the country is "under attack by armed force or imminently threatened with such an attack".
The Storting (Stortinget, "the great thing" or "the great assembly") is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Swedish Armed Forces (Försvarsmakten, literally “Defense Force”) is the government agency that forms the military forces of Sweden, and which is tasked with defence of the country, as well as promoting Sweden's wider interests, supporting international peacekeeping efforts, and providing humanitarian aid.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syracuse University (commonly referred to as Syracuse, 'Cuse, or SU) is a private research university in Syracuse, New York, United States.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Canadian Encyclopedia (abbreviated as TCE) is a source of information on Canada published by Historica Canada of Toronto.
The term thegn (thane or thayn in Shakespearean English), from Old English þegn, ðegn, "servant, attendant, retainer", "one who serves", is commonly used to describe either an aristocratic retainer of a king or nobleman in Anglo-Saxon England, or, as a class term, the majority of the aristocracy below the ranks of ealdormen and high-reeves.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Transsexual people experience a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex, and desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify, usually seeking medical assistance (including hormone replacement therapy and other sex reassignment therapies) to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender.
A visa (from the Latin charta visa, meaning "paper which has been seen") is a conditional authorization granted by a country to a foreigner, allowing them to enter, remain within, or to leave that country.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations Human Rights Committee is a United Nations body of 18 experts that meets three times a year for four-week sessions (spring session at UN headquarters in New York, summer and fall sessions at the UN Office in Geneva) to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by 169 UN member states on their compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ICCPR, and any individual petitions concerning 116 States parties to the Optional Protocol.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
The Volkssturm ("people's storm") was a national militia established by Nazi Germany during the last months of World War II.
A volunteer military or all-volunteer military is one which derives its manpower from volunteers rather than conscription or mandatory service.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
War Resisters' International (WRI) is an international anti-war organization with members and affiliates in over thirty countries.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
Since 1914, the role of women in the military has been controversial, particularly their role in combat.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yeshiva (ישיבה, lit. "sitting"; pl., yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Torah.
Zivildienst (German, translated verbatim to "Civilian Service", although "compulsory community service" is more contextually equivalent).
The Zivildienst (German, translated verbatim to "Civilian Service", but "compulsory paid community service" is more contextually equivalent) is the alternative service for national military service in the Austrian Armed Forces.
Anti-conscription, Arguments against conscription, Called up for military service, Compulsory draft, Compulsory military service, Compulsory military training, Conscript, Conscript Troops, Conscript army, Conscript system, Conscripted, Conscription option, Conscripts, Draft (conscription), Draft card, Draft law, Draft registration, Drafting soldiers, Feudal levies, Feudal levy, Forced conscription, General conscription, Ilkum, Levy system, Mandatory army service, Mandatory conscription, Mandatory military service, Military Draft, Military Slavery, Military conscript, Military conscription, Military draft, Military slavery, Register for the draft, Registering for the draft, The Draft, The draft, Universal military service, World War II draft.