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Consonant gradation

Index Consonant gradation

Consonant gradation is a type of consonant mutation in which consonants alternate between various "grades". [1]

65 relations: Alepa, Alternation (linguistics), Arto, Common roach, Consonant cluster, Consonant harmony, Consonant mutation, Continuant, Elative case, Estonian language, Finnic languages, Finnish language, Finnish Literature Society, Fortis and lenis, Fortition, Fricative consonant, Genitive case, Grammatischer Wechsel, Inari Sami language, Karelian language, Kluge's law, Kven language, Language contact, Length (phonetics), Lenition, Livonian language, Livvi-Karelian language, Malta, Manner of articulation, Marko (given name), Morphology (linguistics), Morphophonology, Nasal consonant, Nganasan language, Nominative case, Northern Sami, Palatalization (phonetics), Passive voice, Paul Ariste, Phoneme, Phonological rule, Possessive affix, Proto-Finnic language, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Samic language, Proto-Samoyedic language, Proto-Uralic language, Quark (dairy product), Rauma dialect, Samoyedic languages, ..., Sandhi, Secondary stress, Selkup language, Skolt Sami language, Sonorant, Southern Sami language, Spelling pronunciation, Stop consonant, Syllable, Trochee, Uralic languages, Veps language, Voice (phonetics), Votic language, Zero (linguistics). Expand index (15 more) »


Alepa is a grocery shop chain in the Greater Helsinki region of Finland.

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Alternation (linguistics)

In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.

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Arto may refer to.

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Common roach

The roach (Rutilus rutilus), also known as the common roach, is a fresh and brackish water fish of the Cyprinidae family, native to most of Europe and western Asia.

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Consonant cluster

In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.

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Consonant harmony

Consonant harmony is a type of "long-distance" phonological assimilation akin to the similar assimilatory process involving vowels, i.e. vowel harmony.

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Consonant mutation

Consonant mutation is change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.

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In phonology, a continuant is a speech sound produced without a complete closure in the oral cavity, namely fricatives, approximants and vowels.

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Elative case

Elative (abbreviated; from Latin efferre "to bring or carry out") is a locative case with the basic meaning "out of".

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Estonian language

Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.

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Finnic languages

The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.

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Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.

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Finnish Literature Society

The Finnish Literature Society (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura ry or SKS) was founded in 1831 to promote literature written in Finnish.

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Fortis and lenis

In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.

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Fortition is a consonantal change from a 'weak' sound to a 'strong' one, the opposite of the more common lenition.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Grammatischer Wechsel

In historical linguistics, the German term grammatischer Wechsel ("grammatical alternation") refers to the effects of Verner's law when they are viewed synchronically within the paradigm of a Germanic verb.

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Inari Sami language

Inari Sami (anarâškielâ) is a Sami language spoken by the Inari Sami of Finland.

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Karelian language

Karelian (karjala, karjal or kariela) is a Finnic language spoken mainly in the Russian Republic of Karelia.

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Kluge's law

Kluge's law is a controversial Proto-Germanic sound law formulated by Friedrich Kluge.

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Kven language

The Kven language (kvääni or kväänin kieli; kainu or kainun kieli) is a Finnish dialect spoken in northern Norway by the Kven people.

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Language contact

Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.

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Length (phonetics)

In phonetics, length or quantity is a feature of sounds that have distinctively extended duration compared with other sounds.

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In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.

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Livonian language

Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.

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Livvi-Karelian language

Livvi-Karelian (Alternate names: Livvi, Livvikovian, Olonets, Southern Olonetsian, Karelian; ливвиковский язык) is a Finnic language of the Uralic family spoken by Olonets Karelians (self-appellation livvi, livgilaizet), traditionally inhabiting the area between Ladoga and Onega lakes, northward of Svir River.

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Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Manner of articulation

In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.

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Marko (given name)

Marko is a masculine given name, a variation of Mark.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Nganasan language

The Nganasan language (formerly called тавгийский, tavgiysky, or тавгийско-самоедский, tavgiysko-samoyedsky in Russian; from the ethnonym тавги, tavgi) is a moribund Samoyedic language spoken by the Nganasan people.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Northern Sami

Northern or North Sami (davvisámegiella; disapproved exonym Lappish or Lapp), sometimes also simply referred to as Sami, is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages.

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Palatalization (phonetics)

In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.

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Passive voice

Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.

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Paul Ariste

Paul Ariste (3 February 1905 – 2 February 1990) was an Estonian linguist renowned for his studies of the Finno-Ugric languages (especially Estonian and Votic), Yiddish and Baltic Romani language.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonological rule

A phonological rule is a formal way of expressing a systematic phonological or morphophonological process or diachronic sound change in language.

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Possessive affix

In linguistics, a possessive affix is a suffix or prefix attached to a noun to indicate it is possessor, much in the manner of possessive adjectives.

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Proto-Finnic language

Proto-Finnic or Proto-Baltic-Finnic is the common ancestor of the Finnic languages, which include the national languages Finnish and Estonian.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Proto-Samic language

The Proto-Samic language is the hypothetical, reconstructed common ancestor of the Samic languages.

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Proto-Samoyedic language

Proto-Samoyedic, or Proto-Samoyed, is the reconstructed ancestral language of the Samoyedic languages: Nenets (Tundra and Forest), Enets, Nganasan, Selkup, as well as extinct Kamas and Mator.

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Proto-Uralic language

Proto-Uralic is the reconstructed language ancestral to the Uralic language family.

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Quark (dairy product)

Quark or quarg is a type of fresh dairy product made by warming soured milk until the desired amount of curdling is met, and then straining it.

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Rauma dialect

Rauma language ("rauman giäl") is a dialect of Finnish spoken in the town of Rauma, western Finland.

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Samoyedic languages

The Samoyedic or Samoyed languages are spoken on both sides of the Ural mountains, in northernmost Eurasia, by approximately 25,000 people altogether.

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SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.

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Secondary stress

Secondary stress (or obsolete: secondary accent) is the weaker of two degrees of stress in the pronunciation of a word; the stronger degree of stress being called primary.

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Selkup language

Selkup language is the language of the Selkups, belonging to the Samoyedic group of the Uralic language family.

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Skolt Sami language

Skolt Sami (sääʹmǩiõll 'the Saami language' or nuõrttsääʹmǩiõll if a distinction needs to be made between it and the other Sami languages) is a Uralic, Sami language that is spoken by the Skolts, with approximately 300 speakers in Finland, mainly in Sevettijärvi and approximately 20–30 speakers of the Njuõʹttjäuʹrr (Notozero) dialect in an area surrounding Lake Lovozero in Russia.

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In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.

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Southern Sami language

Southern or South Sami (åarjelsaemien gïele) is the southwestern-most of the Sami languages.

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Spelling pronunciation

A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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In poetic metre, a trochee, choree, or choreus, is a metrical foot consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one, in English, or a heavy syllable followed by a light one in Latin or Greek.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

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Veps language

The Veps language (also known as Vepsian, natively as vepsän kel’, vepsän keli, or vepsä), spoken by the Vepsians (also known as Veps), belongs to the Finnic group of the Uralic languages.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Votic language

Votic, or Votian (vađđa ceeli or maaceeli; also written vaďďa tšeeli, maatšeeli in old orthography), is the language spoken by the Votes of Ingria, belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.

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Zero (linguistics)

In linguistics, a zero or null is a segment which is not pronounced or written.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consonant_gradation

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