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Index Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires. [1]

353 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Adhan, Africa, Age of Empires II, Age of Empires II: The Conquerors, Ahmed Bican Yazıcıoğlu, Aksaray, Fatih, Alexander Vasiliev (historian), Alexiad, Alexios I Komnenos, Alexios IV Angelos, Alexios Strategopoulos, Alexios V Doukas, Alp Arslan, Amalfi, Anastasian Wall, Anatolia, Ancient Rome, Anglo-Saxons, Anna Komnene, Anthemius (praetorian prefect), Anthemius of Tralles, Aphrodite, Arab–Byzantine wars, Arcadius, Armenians, Asia, Askold, Assassin's Creed, Assassin's Creed: Revelations, Atik Mustafa Pasha Mosque, Attila (miniseries), Augustaion, Çarşamba, Fatih, Bakırköy, Baldwin II, Latin Emperor, Balkans, Barbarian, Basil II, Basilica Cistern, Basiliscus, Baths of Zeuxippus, Battle of Adrianople, Battle of Manzikert, Baudolino, BBC News, Belisarius, Bezant, Blachernae, Black Death, ..., Black Sea, Board game, Bodrum Mosque, Boniface I, Marquess of Montferrat, Book of the Prefect, Boom (navigational barrier), Bosporus, Boukoleon Palace, Bulgaria, Bulgars, Byzantine calendar, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Greeks, Byzantine Iconoclasm, Byzantine navy, Byzantine silk, Byzantium, Caernarfon Castle, Calque, Cambridge University Press, Capital city, Cappella Palatina, Caracalla, Carthage, Cassius Dio, Catholic Church, Cefalù Cathedral, Chalcedon, Chalcedonian Christianity, Chalke, Chelsea Quinn Yarbro, Chora Church, Church of St. Mary of Blachernae (Istanbul), Church of St. Polyeuctus, Church of the Holy Apostles, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Church-Mosque of Vefa, Cistern of Philoxenos, Civilization (series), Classical antiquity, Colonies in antiquity, Column of Constantine, Column of Justinian, Column of Marcian, Constantine the Great, Constantine the Great and Christianity, Constantine V, Continent, Council of Hieria, Count Belisarius, Crown of thorns, Crusader Kings II, Damascus, Danube, Darius I, Despotate of Epirus, Diocese of Asia, Diocese of Pontus, Diocletian, Diplomacy (game), Doge of Venice, Dover Publications, Dr. Seuss, Duck Stab/Buster & Glen, East–West Schism, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Edirne, Egypt, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond, Enrico Dandolo, Eski Imaret Mosque, Euphrates, Europa Universalis IV, Europe, Evliya Çelebi, Exarch, Extended play, Fall of Constantinople, Fenari Isa Mosque, First Crusade, Florin, Fordham University, Forum of Constantine, Forum of the Ox, Forum of Theodosius, Fourth Crusade, Friedrich Hirth, Fun in Space, Galata, Galata Tower, Gül Mosque, Geographical name changes in Turkey, Georgians, Golden Horn, Great Palace of Constantinople, Greek fire, Greek language, Hagia Irene, Hagia Sophia, Helios, Henry Yule, Heraclius, Hippodrome of Constantinople, Hirami Ahmet Pasha Mosque, Hop on Pop, Horses of Saint Mark, Huns, I, Claudius, Iconostasis, Illyria, Imam, Imperial Library of Constantinople, Iran, Irene of Athens, Isidore of Miletus, Islam, Islamic eschatology, Istanbul, Istanbul (Not Constantinople), Istanbul Province, Italo-Norman, J. B. Bury, Jerusalem, Jerusalem in Christianity, John II Komnenos, John III Doukas Vatatzes, Justinian I, Kalenderhane Mosque, Kiev, Kievan Rus', Kipchaks, Koca Mustafa Pasha Mosque, Late antiquity, Late Middle Ages, Latin Empire, Leo III the Isaurian, Leo IV the Khazar, Leo V the Armenian, Library of Alexandria, List of Latin phrases (P), List of people from Constantinople, List of sieges of Constantinople, List of urban prefects of Constantinople, Little Hagia Sophia, Lysippos, Manuel I Komnenos, Martorana, Massacre of the Latins, Medieval: Total War, Mediterranean Sea, Megara, Mehmed the Conqueror, Mese (Constantinople), Michael III, Michael VII Doukas, Michael VIII Palaiologos, Mika Waltari, Mile, Milion, Monastery of Stoudios, Monophysitism, Monte Cassino, Moors, Morea, Mosaic, Mosque, Muawiyah I, Names of Istanbul, Natural History (Pliny), Nea Ekklesia, New Book of Tang, New Rome, Nika riots, Niketas Ooryphas, Norman conquest of England, Notitia Urbis Constantinopolitanae, Obelisk of Theodosius, Old Book of Tang, Old Norse, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turks, Outremer, Palace of Blachernae, Palace of Daphne, Palace of Lausus, Palace of the Porphyrogenitus, Palaiologos, Palermo, Pammakaristos Church, Pannonian Avars, Pausanias (general), Pax Romana, Pechenegs, Peloponnese, Peninsula, Pescennius Niger, Phidias, Philip of Swabia, Plague of Justinian, Pliny the Elder, Pontoon bridge, Praefectus urbi, Praetor, Praetorian prefect, Praetorian prefecture of the East, Praetorium, Prince Islands, Princeton University Press, Prison of Anemas, Proconsul, Protovestiarios, Quaestor, Queen (band), Ravenna, Robert Graves, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Romanesque art, Romanos IV Diogenes, Rome, Rome: Total War, Rome: Total War: Barbarian Invasion, Sailing to Byzantium, Sancaktar Hayrettin Mosque, Sasanian Empire, Sea of Marmara, Second Council of Nicaea, Second Persian invasion of Greece, Second Temple, Senate of the Roman Republic, Septimius Severus, Serpent Column, Severan dynasty, Sicily, Siege of Constantinople (626), Siege of Constantinople (674–678), Siege of Constantinople (717–718), Siege of Constantinople (860), Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE), Silkroad Online, Sino-Roman relations, Slavs, Socrates of Constantinople, Solidus (coin), Solomon's Temple, St Mark's Basilica, Stanford University Press, Stephen R. Lawhead, Steven Runciman, Sultan, Syrians, Tervel of Bulgaria, The Dark Angel (Waltari novel), The Decemberists, The Four Lads, The Residents, Theodora (wife of Theophilos), Theodosius I, Theodosius II, Theophilos (emperor), They Might Be Giants, Third Rome, Thrace, Thracesian Theme, Timeline of Istanbul, Topkapı Palace, Torcello, Total War: Attila, Tribune, Tribute, True Cross, Tsargrad, Turisas, Turkey, Turkification, Turkish alphabet, Turkish language, Turkish Straits, Turkmens, Twenty-Four Histories, Uldin, Umberto Eco, University of Constantinople, Valens, Valens Aqueduct, Vandals, Varangian Guard, Varangians, Venice, Visigoths, Vladimir the Great, W. B. Yeats, Walled Obelisk, Walls of Constantinople, Warwick Ball, Water clock, Western Roman Empire, Year of the Five Emperors, Zeno (emperor), Zeyrek Mosque. Expand index (303 more) »

Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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The adhan, athan, or azaan (أَذَان) (also called in Turkish: Ezan) is the Islamic call to worship, recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Age of Empires II

Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings is a real-time strategy video game developed by Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft.

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Age of Empires II: The Conquerors

Age of Empires II: The Conquerors is the expansion pack to the 1999 real-time strategy game Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings.

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Ahmed Bican Yazıcıoğlu

Ahmed Bican Yazıcıoğlu (? - ca. 1466) was an Ottoman author most noted for the cosmography titled Dürr-i Meknûn, the authorship of which is usually attributed to him.

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Aksaray, Fatih

Aksaray (literally "White Palace" in Turkish) is a neighborhood in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Alexander Vasiliev (historian)

Alexander Alexandrovich Vasiliev (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Васи́льев; 4 October 1867 (N.S.) – 30 March 1953) was considered the foremost authority on Byzantine history and culture in the mid-20th century.

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The Alexiad (translit) is a medieval historical and biographical text written around the year 1148, by the Byzantine historian and princess Anna Komnene, daughter of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.

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Alexios I Komnenos

Alexios I Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός., c. 1048 – 15 August 1118) was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118.

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Alexios IV Angelos

Alexios IV Angelos or Alexius IV Angelus (Αλέξιος Δ' Άγγελος) (c. 1182 – 8 February 1204) was Byzantine Emperor from August 1203 to January 1204.

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Alexios Strategopoulos

Alexios Komnenos Strategopoulos (Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός Στρατηγόπουλος) was a Byzantine general during the reign of Michael VIII Palaiologos, rising to the rank of megas domestikos and Caesar.

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Alexios V Doukas

Alexios V Doukas, Alexios V Doukas Mourtzouphlos or Alexius V Ducas (Ἀλέξιος Εʹ Δούκας; December 1204) was Byzantine emperor from 5 February to 12 April 1204 during the second and final siege of Constantinople by the participants of the Fourth Crusade.

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Alp Arslan

Alp Arslan (honorific in Turkish meaning "Heroic Lion"; in آلپ ارسلان; full name: Diya ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abu Shuja Muhammad Alp Arslan ibn Dawud ابو شجاع محمد آلپ ارسلان ابن داود; 20 January 1029 – 15 December 1072), real name Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri, was the second Sultan of the Seljuk Empire and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty.

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Amalfi is a town and comune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno.

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Anastasian Wall

The Anastasian Wall (Greek: Ἀναστάσειον Τεῖχος, Anastasius Suru) or the Long Walls of Thrace (Greek: Μακρὰ Τείχη τῆς Θράκης, Turkish: Uzun Duvar) is an ancient stone and turf fortification located west of Istanbul, Turkey built by the Byzantines during the late 5th century.

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

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Anna Komnene

Anna Komnene (Ἄννα Κομνηνή, Ánna Komnēnḗ; 1 December 1083 – 1153), commonly latinized as Anna Comnena, was a Byzantine princess, scholar, physician, hospital administrator, and historian.

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Anthemius (praetorian prefect)

Flavius Anthemius (floruit 400-414) was a high-ranking official of the late Roman Empire.

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Anthemius of Tralles

Anthemius of Tralles (Ἀνθέμιος ὁ Τραλλιανός, Medieval Greek:, Anthémios o Trallianós; – 533 558) was a Greek from Tralles who worked as a geometer and architect in Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

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Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.

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Arab–Byzantine wars

The Arab–Byzantine wars were a series of wars between the mostly Arab Muslims and the East Roman or Byzantine Empire between the 7th and 11th centuries AD, started during the initial Muslim conquests under the expansionist Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs in the 7th century and continued by their successors until the mid-11th century.

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Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius Augustus; Ἀρκάδιος; 1 January 377 – 1 May 408) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 395 to 408.

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Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.

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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Askold (Haskuldr in Old East Norse and Höskuldr in Old West Norse) was a prince of Kiev and founder of the first Vikings' state in Dnieper Ukraine.

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Assassin's Creed

Assassin's Creed is a franchise centered on an action-adventure video game series developed by Ubisoft.

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Assassin's Creed: Revelations

Assassin's Creed: Revelations is a 2011 action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft.

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Atik Mustafa Pasha Mosque

Atik Mustafa Pasha Mosque (Atik Mustafa Paşa Camii; also named Hazreti Cabir Camii) is a former Eastern Orthodox church in Istanbul, converted into a mosque by the Ottomans.

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Attila (miniseries)

Attila (also known as Attila the Hun in the UK) is an American television miniseries set during the waning days of the Western Roman Empire, in particular during the invasions of the Huns in Europe.

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The Augustaion (Αὐγουσταῖον) or, in Latin, Augustaeum, was an important ceremonial square in ancient and medieval Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey), roughly corresponding to the modern Aya Sofya Meydanı (Turkish, "Hagia Sophia Square").

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Çarşamba, Fatih

Çarşamba is a small part of Balat quarter of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Bakırköy is a neighbourhood, municipality (belediye) and district on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Baldwin II, Latin Emperor

Baldwin II, also known as Baldwin of Courtenay (de Courtenay; late 1217 – October 1273), was the last monarch of the Latin Empire ruling from Constantinople.

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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.

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Basil II

Basil II (Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025.

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Basilica Cistern

The Basilica Cistern (Yerebatan Sarnıcı – "Cistern Sinking Into Ground"), is the largest of several hundred ancient cisterns that lie beneath the city of Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), Turkey.

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Basiliscus (Flavius Basiliscus Augustus; Βασιλίσκος; d. 476/477) was Eastern Roman or Byzantine Emperor from 475 to 476.

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Baths of Zeuxippus

The Baths of Zeuxippus were popular public baths in the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

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Battle of Adrianople

The Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between an Eastern Roman army led by the Eastern Roman Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (largely Thervings as well as Greutungs, non-Gothic Alans, and various local rebels) led by Fritigern.

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Battle of Manzikert

The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey).

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Baudolino is a 2000 novel by Umberto Eco about the adventures of a man named Baudolino in the known and mythical Christian world of the 12th century.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Flavius Belisarius (Φλάβιος Βελισάριος, c. 505 – 565) was a general of the Byzantine Empire.

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In the Middle Ages, the term bezant (Old French besant, from Latin bizantius aureus) was used in western Europe to describe several gold coins of the east, all derived ultimately from the Roman ''solidus''.

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Blachernae (Βλαχέρναι) was a suburb in the northwestern section of Constantinople, the capital city of the Byzantine Empire.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Board game

A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules.

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Bodrum Mosque

Bodrum Mosque (Bodrum Camii, or Mesih Paşa Camii named after its converter) in Istanbul, Turkey, is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque by the Ottomans.

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Boniface I, Marquess of Montferrat

Boniface I, usually known as Boniface of Montferrat (Bonifacio del Monferrato; Βονιφάτιος Μομφερρατικός, Vonifatios Momferratikos) (c. 1150 – 4 September 1207), was Marquess of Montferrat (from 1192), the leader of the Fourth Crusade (1201–04) and the King of Thessalonica (from 1205).

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Book of the Prefect

The Book of the Prefect or Eparch (Τὸ ἐπαρχικὸν βιβλίον, To eparchikon biblion) is a Byzantine commercial manual or guide addressed to the eparch of Constantinople (the governor of the city with supreme judicial jurisdiction and the highest economic official, who had charge of, for example, tariffs and import/export regulation).

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Boom (navigational barrier)

A boom or a chain (also boom defence, harbour chain, river chain, chain boom, boom chain or variants) is an obstacle strung across a navigable stretch of water to control or block navigation.

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The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.

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Boukoleon Palace

The Palace of Boukoleon (Βουκολέων) or Bucoleon was one of the Byzantine palaces in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul in Turkey.) The palace is located on the shore of the Sea of Marmara, to the south of the Hippodrome and east of the Little Hagia Sophia.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.

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Byzantine calendar

The Byzantine calendar, also called "Creation Era of Constantinople" or "Era of the World" (Ἔτη Γενέσεως Κόσμου κατὰ Ῥωμαίους, also Ἔτος Κτίσεως Κόσμου or Ἔτος Κόσμου, abbreviated as ε.Κ.), was the calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Byzantine Greeks

The Byzantine Greeks (or Byzantines) were the Greek or Hellenized people of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages who spoke medieval Greek and were Orthodox Christians.

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Byzantine Iconoclasm

Byzantine Iconoclasm (Εἰκονομαχία, Eikonomachía, literally, "image struggle" or "struggle over images") refers to two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire when the use of religious images or icons was opposed by religious and imperial authorities within the Eastern Church and the temporal imperial hierarchy.

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Byzantine navy

The Byzantine navy was the naval force of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire.

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Byzantine silk

Byzantine silk is silk woven in the Byzantine Empire (Byzantium) from about the fourth century until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.

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Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.

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Caernarfon Castle

Caernarfon Castle (Castell Caernarfon), often anglicized as Carnarvon Castle, is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, north-west Wales cared for by Cadw, the Welsh Government's historic environment service.

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In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Cappella Palatina

The Palatine Chapel (Cappella Palatina), is the royal chapel of the Norman kings of Sicily situated on the first floor at the center of the Palazzo Reale in Palermo, southern Italy.

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Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.

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Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.

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Cassius Dio

Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cefalù Cathedral

The Cathedral of Cefalù (Duomo di Cefalù) is a Roman Catholic basilica in Cefalù, Sicily.

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Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.

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Chalcedonian Christianity

Chalcedonian Christianity is the Christian denominations adhering to christological definitions and ecclesiological resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, the Fourth Ecumenical Council held in 451.

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The Chalke Gate (Χαλκῆ Πύλη), was the main ceremonial entrance (vestibule) to the Great Palace of Constantinople in the Byzantine period.

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Chelsea Quinn Yarbro

Chelsea Quinn Yarbro (born September 15, 1942) is an American writer.

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Chora Church

The Church of the Holy Saviour in Chora (Ἐκκλησία τοῦ Ἁγίου Σωτῆρος ἐν τῇ Χώρᾳ, Kariye Müzesi, Kariye Camii, Kariye Kilisesi) is a medieval Byzantine Greek Orthodox church preserved as the Chora Museum in the Edirnekapı neighborhood of Istanbul.

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Church of St. Mary of Blachernae (Istanbul)

Saint Mary of Blachernae (full name in Greek: Θεοτόκος των Βλαχερνών (pr. Theotókos ton Vlachernón); Turkish name: Meryem Ana Kilisesi) is an Eastern Orthodox church in Istanbul.

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Church of St. Polyeuctus

The Church of St.

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Church of the Holy Apostles

The Church of the Holy Apostles (Ἅγιοι Ἀπόστολοι, Agioi Apostoloi; Havariyyun Kilisesi), also known as the Imperial Polyándreion (imperial cemetery), was a Greek Eastern Orthodox church in Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.

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Church of the Holy Sepulchre

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.

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Church-Mosque of Vefa

Church-Mosque of Vefa (Vefa Kilise Camii, meaning "the church mosque of Vefa", to distinguish it from the other kilise camiler of Istanbul: also known as Molla Gürani Camii after the name of his founder) is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque by the Ottomans in Istanbul.

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Cistern of Philoxenos

The Cistern of Philoxenos (Κινστέρνα Φιλοξένου), or Binbirdirek Cistern, is a man-made subterranean reservoir in Istanbul, situated between the Forum of Constantine and the Hippodrome of Constantinople in the Sultanahmet district.

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Civilization (series)

Civilization is a series of turn-based strategy video games, its first release in 1991.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Colonies in antiquity

Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.

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Column of Constantine

The Column of Constantine (Çemberlitaş Sütunu, from çemberli 'hooped' and taş 'stone'), also known as the Burnt Stone or the Burnt Pillar, is a Roman monumental column constructed on the orders of the Roman emperor Constantine the Great in 330 AD.

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Column of Justinian

The Column of Justinian was a Roman triumphal column erected in Constantinople by the Byzantine emperor Justinian I in honour of his victories in 543.

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Column of Marcian

The Column of Marcian (Kıztaşı) is a Roman honorific column erected in Constantinople by the ''praefectus urbi'' Tatianus (450-c.452) and dedicated to the Emperor Marcian (450-57).

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Constantine the Great

Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.

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Constantine the Great and Christianity

During the reign of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (AD 306–337), Christianity began to transition to the dominant religion of the Roman Empire.

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Constantine V

Constantine V (Κωνσταντῖνος Ε΄; July, 718 AD – September 14, 775 AD), denigrated by his enemies as Kopronymos or Copronymus, meaning the dung-named, was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775.

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A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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Council of Hieria

The iconoclast Council of Hieria was a Christian council of 754 which viewed itself as ecumenical, but was later rejected by the medieval Catholic Church (what would later fracture into the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic communions).

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Count Belisarius

Count Belisarius is a historical novel by Robert Graves, first published in 1938, recounting the life of the Byzantine general Belisarius (AD 500–565).

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Crown of thorns

According to three of the canonical Gospels, a woven crown of thorns was placed on the head of Jesus during the events leading up to the crucifixion of Jesus.

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Crusader Kings II

Crusader Kings II is a grand strategy game set in the Middle Ages, developed by Paradox Development Studio and published by Paradox Interactive as a sequel to Crusader Kings.

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Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.

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Darius I

Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

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Despotate of Epirus

The Despotate of Epirus (Δεσποτάτο της Ηπείρου) was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire established in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 by a branch of the Angelos dynasty.

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Diocese of Asia

The Diocese of Asia (Dioecesis Asiana, Διοίκησις Ασίας/Ασιανής) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of western Asia Minor and the islands of the eastern Aegean Sea.

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Diocese of Pontus

The Diocese of Pontus (Dioecesis Pontica, Διοίκησις Πόντου/Ποντικής) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of northern and northeastern Asia Minor up to the border with the Sassanid Empire in Armenia.

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Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.

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Diplomacy (game)

Diplomacy is a strategic board game created by Allan B. Calhamer in 1954 and released commercially in 1959.

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Doge of Venice

The Doge of Venice (Doxe de Venexia; Doge di Venezia; all derived from Latin dūx, "military leader"), sometimes translated as Duke (compare the Italian Duca), was the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice for 1,100 years (697–1797).

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Dover Publications

Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.

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Dr. Seuss

Theodor Seuss Geisel (March 2, 1904 – September 24, 1991) was an American author, political cartoonist, poet, animator, book publisher, and artist, best known for authoring more than 60 children's books under the pen name Doctor Seuss (abbreviated Dr. Seuss).

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Duck Stab/Buster & Glen

Duck Stab!/Buster & Glen, later renamed as just Duck Stab, is an album released in 1978 by The Residents.

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East–West Schism

The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Empire of Nicaea

The Empire of Nicaea or the Nicene Empire was the largest of the three Byzantine GreekA Short history of Greece from early times to 1964 by W. A. Heurtley, H. C. Darby, C. W. Crawley, C. M. Woodhouse (1967), page 55: "There in the prosperous city of Nicaea, Theodoros Laskaris, the son in law of a former Byzantine Emperor, establish a court that soon become the Small but reviving Greek empire." rump states founded by the aristocracy of the Byzantine Empire that fled after Constantinople was occupied by Western European and Venetian forces during the Fourth Crusade.

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Empire of Trebizond

The Empire of Trebizond or the Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia and the southern Crimea.

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Enrico Dandolo

Enrico Dandolo (anglicised as Henry Dandolo and Latinized as Henricus Dandulus; 1107 – May 1205) was the 41st Doge of Venice from 1192 until his death.

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Eski Imaret Mosque

Eski Imaret Mosque (Eski Imaret Camii) is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque by the Ottomans.

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The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Europa Universalis IV

Europa Universalis IV is a grand strategy video game in the Europa Universalis series, developed by Paradox Development Studio and published by Paradox Interactive.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Evliya Çelebi

Mehmed Zilli (25 March 1611 – 1682), known as Evliya Çelebi (اوليا چلبى), was an Ottoman explorer who travelled through the territory of the Ottoman Empire and neighboring lands over a period of forty years, recording his commentary in a travelogue called the Seyahatname ("Book of Travel").

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The term exarch comes from the Ancient Greek ἔξαρχος, exarchos, and designates holders of various historical offices, some of them being political or military and others being ecclesiastical.

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Extended play

An extended play record, often referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single, but is usually unqualified as an album or LP.

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Fall of Constantinople

The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.

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Fenari Isa Mosque

Fenâri Îsâ Mosque (full name in Molla Fenâri Îsâ Câmîi), in Byzantine times known as the Lips Monastery (Μονή του Λιβός), is a mosque in Istanbul, made of two former Eastern Orthodox churches.

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First Crusade

The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.

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The Florentine florin was a coin struck from 1252 to 1533 with no significant change in its design or metal content standard during that time.

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Fordham University

Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.

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Forum of Constantine

The Forum of Constantine (Φόρος Κωνσταντίνου) was built at the foundation of Constantinople immediately outside the old city walls of Byzantium.

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Forum of the Ox

The Forum of the Ox (Forum Bovis, ὁ Bοῦς, meaning "the Ox") was a public square (Forum) in the city of Constantinople (today's Istanbul).

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Forum of Theodosius

The Forum of Theodosius (φόρος Θεοδοσίου, today Beyazıt Square) was an area in Constantinople.

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Fourth Crusade

The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.

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Friedrich Hirth

Friedrich Hirth, Ph.D. (16 April 1845 in Gräfentonna, Saxe-Gotha – 10 January 1927 in Munich) was a German-American sinologist.

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Fun in Space

Fun in Space is the debut solo album by English musician Roger Taylor, the drummer of Queen.

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Galata (in Greek was known as Galatas (Γαλατᾶς, Galatás)) was a neighbourhood opposite Constantinople (today's Istanbul, Turkey), located at the northern shore of the Golden Horn, the inlet which separates it from the historic peninsula of old Constantinople.

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Galata Tower

The Galata Tower (Galata Kulesi in Turkish) — called Christea Turris (the Tower of Christ in Latin) by the Genoese — is a medieval stone tower in the Galata/Karaköy quarter of Istanbul, Turkey, just to the north of the Golden Horn's junction with the Bosphorus.

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Gül Mosque

Gül Mosque (Gül Camii, meaning: "The Mosque of the Rose" in English) is a former Eastern Orthodox church in Istanbul, Turkey, converted into a mosque by the Ottomans.

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Geographical name changes in Turkey

Geographical name changes in Turkey have been undertaken, periodically, in bulk from 1913 to the present by successive Turkish governments.

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The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.

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Golden Horn

The Golden Horn (Altın Boynuz; Χρυσόκερας, Chrysókeras; Sinus Ceratinus), also known by its modern Turkish name as Haliç, is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Great Palace of Constantinople

The Great Palace of Constantinople (Μέγα Παλάτιον, Méga Palátion; Latin: Palatium Magnum, Turkish: Büyük Saray), also known as the Sacred Palace (Ἱερὸν Παλάτιον, Hieròn Palátion; Latin: Sacrum Palatium), was the large Imperial Byzantine palace complex located in the south-eastern end of the peninsula now known as Old Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), in modern Turkey.

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Greek fire

Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire that was first developed.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Hagia Irene

Hagia Irene or Hagia Eirene (Ἁγία Εἰρήνη, Byzantine, "Holy Peace", Aya İrini), sometimes known also as Saint Irene, is a Greek Eastern Orthodox church located in the outer courtyard of Topkapı Palace in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia (from the Greek Αγία Σοφία,, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.

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Henry Yule

Sir Henry Yule KCSI (1 May 1820 – 30 December 1889) was a Scottish Orientalist.

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Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.

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Hippodrome of Constantinople

The Hippodrome of Constantinople (Hippódromos tēs Kōnstantinoupóleōs) was a circus that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.

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Hirami Ahmet Pasha Mosque

Hirami Ahmet Pasha Mosque (Hırami Ahmet Paşa Mescidi) is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque by the Ottomans.

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Hop on Pop

Hop on Pop is a 1963 children's picture book by Dr. Seuss (Theodor Seuss Geisel).

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Horses of Saint Mark

The Horses of Saint Mark (Cavalli di San Marco), also known as the Triumphal Quadriga, is a set of Roman bronze statues of four horses, originally part of a monument depicting a quadriga (a four-horse carriage used for chariot racing).

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The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.

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I, Claudius

I, Claudius (1934) is a novel by English writer Robert Graves, written in the form of an autobiography of the Roman Emperor Claudius.

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In Eastern Christianity an iconostasis (plural: iconostases) is a wall of icons and religious paintings, separating the nave from the sanctuary in a church.

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In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.

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Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.

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Imperial Library of Constantinople

The Imperial Library of Constantinople, in the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, was the last of the great libraries of the ancient world.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Irene of Athens

Irene of Athens (Εἰρήνη ἡ Ἀθηναία; 752 – 9 August 803 AD), also known as Irene Sarantapechaina (Εἰρήνη Σαρανταπήχαινα), was Byzantine empress consort by marriage to Leo IV from 775 to 780, Byzantine regent during the minority of her son Constantine VI from 780 until 790, and finally ruling Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress from 797 to 802.

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Isidore of Miletus

Isidore of Miletus (Ἰσίδωρος ὁ Μιλήσιος; Medieval Greek pronunciation:; Isidorus Miletus) was one of the two main Byzantine Greek architects (Anthemius of Tralles was the other) that Emperor Justinian I commissioned to design the cathedral Hagia Sophia in Constantinople from 532 to 537.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic eschatology

Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic theology concerning the end of the world, and the "Day of resurrection" after that, known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah (يوم القيامة,, "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين,, "the Day of Judgment").

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Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Istanbul (Not Constantinople)

"Istanbul (Not Constantinople)" is a 1953 novelty song, with lyrics by Jimmy Kennedy and music by Nat Simon.

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Istanbul Province

Istanbul Province (İstanbul ili), also the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi) is a province of Turkey.

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The Italo-Normans, or Siculo-Normans when referring to Sicily and Southern Italy, are the Italian-born descendants of the first Norman conquerors to travel to southern Italy in the first half of the eleventh century.

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J. B. Bury

John Bagnell Bury, (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an Irish historian, classical scholar, Medieval Roman historian and philologist.

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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Jerusalem in Christianity

For Christians, Jerusalem's role in first-century Christianity, during the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age, as recorded in the New Testament, gives it great importance, in addition to its role in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.

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John II Komnenos

John II Komnenos or Comnenus (Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos; 13 September 1087 – 8 April 1143) was Byzantine Emperor from 1118 to 1143.

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John III Doukas Vatatzes

John III Doukas Vatatzes, Latinized as Ducas Vatatzes (Ιωάννης Γ΄ Δούκας Βατάτζης, Iōannēs III Doukas Vatatzēs, c. 1193, Didymoteicho – 3 November 1254, Nymphaion), was Emperor of Nicaea from 1222 to 1254.

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Justinian I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.

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Kalenderhane Mosque

Kalenderhane Mosque (Kalenderhane Camii) is a former Eastern Orthodox church in Istanbul, converted into a mosque by the Ottomans.

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Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.

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Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.

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The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.

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Koca Mustafa Pasha Mosque

Koca Mustafa Pasha Mosque (Koca Mustafa Paşa Camii; also named Sünbül Efendi Camii) is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque by the Ottomans, located in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Late antiquity

Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.

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Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.

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Latin Empire

The Empire of Romania (Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

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Leo III the Isaurian

Leo III the Isaurian, also known as the Syrian (Leōn III ho Isauros; 675 – 18 June 741), was Byzantine Emperor from 717 until his death in 741.

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Leo IV the Khazar

Leo IV the Khazar (Greek: Λέων Δ΄ ὁ Χάζαρος, Leōn IV ho Khazaros; 25 January 750 – 8 September 780) was Byzantine Emperor from 775 to 780 AD.

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Leo V the Armenian

Leo V the Armenian (Λέων ὁ ἐξ Ἀρμενίας, Leōn ho ex Armenias; 775 – 24 December 820) was Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 813 to 820.

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Library of Alexandria

The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.

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List of Latin phrases (P)

Additional references.

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List of people from Constantinople

This is a list of notable people from the city of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) between the third century and 1453 CE.

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List of sieges of Constantinople

There were many sieges of Constantinople during the history of the Byzantine Empire.

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List of urban prefects of Constantinople

This is a list of urban prefects or eparchs of Constantinople.

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Little Hagia Sophia

Little Hagia Sophia Mosque (Küçük Ayasofya Camii), formerly the Church of the Saints Sergius and Bacchus (Ἐκκλησία τῶν Ἁγίων Σεργίου καὶ Βάκχου ἐν τοῖς Ὁρμίσδου, Ekklēsía tôn Hagíōn Sergíou kaì Bákchou en toîs Hormísdou), is a former Greek Eastern Orthodox church dedicated to Saints Sergius and Bacchus in Constantinople, converted into a mosque during the Ottoman Empire.

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Lysippos (Λύσιππος) was a Greek sculptor of the 4th century BC.

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Manuel I Komnenos

Manuel I Komnenos (or Comnenus; Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean.

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The Martorana Also Co-Cathedral of St.

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Massacre of the Latins

The Massacre of the Latins (Massacro dei Latini; Σφαγή των Λατίνων) was a massacre of the Catholic (called "Latin") inhabitants of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, by an assorted mob (the supporters of the usurper Andronikos Komnenos) in April 1182.

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Medieval: Total War

Medieval: Total War is a turn-based strategy and real-time tactics computer game developed by Creative Assembly and published by Activision.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Megara (Μέγαρα) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece.

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Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.

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Mese (Constantinople)

The Mese (ἡ Μέση i Mése, lit. "Middle ") was the main thoroughfare of ancient Constantinople.

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Michael III

Michael III (Μιχαήλ Γʹ, Mikhaēl III; January 19, 840 – September 23/24, 867) was Byzantine Emperor from 842 to 867.

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Michael VII Doukas

Michael VII Doukas or Dukas/Ducas (Μιχαήλ Ζ΄ Δούκας, Mikhaēl VII Doukas), nicknamed Parapinakes (Παραπινάκης, lit. "minus a quarter", with reference to the devaluation of the Byzantine currency under his rule), was Byzantine emperor from 1071 to 1078.

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Michael VIII Palaiologos

Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Μιχαὴλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos; 1223 – 11 December 1282) reigned as Byzantine Emperor 1259–1282.

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Mika Waltari

Mika Toimi Waltari (19 September 1908 – 26 August 1979) was a Finnish writer, best known for his best-selling novel The Egyptian (Sinuhe egyptiläinen).

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The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, and standardised as exactly 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959.

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The Milion (Μίλιον or Μίλλιον, Míllion; Milyon taşı) was a monument erected in the early 4th century AD in Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, Turkey).

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Monastery of Stoudios

The Monastery of Stoudios, more fully Monastery of Saint John the Forerunner "at Stoudios" (Greek Μονή του Αγίου Ιωάννη του Προδρόμου «εν τοις Στουδίου» Monē tou Hagiou Iōannē tou Prodromou "en tois Stoudiou"), often shortened to Stoudios, Studion, or Stoudion, (Studium), was historically the most important monastery of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

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Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.

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Monte Cassino

Monte Cassino (sometimes written Montecassino) is a rocky hill about southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, to the west of the town of Cassino and altitude.

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The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.

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The Morea (Μορέας or Μοριάς, Moreja, Morée, Morea, Mora) was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages and the early modern period.

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A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.

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A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Muawiyah I

Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.

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Names of Istanbul

The city of Istanbul has been known by a number of different names.

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Natural History (Pliny)

The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.

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Nea Ekklesia

The Nea Ekklēsia (Νέα Ἐκκλησία, "New Church") was a church built by Byzantine Emperor Basil I the Macedonian in Constantinople between the years 876–80.

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New Book of Tang

The New Book of Tang (Xīn Tángshū), generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters.

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New Rome

New Rome (Greek: Νέα Ῥώμη, Nea Romē; Latin: Nova Roma) has often been used to describe the city founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in 330 AD as his new imperial capital at the city on the European coast of the Bosphorus strait, then known as Byzantium, which he enlarged and named after himself as Constantinople.

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Nika riots

The Nika riots (Στάσις τοῦ Νίκα Stásis toû Níka), or Nika revolt, took place against Emperor Justinian I in Constantinople over the course of a week in AD 532.

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Niketas Ooryphas

Niketas Oryphas or Oöryphas (Νικήτας ὁ Ὀρύφας or Ὠορυφᾶς, fl. 860–873).

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Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

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Notitia Urbis Constantinopolitanae

The Notitia Urbis Constantinopolitanae is an ancient "regionary", i.e., a list of monuments, public buildings and civil officials in Constantinople during the mid-5th century (between 425 and the 440s), during the reign of the emperor Theodosius II.

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Obelisk of Theodosius

The Obelisk of Theodosius (Dikilitaş) is the Ancient Egyptian obelisk of Pharaoh Thutmose III re-erected in the Hippodrome of Constantinople (known today as At Meydanı or Sultanahmet Meydanı, in the modern city of Istanbul, Turkey) by the Roman emperor Theodosius I in the 4th century AD.

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Old Book of Tang

The Old Book of Tang, or simply the Book of Tang, is the first classic historical work about the Tang dynasty, comprising 200 chapters, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Turks

The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.

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Outremer (outre-mer, meaning "overseas") was a general name used for the Crusader states; it originated after victories of Europeans in the First Crusade and was applied to the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli, and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

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Palace of Blachernae

The Palace of Blachernae (τὸ ἐν Βλαχέρναις Παλάτιον).

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Palace of Daphne

The Palace of Daphne (Δάφνη) was one of the major wings of the Great Palace of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire (modern Istanbul, Turkey).

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Palace of Lausus

The Palace of Lausus or Lausos, also known as the Lauseion (Λαυσεῖον), was a 5th-century building located in Constantinople that was acquired and owned by the eunuch Lausus.

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Palace of the Porphyrogenitus

The Palace of the Porphyrogenitus (το παλάτι τοῦ Πορφυρογεννήτου), known in Turkish as the Tekfur Sarayı ("Palace of the Sovereign"), is a late 13th-century Byzantine palace in the north-western part of the old city of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul, Turkey).

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The Palaiologos (Palaiologoi; Παλαιολόγος, pl. Παλαιολόγοι), also found in English-language literature as Palaeologus or Palaeologue, was the name of a Byzantine Greek family, which rose to nobility and ultimately produced the last ruling dynasty of the Byzantine Empire.

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Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.

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Pammakaristos Church

Pammakaristos Church, also known as the Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos (Θεοτόκος ἡ Παμμακάριστος, "All-Blessed Mother of God"), is one of the most famous Greek Orthodox Byzantine churches in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Pannonian Avars

The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...

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Pausanias (general)

Pausanias (Παυσανίας; died c. 470 BC) was a Spartan regent, general, and war leader for the Greeks who was suspected of conspiring with the Persian king, Xerxes I, during the Greco-Persian Wars.

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Pax Romana

The Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman Peace") was a long period of relative peace and stability experienced by the Roman Empire between the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, and the death of Marcus Aurelius, last of the "good emperors".

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The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.

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The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.

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A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.

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Pescennius Niger

Pescennius Niger (Gaius Pescennius Niger Augustus; c. 135/140 – 194) was Roman Emperor from 193 to 194 during the Year of the Five Emperors.

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Phidias or Pheidias (Φειδίας, Pheidias; 480 – 430 BC) was a Greek sculptor, painter, and architect.

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Philip of Swabia

Philip of Swabia (February/March 1177 – 21 June 1208) was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 to 1208.

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Plague of Justinian

The Plague of Justinian (541–542) was a pandemic that afflicted the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, especially its capital Constantinople, the Sassanid Empire, and port cities around the entire Mediterranean Sea.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Pontoon bridge

A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.

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Praefectus urbi

The praefectus urbanus, also called praefectus urbi or urban prefect in English, was prefect of the city of Rome, and later also of Constantinople.

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Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).

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Praetorian prefect

The praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorio, ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was a high office in the Roman Empire.

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Praetorian prefecture of the East

The praetorian prefecture of the East or of Oriens (praefectura praetorio Orientis, ἐπαρχότης/ὑπαρχία τῶν πραιτωρίων τῆς ἀνατολῆς) was one of four large praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided.

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The Latin term praetorium — or prœtorium or pretorium — originally signified a general's tent within a Roman castra, castellum, or encampment.

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Prince Islands

The Prince Islands (Πριγκηπονήσια, Prens Adaları, alternatively written as Princes' Islands in which the "princes" are plural (meaning "Islands of the Princes"); or Kızıl Adalar ("Red Islands") in Turkish); officially just Adalar ("Islands"), are an archipelago off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Prison of Anemas

The Prison of Anemas (Anemas Zindanları) is a large Byzantine building attached to the walls of the city of Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey).

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A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.

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Protovestiarios (πρωτοβεστιάριος, "first vestiarios") was a high Byzantine court position, originally reserved for eunuchs.

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A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.

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Queen (band)

Queen are a British rock band that formed in London in 1970.

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Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.

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Robert Graves

Robert Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985), also known as Robert von Ranke Graves, was an English poet, historical novelist, critic, and classicist.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romanesque art

Romanesque art is the art of Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 12th century, or later, depending on region.

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Romanos IV Diogenes

Romanos IV Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ΄ Διογένης, Rōmanós IV Diogénēs), also known as Romanus IV, was a member of the Byzantine military aristocracy who, after his marriage to the widowed empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa, was crowned Byzantine emperor and reigned from 1068 to 1071.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Rome: Total War

Rome: Total War is a PC strategy game developed by The Creative Assembly and released in 2004 by Activision, although its rights have since passed to Sega.

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Rome: Total War: Barbarian Invasion

Barbarian Invasion is the first expansion for the personal computer game Rome: Total War and takes the action forward to the period of the decline of the Western Roman Empire.

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Sailing to Byzantium

"Sailing to Byzantium" is a poem by William Butler Yeats, first published in the 1928 collection The Tower.

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Sancaktar Hayrettin Mosque

Sancaktar Hayrettin Mosque (Sancaktar Hayrettin Câmîi; also Sancaktar Hayrettin Mescidi, where Mescit is the Turkish word for a small mosque, or Sancaktar Mescidi) is part of a former Eastern Orthodox monastery converted into a mosque by the Ottomans.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Sea of Marmara

The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.

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Second Council of Nicaea

The Second Council of Nicaea is recognized as the last of the first seven ecumenical councils by the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

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Second Persian invasion of Greece

The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.

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Second Temple

The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.

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Senate of the Roman Republic

The Senate of the Roman Republic was a political institution in the ancient Roman Republic.

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Septimius Severus

Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.

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Serpent Column

The Serpent Column (Τρικάρηνος Ὄφις Τrikarenos Οphis "Three-headed Serpent";Τρικάρηνος ὄφις ὁ χάλκεος, i.e. "the bronze three-headed serpent"; see See also,. Yılanlı Sütun "Serpentine Column"), also known as the Serpentine Column, Plataean Tripod or Delphi Tripod, is an ancient bronze column at the Hippodrome of Constantinople (known as Atmeydanı "Horse Square" in the Ottoman period) in what is now Istanbul, Turkey. It is part of an ancient Greek sacrificial tripod, originally in Delphi and relocated to Constantinople by Constantine the Great in 324. It was built to commemorate the Greeks who fought and defeated the Persian Empire at the Battle of Plataea (479 BC). The serpent heads of the high column remained intact until the end of the 17th century (one is on display at the nearby Istanbul Archaeology Museums).

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Severan dynasty

The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235.

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Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Siege of Constantinople (626)

The Siege of Constantinople in 626 by the Sassanid Persians and Avars, aided by large numbers of allied Slavs, ended in a strategic victory for the Byzantines.

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Siege of Constantinople (674–678)

The First Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674–678 was a major conflict of the Arab–Byzantine wars, and the first culmination of the Umayyad Caliphate's expansionist strategy towards the Byzantine Empire, led by Caliph Mu'awiya I. Mu'awiya, who had emerged in 661 as the ruler of the Muslim Arab empire following a civil war, renewed aggressive warfare against Byzantium after a lapse of some years and hoped to deliver a lethal blow by capturing the Byzantine capital, Constantinople.

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Siege of Constantinople (717–718)

The Second Arab siege of Constantinople in 717–718 was a combined land and sea offensive by the Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople.

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Siege of Constantinople (860)

The Siege of Constantinople of 860 was the only major military expedition of the Rus' Khaganate recorded in Byzantine and Western European sources.

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Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE)

The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War.

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Silkroad Online

Silkroad Online (실크로드 온라인) is a fantasy MMORPG set in the 7th century AD, along the Silk Road between China and Europe.

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Sino-Roman relations

Sino-Roman relations comprised the mostly indirect contact, flow of trade goods, information, and occasional travellers between the Roman Empire and Han Empire of China, as well as between the later Eastern Roman Empire and various Chinese dynasties.

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Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.

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Socrates of Constantinople

Socrates of Constantinople (Σωκράτης ὁ Σχολαστικός, b. c. 380; d. after 439), also known as Socrates Scholasticus, was a 5th-century Christian church historian, a contemporary of Sozomen and Theodoret.

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Solidus (coin)

The solidus (Latin for "solid"; solidi), nomisma (νόμισμα, nómisma, "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire.

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Solomon's Temple

According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.

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St Mark's Basilica

The Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark (Basilica Cattedrale Patriarcale di San Marco), commonly known as Saint Mark's Basilica (Basilica di San Marco; Baxéłega de San Marco), is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice, northern Italy.

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Stanford University Press

The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.

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Stephen R. Lawhead

Stephen R. Lawhead, born, is a UK–based American writer known for his works of fantasy, science fiction, and historical fiction, particularly Celtic historical fiction.

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Steven Runciman

Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman, CH, FBA (7 July 1903 – 1 November 2000), known as Steven Runciman, was an English historian best known for his three-volume A History of the Crusades (1951–54).

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Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.

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Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.

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Tervel of Bulgaria

Khan Tervel (Тервел) also called Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the Khan of Bulgaria during the First Bulgarian Empire at the beginning of the 8th century.

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The Dark Angel (Waltari novel)

The Dark Angel (original title Johannes Angelos) is a novel by Finnish author Mika Waltari about a hopeless love affair and the Fall of Constantinople.

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The Decemberists

The Decemberists are an American indie rock band from Portland, Oregon.

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The Four Lads

The Four Lads is a Canadian male singing quartet.

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The Residents

The Residents are an American art collective best known for avant-garde music and multimedia works.

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Theodora (wife of Theophilos)

Theodora (Θεοδώρα, c. 815 – after 867) was a Byzantine Empress as the spouse of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, and regent of her son, Michael III, from Theophilos' death in 842 to 855.

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Theodosius I

Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.

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Theodosius II

Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Βʹ; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450),"Theodosius II" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 2051.

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Theophilos (emperor)

Theophilos (Θεόφιλος; sometimes Latinized or Anglicized as Theophilus; 800-805 20 January 842 AD) was the Byzantine Emperor from 829 until his death in 842.

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They Might Be Giants

They Might Be Giants (often abbreviated as TMBG) is an American alternative rock band formed in 1982 by John Flansburgh and John Linnell.

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Third Rome

Third Rome is the hypothetical successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome").

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Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.

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Thracesian Theme

The Thracesian Theme (Θρᾳκήσιον θέμα, Thrakēsion thema), more properly known as the Theme of the Thracesians (θέμα Θρᾳκησίων, thema Thrakēsiōn, often simply Θρᾳκήσιοι, Thrakēsioi), was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) in western Asia Minor (modern Turkey).

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Timeline of Istanbul

The following is a timeline of the history of the town of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Topkapı Palace

The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı), or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Torcello (Torcellum; Torceło) is a sparsely populated island at the northern end of the Venetian Lagoon, in north-eastern Italy.

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Total War: Attila

Total War: Attila is a strategy video game developed by The Creative Assembly and published by Sega, released on 17February 2015 for Microsoft Windows, OS X, and Linux.

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Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome.

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A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.

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True Cross

The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian Church tradition, are said to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.

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Tsargrad is a Slavic name for the city or land of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, and present-day Istanbul in Turkey.

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Turisas is a Finnish metal band from Hämeenlinna.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkification, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire.

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Turkish alphabet

The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turkish Straits

The Turkish Straits (Türk Boğazları) are a series of internationally significant waterways in northwestern Turkey that connect the Aegean and Mediterranean seas to the Black Sea.

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The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.

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Twenty-Four Histories

The Twenty-Four Histories, also known as the Orthodox Histories are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century.

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Uldin, also spelled Huldin (died before 412), was one of the primary Hunnic rulers mentioned by name.

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Umberto Eco

Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian novelist, literary critic, philosopher, semiotician, and university professor.

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University of Constantinople

The Imperial University of Constantinople, sometimes known as the University of the Palace Hall of Magnaura (Πανδιδακτήριον τῆς Μαγναύρας), can trace its corporate origins to 425 AD, when the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperor Theodosius II founded the Pandidakterion (Πανδιδακτήριον).

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Valens (Flavius Julius Valens Augustus; Οὐάλης; 328 – 9 August 378) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.

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Valens Aqueduct

The Valens Aqueduct (Valens Su Kemeri or Bozdoğan Kemeri, meaning "Aqueduct of the Grey Falcon"; Ἀγωγὸς τοῦ ὕδατος, Agōgós tou hýdatos, meaning simply "aqueduct") is a Roman aqueduct which was the major water-providing system of the Eastern Roman capital of Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey).

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The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.

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Varangian Guard

The Varangian Guard (Τάγμα τῶν Βαράγγων, Tágma tōn Varángōn) was an elite unit of the Byzantine Army, from the 10th to the 14th centuries, whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Byzantine Emperors.

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The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.

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Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.

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Vladimir the Great

Vladimir the Great (also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse Valdamarr gamli; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove) was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015.

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W. B. Yeats

William Butler Yeats (13 June 186528 January 1939) was an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature.

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Walled Obelisk

The Walled Obelisk, Constantine Obelisk or Masonry Obelisk (Örme Dikilitaş or Konstantin Dikilitaşı) is situated near the Serpentine Column at the southern side of the Hippodrome of Constantinople (now Sultanahmet Square) in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Walls of Constantinople

The Walls of Constantinople are a series of defensive stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great.

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Warwick Ball

Warwick Ball is an Australian-born near-eastern archeologist.

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Water clock

A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.

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Western Roman Empire

In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.

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Year of the Five Emperors

The Year of the Five Emperors refers to the year 193 AD, in which there were five claimants for the title of Roman Emperor: Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus and Septimius Severus.

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Zeno (emperor)

Zeno the Isaurian (Flavius Zeno Augustus; Ζήνων; c. 425 – 9 April 491), originally named Tarasis Kodisa RousombladadiotesThe sources call him "Tarasicodissa Rousombladadiotes", and for this reason it was thought his name was Tarasicodissa. However, it has been demonstrated that this name actually means "Tarasis, son of Kodisa, Rusumblada", and that "Tarasis" was a common name in Isauria (R.M. Harrison, "The Emperor Zeno's Real Name", Byzantinische Zeitschrift 74 (1981) 27–28)., was Eastern Roman Emperor from 474 to 475 and again from 476 to 491. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign, which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. His reign saw the end of the Western Roman Empire following the deposition of Romulus Augustus and the death of Julius Nepos, but he contributed much to stabilising the eastern Empire. In ecclesiastical history, Zeno is associated with the Henotikon or "instrument of union", promulgated by him and signed by all the Eastern bishops, with the design of solving the monophysite controversy.

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Zeyrek Mosque

Zeyrek Mosque (in Zeyrek Camii) or Monastery of the Pantocrator (in Pantokrator Manastırı), is a significant mosque in Istanbul, made of two former Eastern Orthodox churches and a chapel.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantinople

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