323 relations: A Sand County Almanac, Academic journal, Acclimatization, Adaptation, Adaptive management, Advocacy group, Advocate, Aesthetics, Age of Enlightenment, Agricultural expansion, Agriculture, Albert I of Belgium, Aldo Leopold, Alexander Gibson (botanist), Alexander von Humboldt, Alfred Newton, Algae, Amphibian, Anthropocentrism, Anthropology, Applied ecology, Archie Carr, Arctic, Ashoka, Atmosphere, Atmospheric chemistry, Australia, Background extinction rate, Beekeeper, Bias, Big cat, Binomial nomenclature, Biodiversity, Biodiversity action plan, Biodiversity hotspot, Biodiversity loss, Biogeography, Biological Conservation (journal), Biological dispersal, Biomass, Biosphere, Bird, Bird observatory, Birmingham, Black-legged kittiwake, Blue whale, Botany, British Columbia, British Empire, Buddhism, ..., Canadians, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carl Akeley, Charles Darwin, Charles Gordon Hewitt, Charles Lyell, Chartered Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management, Chennai, Christian theology, Civic engagement, Climate change, Climate change mitigation, Climate restoration, Colony collapse disorder, Community (ecology), Conservation (ethic), Conservation behavior, Conservation Biology (journal), Conservation genetics, Conservation management system, Conservation Physiology, Conservation status, Conservation-reliant species, Convention on Biological Diversity, Coral bleaching, Correlation and dependence, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Critically endangered, Cuthbert, Decline in amphibian populations, Deforestation, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Demography, Dinosaur National Monument, Diversity and Distributions, Drainage basin, Earth, Earth religion, Ecology, Ecology and Society, Economics, Economist, Ecosystem, Ecosystem services, Ecosystem valuation, Education, Effective population size, Effects of global warming, Endangered species, Endangered Species Act of 1973, Endemism, England, Environmental organization, Environmentalism, Epidemic, Ethics, Europe, European Commission, Evidence, Evolution, Ex situ conservation, Extinction, Extinction event, Farne Islands, Feedback, Food chain, Forest, Forest Reserve Act of 1891, Forestry, Fossil, France, Fungus, Fur clothing, G8+5, Game law, Gene, Gene pool, Genetic diversity, Genetic erosion, Genetic pollution, Genetics, Genus, Geographic information system, Germany, Giant panda, Global warming, Governor-General of India, Grant (money), Grassroots, Great Britain, Great crested grebe, Gross domestic product, Habitat, Habitat destruction, Habitat fragmentation, Haida people, Hindu, Holocene extinction, Honey bee, Human overpopulation, Humanities, In Situ Conservation in India, Inbreeding depression, Index of conservation articles, Indian Forest Service, Industry, Innovation, Insect, Insect migration, Instrumental and intrinsic value, Interdisciplinarity, International finance, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Invertebrate, Islam, IUCN Red List, James Bernard Harkin, James Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie, James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, James Ranald Martin, Jared Diamond, John Muir, Kelp, Kelp forest, Kurt Benirschke, Land degradation, Landscape-scale conservation, Late Devonian extinction, Law, Lichen, List of biology websites, List of conservation organisations, Living Planet Report, Logic, Lumber, M. E. Sharpe, Mammal, Manchester, Marine ecosystem, Market (economics), Michael E. Soulé, Microorganism, Minimum viable population, Molecular Ecology, Monarch butterfly, Morality, Mountain gorilla, Mountain pine beetle, Multicellular organism, Mutualisms and conservation, National Environmental Policy Act, National park, National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, Natural capital, Natural economy, Natural environment, Natural history, Natural resource, Natural resource management, New Zealand, Non-governmental organization, North America, Nutrient cycle, Objectivity (science), Ocean, Ocean acidification, Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, Ornithology, Otto Frankel, Outline of biology, Overexploitation, Pacific Northwest, Paleontology, Pasture, Peer review, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Pest (organism), Pest control, Pesticide, Philosophy, Plant, Pollination management, Population, Population ecology, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Price, Public good, Rare species, Reason, Regional Red List, Renewable resource, Restoration ecology, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Science, Scientific American, Scientific journal, Scotland, Sea Birds Preservation Act 1869, Sea otter, Sea urchin, Serengeti, Service (economics), Shinto, Sierra Club, Silviculture, Social inequity aversion, Society for Conservation Biology, Society for the Environment, Sockeye salmon, Soil ecology, South America, Species, Species at Risk Act, Species richness, Springer Science+Business Media, Statistical parameter, Steller's sea cow, Steppe, Steven J. Cooke, Stress (biology), Sustainability, Sweden, Symbiosis, Taiga, Tao, Taxonomic rank, The arts, The Nature Conservancy, The Plant List, The Theory of Island Biogeography, Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Lovejoy, Threatened species, Tiger, Tlingit, Topsoil, Tragedy of the commons, Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, Tyranny of small decisions, UNESCO, United Kingdom, United States, University of California, San Diego, Urban planning, Urban wildlife, Urchin barren, Utilitarianism, Value (economics), Value (ethics), Value of life, Vertebrate, Virunga Mountains, Virunga National Park, Wall Street, Water conservation, Water supply, Wealth, Wetland, Wilderness, Wildlife, Wildlife conservation, Wildlife Conservation Society, Wildlife corridor, Wildlife disease, Wildlife management, Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, Wildlife refuge, Wildlife trade, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, World Wide Fund for Nature, Year, Yellowstone National Park. Expand index (273 more) » « Shrink index
A Sand County Almanac: And Sketches Here and There is a 1949 non-fiction book by American ecologist, forester, and environmentalist Aldo Leopold.
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.
Acclimatization or acclimatisation (also called acclimation or acclimatation) is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment (such as a change in altitude, temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Adaptive management (AM), also known as adaptive resource management (ARM) or adaptive environmental assessment and management (AEAM), is a structured, iterative process of robust decision making in the face of uncertainty, with an aim to reducing uncertainty over time via system monitoring.
Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.
An advocate in this sense is a professional in the field of law.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agricultural expansion describes the growth of agricultural land (arable land, pastures, etc.) in the 21st century as a direct consequence of human overpopulation with an estimated 10 to 11 billion humans by end of this century and the required food and energy security.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Albert I (8 April 1875 – 17 February 1934) reigned as the third King of the Belgians from 1909 to 1934.
Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 – April 21, 1948) was an American author, philosopher, scientist, ecologist, forester, conservationist, and environmentalist.
Alexander Gibson (1800–1867) was a Scottish surgeon and botanist who worked in India.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
Alfred Newton FRS HFRSE (11 June 18297 June 1907) was an English zoologist and ornithologist.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Anthropocentrism (from Greek ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos, "human being"; and κέντρον, kéntron, "center") is the belief that human beings are the most significant entity of the universe.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Applied ecology is a subfield within ecology, which considers the application of the science of ecology to real-world (usually management) questions.
Archie Fairly Carr, Jr. (June 16, 1909 – May 21, 1987) was an American herpetologist, ecologist and a pioneering conservationist.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Background extinction rate, also known as the normal extinction rate, refers to the standard rate of extinction in earth's geological and biological history before humans became a primary contributor to extinctions.
A beekeeper is a person who keeps honey bees.
Bias is disproportionate weight in favour of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
The informal term "big cat" is typically used to refer to any of the five living members of the genus Panthera, namely tiger, lion, jaguar, leopard and snow leopard.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biodiversity action plan (BAP) is an internationally recognized program addressing threatened species and habitats and is designed to protect and restore biological systems.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.
Loss of biodiversity or biodiversity loss is the extinction of species (human, plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
Biological Conservation is a peer-reviewed journal of conservation biology.
Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site to their breeding site ('natal dispersal'), as well as the movement from one breeding site to another ('breeding dispersal').
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
A bird observatory is a centre for the study of bird migration and bird populations.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) is a seabird species in the gull family Laridae.
The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whale parvorder, Mysticeti.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carl Ethan Akeley (May 19, 1864 – November 17, 1926) was a pioneering American taxidermist, sculptor, biologist, conservationist, inventor, and nature photographer, noted for his contributions to American museums, most notably to the Field Museum of Natural History and the American Museum of Natural History.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles Gordon Hewitt (February 23, 1885February 29, 1920) was a Canadian economic entomologist and pioneer of conservation biology.
Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.
The Chartered Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (CIEEM) is the professional body which represents and supports ecologists and environmental managers, mainly in the United Kingdom but increasingly in Ireland and mainland Europe, and the rest of the world.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.
Civic engagement or civic participation is any individual or group activity done with the intent to advocate on behalf of the public.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change.
Climate restoration consists of actions intended to reverse the current trends of climate change and, on some timescale and trajectory, to restore the Earth system to a safe, sustainable and productive state, for the well-being of future generations and all humanity.
Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is the phenomenon that occurs when the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear and leave behind a queen, plenty of food and a few nurse bees to care for the remaining immature bees.
In ecology, a community is a group or association of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area and in a particular time, also known as a biocoenosis The term community has a variety of uses.
Conservation is an ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection.
Conservation behavior is the interdisciplinary field about how animal behavior can assist in the conservation of biodiversity.
Conservation Biology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of the Society for Conservation Biology, published by Wiley-Blackwell and established in May 1987.
Conservation genetics is an interdisciplinary subfield of Population Genetics that aims to understand the dynamics of genes in populations principally to avoid extinction.
A conservation management system (CMS) is a procedure for maintaining a species or habitat in a particular state.
Conservation Physiology is an online only, fully open access journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
The conservation status of a group of organisms (for instance, a species) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future.
Conservation-reliant species are animal or plant species that require continuing species-specific wildlife management intervention such as predator control, habitat management and parasite control to survive, even when a self-sustainable recovery in population is achieved.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.
Coral bleaching occurs when coral polyps expel algae that live inside their tissues.
In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Cuthbert (c. 634 – 20 March 687) is a saint of the early Northumbrian church in the Celtic tradition.
The decline in amphibian populations is an ongoing mass extinction of amphibian species worldwide.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Dinosaur National Monument is a United States National Monument located on the southeast flank of the Uinta Mountains on the border between Colorado and Utah at the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers.
Diversity and Distributions is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal on conservation biogeography.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth religion is a term used mostly in the context of neopaganism.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Ecology and Society (formerly Conservation Ecology) is a quarterly open access interdisciplinary scientific journal published by the Resilience Alliance.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems.
Ecosystem valuation is an economic process which assigns a value (either monetary, biophysical, or other) to an ecosystem and/or its ecosystem services.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
The effective population size is "the number of individuals in a population who contribute offspring to the next generation," or all the breeding adults in that population.
The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is one of the few dozens of US environmental laws passed in the 1970s, and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
An environmental organization is an organization coming out of the conservation or environmental movements that seeks to protect, analyse or monitor the environment against misuse or degradation from human forces.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Ex situ conservation literally means, "off-site conservation".
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
The Farne Islands are a group of islands off the coast of Northumberland, England.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
The Forest Reserve Act of 1891 is a law that allowed the President of the United States to set aside forest reserves from the land in the public domain.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Fur clothing is clothing made of furry animal hides.
The Group of Eight + Five (G8+5) was an international group that consisted of the leaders of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia), plus the heads of government of the five leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa).
Game laws are statutes which regulate the right to pursue and take or kill certain kinds of fish and wild animal (game).
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
Genetic erosion is a process where the limited gene pool of an endangered species diminishes even more when reproductive individuals die off before reproducing low population.
Genetic pollution is a controversial term for uncontrolled gene flow into wild populations.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally "black and white cat-foot";, literally "big bear cat"), also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
Grants are non-repayable funds or products disbursed or gifted by one party (grant makers), often a government department, corporation, foundation or trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual.
A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a left-wing political movement) is one which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus) is a member of the grebe family of water birds noted for its elaborate mating display.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment (habitat), causing population fragmentation and ecosystem decay.
Haida (X̱aayda, X̱aadas, X̱aad, X̱aat) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Haida Gwaii (A Canadian archipelago) and the Haida language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch, mainly as a result of human activity.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
In-situ conservation is the on-site conservation or the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or animal species, such as forest genetic resources in natural populations of Teagan species.
Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals.
This is an index of conservation topics.
Indian Forest Service (IFS) (भारतीय वन सेवा) is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Insect migration is the seasonal movement of insects, particularly those by species of dragonflies, beetles, butterflies and moths.
The word "value" is both a verb and a noun, each with multiple meanings.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
International finance (also referred to as international monetary economics or international macroeconomics) is the branch of financial economics broadly concerned with monetary and macroeconomic interrelations between two or more countries.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
James B. Harkin (30 January 1875 – 27 January 1955), also known as the Father of National Parks, was a Canadian-born journalist turned bureaucrat with a passion for conservation but also widely renowned for his commodification of the Canadian landscape.
James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie (22 April 1812 – 19 December 1860), styled Lord Ramsay until 1838 and known as The Earl of Dalhousie between 1838 and 1849, was a Scottish statesman, and a colonial administrator in British India.
James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (baptised 25 October 1714; died 26 May 1799), was a Scottish judge, scholar of linguistic evolution, philosopher and deist.
Sir James Ranald Martin (12 May 1796 – 27 November 1874) was a surgeon in India who worked in the service of the Honourable East India Company and was instrumental in publicising the effects of deforestation, and finding links between human and environmental health.
Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).
John Muir (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) also known as "John of the Mountains" and "Father of the National Parks", was an influential Scottish-American naturalist, author, environmental philosopher, glaciologist and early advocate for the preservation of wilderness in the United States.
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp.
Kurt Benirschke (born May 26, 1924) is a German-born American pathologist, geneticist and expert on the placenta and reproduction in humans and myriad mammalian species.
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.
Landscape-scale conservation is a holistic approach to conservation, concerned with biodiversity and local economies, agriculture, eco-tourism, geodiversity and the health and social benefits of the environment.
The Late Devonian extinction was one of five major extinction events in the history of the Earth's biota.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
This is an annotated list of biological websites, including only notable websites dealing with biology generally and those with a more specific focus.
This is a list of conservation organisations, which are organisations that primarily deal with the conservation of various ecosystems.
The Living Planet Report is published every two years by the World Wide Fund for Nature since 1998.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
M.E. Sharpe, Inc., an academic publisher, was founded by Myron Sharpe in 1958 with the original purpose of publishing translations from Russian in the social sciences and humanities.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Marine ecosystems are among the largest of Earth's aquatic ecosystems.
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.
Michael E. Soulé is a U.S. biologist, best known for his work in promoting the idea of conservation biology.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Minimum viable population (MVP) is a lower bound on the population of a species, such that it can survive in the wild.
Molecular Ecology is a twice monthly scientific journal covering investigations that use molecular genetic techniques to address questions in ecology, evolution, behavior, and conservation.
The monarch butterfly or simply monarch (Danaus plexippus) is a milkweed butterfly (subfamily Danainae) in the family Nymphalidae.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
The mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) is one of the two subspecies of the eastern gorilla.
The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is a species of bark beetle native to the forests of western North America from Mexico to central British Columbia.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Conservation is the maintenance of biological diversity.
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is a United States environmental law that promotes the enhancement of the environment and established the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ).
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
The National Trust, formally the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom.
Natural capital is the world's stock of natural resources, which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms.
Natural economy refers to a type of economy in which money is not used in the transfer of resources among people.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations (stewardship).
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of matter.
Objectivity in science is a value that informs how science is practiced and how scientific truths are discovered.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
The Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, when combined, are the second-largest of the five major extinction events in Earth's history in terms of percentage of genera that became extinct.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
Sir Otto Herzberg Frankel FRS FAA FRSNZ (4 November 1900, Vienna – 21 November 1998, Canberra) was an Austrian-born Australian geneticist.
Biology – The natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.
Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is land used for grazing.
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.
Pest control is the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, a member of the animal kingdom that impacts adversely on human activities.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Pollination management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crop's pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Population ecology is a sub-field of ecology that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.
In economics, a public good is a good that is both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be effectively excluded from use and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others.
A rare species is a group of organisms that are very uncommon, scarce, or infrequently encountered.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
A Regional Red List (RRL) is a report of the threatened status of species within a certain country or region.
A renewable resource is a natural resource which replenishes to overcome resource depletion caused by usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes in a finite amount of time in a human time scale.
Restoration ecology is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment by active human intervention and action.
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Sea Birds Preservation Act 1869 (32 & 33 Vict. c. 17) was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom.
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
The Serengeti ecosystem is a geographical region in Africa.
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.
or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States.
Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values.
Inequity is injustice or unfairness or an instance of either of the two.
The Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) is an 501(c)3 non-profit international professional organization that is dedicated to conserving biodiversity.
The Society for the Environment (SocEnv) is an umbrella body for environmental organisations in the UK.
Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), also called red salmon, kokanee salmon, or blueback salmon, is an anadromous species of salmon found in the Northern Pacific Ocean and rivers discharging into it.
Soil ecology is the study of the interactions among soil biology, and between biotic and abiotic aspects of the soil environment.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The Species at Risk Act (SARA) is a piece of Canadian federal legislation which became law in Canada on December 12, 2002.
Species richness is the number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A statistical parameter or population parameter is a quantity that indexes a family of probability distributions.
Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) is an extinct sirenian discovered by Europeans in 1741.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Steven J. Cooke is a Canadian biologist specializing in ecology and conservation physiology of fish.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Tao or Dao (from) is a Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science' Dr Zai, J..
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.
The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.
The Nature Conservancy is a charitable environmental organization, headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, United States.
The Plant List is a list of botanical names of species of plants created by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden and launched in 2010.
The Theory of Island Biogeography is a 1967 book by Robert MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Thomas E. Lovejoy, "the Godfather of Biodiversity", is a Senior Fellow at the United Nations Foundation and University Professor in the Environmental Science and Policy department at George Mason University.
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
The Tlingit (or; also spelled Tlinkit) are Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America.
Topsoil is the upper, outermost layer of soil, usually the top to.
The tragedy of the commons is a term used in social science to describe a situation in a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action.
The Triassic–Jurassic extinction event marks the boundary between the Triassic and Jurassic periods,, and is one of the major extinction events of the Phanerozoic eon, profoundly affecting life on land and in the oceans.
The tyranny of small decisions is a phenomenon explored in an essay of the same name, published in 1966 by the American economist Alfred E. Kahn.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
Urban wildlife is wildlife that can live or thrive in urban environments.
An urchin barren is an area of the subtidal where the population growth of sea urchins has gone unchecked, causing destructive grazing of kelp beds or kelp forests (specifically the giant brown bladder kelp, Macrocystis).
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent.
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.
The value of life is an economic value used to quantify the benefit of avoiding a fatality.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The Virunga Mountains (also known as Mufumbiro) are a chain of volcanoes in East Africa, along the northern border of Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Uganda.
The Virunga National Park (Parc National des Virunga), formerly named Albert National Park, is a National Park that stretches from the Virunga Mountains in the south to the Rwenzori Mountains in the north, in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, bordering Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda and Rwenzori Mountains National Park and Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda.
Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running roughly northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City.
Water conservation includes all the policies, strategies and activities to sustainably manage the natural resource of fresh water, to protect the hydrosphere, and to meet the current and future human demand.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity.
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting wild plant and animal species and their habitat.
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) was founded in 1895 as the New York Zoological Society (NYZS) and currently works to conserve more than two million square miles of wild places around the world.
A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging).
Wildlife, domestic animals and humans share a large and increasing number of infectious diseases, known as zoonoses.
Wildlife management attempts to balance the needs of wildlife with the needs of people using the best available science.
The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted for protection of plants and animal species.
A wildlife sanctuary, is a naturally occurring sanctuary, such as an island, that provides protection for species from hunting, predation, competition or poaching; it is a protected area, a geographic territory within which wildlife is protected.
Wildlife trade refers to the commerce of products that are derived from non-domesticated animals or plants usually extracted from their natural environment or raised under controlled conditions.
The UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) is an executive agency of the United Nations Environment Programme, based in Cambridge in the United Kingdom.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho.
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