99 relations: Abdominal distension, Abdominal x-ray, Anal fissure, Anastomosis, Anemia, Anismus, Anorectal manometry, Antacid, Antiarrhythmic agent, Anticholinergic, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antidiarrhoeal, Antihistamine, Antispasmodic, Beta blocker, Biofeedback, Birth defect, Calcium channel blocker, Cancer, Chronic kidney disease, Cisapride, Coeliac disease, Colectomy, Colon cleansing, Colorectal cancer, Complete blood count, Constipation in children, Cystic fibrosis, Defecation, Defecography, Descending perineum syndrome, Diabetes mellitus, Dietary fiber, Differential diagnosis, Diuretic, Diverticulitis, Drink, Encopresis, Enema, Episiotomy, Exercise, Fecal impaction, Feces, Gastroenterology, Germ theory of disease, Gluten-related disorders, Gluttony, Heinemann (publisher), Hematochezia, ..., Hemorrhoid, Hirschsprung's disease, Human anus, Hypercalcaemia, Hyperparathyroidism, Hypopituitarism, Hypothyroidism, Imperforate anus, Inflammatory bowel disease, Irritable bowel syndrome, Lactulose, Large intestine, Laxative, Laziness, Lubiprostone, Magnesium hydroxide, Malabsorption, Muscle tone, Nifedipine, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Obstructed defecation, Ondansetron, Opioid, Parkinson's disease, Pelvic floor, Pelvic floor dysfunction, Perineal tear, Perineum, Polyethylene glycol, Porphyria, Postpartum period, Prokinetic agent, Prucalopride, Psyllium, Rectal examination, Rectal prolapse, Rectal tenesmus, Rectocele, Rome process, Sacral nerve stimulation, Side effect, Spatula Mundani, Stenosis, Systemic disease, Systemic scleroderma, Tricyclic antidepressant, Verapamil, Vomiting, World Gastroenterology Organisation. Expand index (49 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal distension occurs when substances, such as air (gas) or fluid, accumulate in the abdomen causing its outward expansion beyond the normal girth of the stomach and waist.
An abdominal x-ray is an x-ray of the abdomen.
An anal fissure, fissure in Ano or rectal fissure is a break or tear in the skin of the anal canal.
An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Anismus (or dyssynergic defecation) refers to the failure of the normal relaxation of pelvic floor muscles during attempted defecation.
Anorectal manometry is a technique used to measure contractility in the anus and rectum.
An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.
Antiarrhythmic agents, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia medications, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An anti-diarrhoeal drug (or anti-diarrheal drug in American English) is any medication which provides symptomatic relief for diarrhoea.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
An antispasmodic (synonym: spasmolytic) is a pharmaceutical drug or other agent that suppresses muscle spasms.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
Biofeedback is the process of gaining greater awareness of many physiological functions primarily using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Cisapride is a gastroprokinetic agent, a drug that increases motility in the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Colectomy (col- + -ectomy) is bowel resection of the large bowel (colon).
Colon cleansing (also known as colon therapy) encompasses a number of alternative medical therapies claimed to remove nonspecific toxins from the colon and intestinal tract by removing any accumulations of feces.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Constipation in children refers to the medical condition of constipation in children.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
Defecography (also known as proctography, defecating/defecation proctography, evacuating/evacuation proctography or dynamic rectal examination) is a type of medical radiological imaging in which the mechanics of a patient's defecation are visualized in real time using a fluoroscope.
Descending perineum syndrome (also known as Levator plate sagging) refers to a condition where the perineum "balloons" several centimeters below the bony outlet of the pelvis during strain, although this descent may happen without straining.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Diverticulitis, specifically colonic diverticulitis, is a gastrointestinal disease characterized by inflammation of abnormal pouches - diverticuli - which can develop in the wall of the large intestine.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.
Encopresis (from the Ancient Greek ἐγκόπρησις / egkóprēsis), also known as paradoxical diarrhea, is voluntary or involuntary passage of feces (fecal soiling) in children who are four years or older and after an organic cause has been excluded.
An enema is the injection of fluid into the lower bowel by way of the rectum.
Episiotomy, also known as perineotomy, is a surgical incision of the perineum and the posterior vaginal wall generally done by a midwife or obstetrician.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
A fecal impaction is a solid, immobile bulk of feces that can develop in the rectum as a result of chronic constipation.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.
Gluten-related disorders is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten.
Gluttony (gula, derived from the Latin gluttire meaning "to gulp down or swallow") means over-indulgence and over-consumption of food, drink, or wealth items.
Heinemann is a publisher of professional resources and a provider of educational services established in 1978 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as a U.S. subsidiary of Heinemann UK.
Hematochezia is the passage of fresh blood through the anus, usually in or with stools (contrast with melena).
Hemorrhoids, also called piles, are vascular structures in the anal canal.
Hirschsprung's disease (HD or HSCR) is a birth defect in which nerves are missing from parts of the intestine.
The human anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is the external opening of the rectum.
Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.
Hyperparathyroidism is an increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the blood.
Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
An imperforate anus or anorectal malformations (ARMs) are birth defects in which the rectum is malformed.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
Laziness (also known as indolence) is disinclination to activity or exertion despite having the ability to act or exert oneself.
Lubiprostone (rINN, marketed under the trade name Amitiza among others) is a medication used in the management of chronic idiopathic constipation, predominantly irritable bowel syndrome-associated constipation in women and opioid-induced constipation.
Magnesium hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2.
Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
Nifedipine, sold under the brand names Adalat among others, is a medication used to manage angina, high blood pressure, Raynaud's phenomenon, and premature labor.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
Obstructed defecation, is "difficulty in evacuation or emptying the rectum may occur even with frequent visits to the toilet and even with passing soft motions".
Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
The pelvic floor or pelvic diaphragm is composed of muscle fibers of the levator ani, the coccygeus muscle, and associated connective tissue which span the area underneath the pelvis.
Pelvic floor dysfunction is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that occur when pelvic floor muscles and ligaments are impaired.
A perineal tear is a laceration of the skin and other soft tissue structures which, in women, separate the vagina from the anus.
The perineum is the space between the anus and scrotum in the male and between the anus and the vulva in the female.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.
A gastroprokinetic agent, gastrokinetic, or prokinetic, is a type of drug which enhances gastrointestinal motility by increasing the frequency of contractions in the small intestine or making them stronger, but without disrupting their rhythm.
Prucalopride, brand name Resolor among others, is a drug acting as a selective, high affinity 5-HT4 receptor agonist which targets the impaired motility associated with chronic constipation, thus normalizing bowel movements.
Psyllium, or ispaghula, is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage.
A rectal examination, commonly called a prostate exam, is an internal examination of the rectum, performed by a healthcare provider.
Rectal prolapse often used to mean complete rectal prolapse (external rectal prolapse), where the rectal walls have prolapsed to a degree where they protrude out the anus and are visible outside the body.
Rectal tenesmus (tēnesmus, from Greek τεινεσμός teinesmos, from τείνω teínō to stretch, strain) is a feeling of incomplete defecation.
A rectocele or posterior vaginal wall prolapse results when the rectum herniates into or forms a bulge in the vagina.
The Rome process and Rome criteria are an international effort to create scientific data to help in the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia and rumination syndrome.
Sacral nerve stimulation, also termed sacral neuromodulation, is a type of medical electrical stimulation therapy.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
The Spatula Mundani was a surgical device invented in the 17th century by the London surgeon James Woodall to treat extreme cases of severe constipation where purgatives had failed.
A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.
A systemic disease is one that affects a number of organs and tissues, or affects the body as a whole.
Systemic scleroderma, also called diffuse scleroderma or systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Verapamil, sold under various trade names, is a medication used for the treatment of high blood pressure, angina (chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart), and supraventricular tachycardia.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
The World Gastroenterology Organisation (WGO) is an international federation of over 100 national GI societies and 4 regional associations of gastroenterology representing over 50,000 individual members.
Barr score, Barr system, Chronic constipation, Colonic inertia, Constipate, Constipated, Costive, Costiveness, Dyschesia, Dyschezia, Dyssynergic defaecation, Fecal retention, Hung Chow, Impacted bowel, Lazy bowel syndrome, Leech score, Leech system, Obstibated, Obstipated, Obstipation.