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Index Constitution

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. [1]

396 relations: Ab initio, Absolute monarchy, Act of Parliament, Age of Enlightenment, Alaric II, Albany Plan, Alfred the Great, Algernon Sidney, An Agreement of the People, Ancient Germanic law, Andrew II of Hungary, Anthropologist, Apostolic constitution, Arabic, Aristocracy, Aristotle, Army Council (1647), Articles of Confederation, Assyrian law, Athens, Audit, Australia Act 1986, Æthelberht of Kent, Babylonia, Banu Aws, Banu Khazraj, Basic law, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Basic Laws of Israel, Basil I, Basilika, Benjamin Franklin, Bicameralism, Bill of Rights 1689, Brazil, Breviary of Alaric, British North America Acts, Bruce E. Johansen, Buddhism, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine law, Canada Act 1982, Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Canon law, Capital punishment, Carbonari, Carthage, Catalan constitutions, Catalan Courts, Catalonia, ..., Catholic Church, Cádiz, Charles Felix of Sardinia, Charles I of England, Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles XII of Sweden, Charter of Liberties, China, Christopher Packe (politician), Church Fathers, Cicero, Citizenship, City-state, Civil law (legal system), Civil service, Cleisthenes, Code of Hammurabi, Code of law, Code of Ur-Nammu, Codex Theodosianus, Commonwealth of England, Connecticut, Connecticut Colony, Constituent assembly, Constitution of 3 May 1791, Constitution of Canada, Constitution of Honduras, Constitution of India, Constitution of Massachusetts, Constitution of Medina, Constitution of Monaco, Constitution of Norway, Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, Constitution of San Marino, Constitution of the Athenians (Aristotle), Constitution of the Roman Republic, Constitution of the Soviet Union, Constitution of the United Kingdom, Constitutional amendment, Constitutional convention (political custom), Constitutional court, Constitutional crisis, Constitutional documents, Constitutional economics, Constitutional monarchy, Constitutional references to God, Constitutionalism, Constitutionality, Constitutions of Ethiopia, Convention (meeting), Convention (norm), Copts, Cornell University Press, Corpus Juris Civilis, Corsican Constitution, Cortes Generales, Cossack Hetmanate, Criminal law, De jure belli ac pacis, Decembrist revolt, Democracy, Denmark, Determinacy, Devolution, Dictionary of National Biography, Doctrine of Basic Structure, Donald A. Grinde Jr., Doom book, Double jeopardy, Draco (lawgiver), Dušan's Code, Due process, Early Middle Ages, Ecumenical council, Edicts of Ashoka, Edictum Rothari, Eike of Repgow, Eleanor of Arborea, England, English Civil War, Entrenched clause, Erin McKean, Ernest de Sarzec, Estonia, Euric, European Union, Executive (government), Federation, Fetha Nagast, First English Civil War, Fixed-term election, Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, Francis Jennings, Franks, Freedom of assembly, Freedom of speech, French Constitution of 1791, French language, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, Fundamental rights, Ge'ez, George Mason University, Georgetown University, Germany, Giovanni Sartori, Giudicato of Arborea, Golden Bull of 1222, Golden Bull of 1356, Government, Grandee, Habeas corpus, Haile Selassie, Heads of Proposals, Hegira, Henry I of England, Henry Neville (writer), History of India, Hittite laws, Holy Roman Empire, Hongwu Emperor, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Huang-Ming Zuxun, Human rights, Humble Petition and Advice, Hywel Dda, Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Indian English, Institution, Instrument of Government, Instrument of Government (1772), International law, International organization, Iraq, Iroquois, Isin, Italy, Jack N. Rakove, James Harrington (author), James Tyrrell (writer), Japan, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jews, Joannes Zonaras, John Lambert (general), John Locke, John Markoff (sociologist), John Milton, John Scholasticus, John, King of England, Judicial activism, Judicial restraint, Judicial review, Judiciary, Jury trial, Justinian I, Kievan Rus', Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Kouroukan Fouga, Kragujevac, Lagash, Latin, Latin America, Legal transplant, Legislature, Leo III the Isaurian, Levellers, Lex Alamannorum, Lex Burgundionum, Lex Frisionum, Liberal Revolution of 1820, Liberty, Lipit-Ishtar, List of Byzantine emperors, List of Canadian constitutional documents, List of national constitutions, List of rulers in states compromising today territories of Ukraine, Lombards, Lord Protector, Lycurgus of Sparta, Magna Carta, Mali Empire, Manusmriti, Massachusetts, Maurya Empire, Medina, Metagaming, Metric system, Ming dynasty, Minority group, Monarchy, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Montesquieu, Moses, Motion of no confidence, Mount Athos, Muhammad, Muslim, Napoleonic Wars, New Model Army, New Oxford American Dictionary, New Zealand, Nicomachean Ethics, Nipissing University, Nomic, Nomocanon, North America, Northern Ireland, Norway, Novellae Constitutiones, Nueva Planta decrees, OECD, Old English, Oliver Cromwell, Orestes Brownson, Originalism, Paganism, Parliament, Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, Parliament of England, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliamentary procedure, Parliamentary sovereignty, Parliamentary system, Pedro I of Brazil, Peninsular War, Philip V of Spain, Philosophy of law, Plato, Plutarch, Plutocracy, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Political prisoner, Politics (Aristotle), Polybius, Pope, Preamble, Precedent, President, Prime minister, Prince Shōtoku, Principality of Catalonia, Private law, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Public notice, Putney Debates, Pylyp Orlyk, Questia Online Library, Quo warranto, R (HS2 Action Alliance Ltd) v Secretary of State for Transport, Referendum, Renaissance, Republic of Ireland, Republicanism, Restoration (England), Revolution, Right of revolution, Right to silence, Robert Filmer, Roman emperor, Roman law, Royal prerogative, Royal prerogative in the United Kingdom, Rule according to higher law, Rule by decree, Rule of law, Rump Parliament, Russkaya Pravda, Sachem, Sachsenspiegel, Saint Sava, Salic law, Samuel Rutherford, San Marino, Sardinia, Sarsa Dengel, Saxony, Scotland, Semi-presidential system, Separation of powers, Serbia, Serbia in the Middle Ages, Serbian Orthodox Church, Serbian Revolution, Serres, Seventeen-article constitution, Sidney Lee, Skopje, Social contract, Solon, Solonian Constitution, Southern Europe, Sovereign state, Spain, Spanish Constitution of 1812, Stanford University, State (polity), State of emergency, Statute, Statute of Westminster 1931, Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942, Statutory law, Stefan Dušan, Strict constructionism, Students' union, Sumer, Supermajority, Supranational union, Sweden, Swiss Federal Constitution, Tax, Textualism, The Protectorate, The Spirit of the Laws, Thomas Hobbes, Treaty, Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, Treaty of Lisbon, Twelve Tables, Ukraine, Ultra vires, Ummah, United Kingdom, United Nations Charter, United States Congress, United States Constitution, United States constitutional law, Universal suffrage, Ur, Urukagina, Usages of Barcelona, Usury, Veliky Novgorod, Visigothic Code, Wales, Welsh law, Western Roman Empire, Westminster system, Wiki-constitutionalism, Writ, Yaroslav the Wise, Zakonopravilo, Zaporozhian Host, Zara Yaqob, 1824 Constitution of Mexico, 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis, 613 commandments. Expand index (346 more) »

Ab initio

Ab initio is a Latin term meaning "from the beginning" and is derived from the Latin ab ("from") + initio, ablative singular of initium ("beginning").

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Absolute monarchy

Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.

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Act of Parliament

Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Alaric II

Alaric II (*Alareiks, "ruler of all"; August 507), also known as Alarik, Alarich, and Alarico in Spanish and Portuguese or Alaricus in Latin — succeeded his father Euric as king of the Visigoths in Toulouse on December 28, 484.

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Albany Plan

The Albany Plan of Union was a plan to create a unified government for the Thirteen Colonies, suggested by Benjamin Franklin, then a senior leader (age 48) and a delegate from Pennsylvania, at the Albany Congress on July 10, 1754 in Albany, New York.

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Alfred the Great

Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.

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Algernon Sidney

Algernon Sidney or Sydney (14 or 15 January 1623 – 7 December 1683) was an English politician and member of the middle part of the Long Parliament.

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An Agreement of the People

An Agreement of the People was a series of manifestos, published between 1647 and 1649, for constitutional changes to the English state.

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Ancient Germanic law

Several Latin law codes of the Germanic peoples written in the Early Middle Ages (also known as leges barbarorum "laws of the barbarians") survive, dating to between the 5th and 9th centuries.

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Andrew II of Hungary

Andrew II (II., Andrija II., Ondrej II., Андрій II; 117721 September 1235), also known as Andrew of Jerusalem, was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1205 and 1235.

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An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.

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Apostolic constitution

An apostolic constitution (constitutio apostolica) is the highest level of decree issued by the Pope.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Army Council (1647)

The Army Council was a term first used in 1647 to describe an institution which coordinated the views of all levels of the New Model Army.

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Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.

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Assyrian law

Assyrian law was very similar to Sumerian and Babylonian law,Encarta (2007), s.v..

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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An audit is a systematic and independent examination of books, accounts, statutory records, documents and vouchers of an organization to ascertain how far the financial statements as well as non-financial disclosures present a true and fair view of the concern.

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Australia Act 1986

The Australia Act 1986 is the short title of each of a pair of separate but related pieces of legislation: one an Act of the Commonwealth (i.e. federal) Parliament of Australia, the other an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Æthelberht of Kent

Æthelberht (also Æthelbert, Aethelberht, Aethelbert or Ethelbert, Old English Æðelberht,; 550 – 24 February 616) was King of Kent from about 589 until his death.

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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Banu Aws

The Banū Aws (بنو أوس, "Sons of Aws") or simply Aws (أوس, also romanised as Aus) was one of the main Arab tribes of Medina.

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Banu Khazraj

The Banu al-Khazraj (بنو الخزرج) was one of the tribes of Arabia during Prophet Muhammad's era.

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Basic law

The term basic law is used in some places as an alternative to "constitution", implying it is a temporary but necessary measure without formal enactment of constitution.

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Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany

The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Basic Laws of Israel

The Basic Laws of Israel (חוקי היסוד, ħuqey ha-yesod) are the constitutional laws of the State of Israel, and can only be changed by a supermajority vote in the Knesset.

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Basil I

Basil I, called the Macedonian (Βασίλειος ὁ Μακεδών, Basíleios ō Makedṓn; 811 – August 29, 886) was a Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 867 to 886.

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The Basilika was a collection of laws completed c. 892 AD in Constantinople by order of the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise during the Macedonian dynasty.

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Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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Bill of Rights 1689

The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Breviary of Alaric

The Breviary of Alaric (Breviarium Alaricianum or Lex Romana Visigothorum) is a collection of Roman law, compiled by unknown writers and approved by Anianus on the order of Alaric II, King of the Visigoths, with the advice of his bishops and nobles.

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British North America Acts

The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts at the core of the constitution of Canada.

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Bruce E. Johansen

Bruce Elliott Johansen (born January 30, 1950) is an American academic and author.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Byzantine law

Byzantine law was essentially a continuation of Roman law with increased Christian influence.

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Canada Act 1982

The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. 11) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that was passed (as stated in the preamble) at the request of the Parliament of Canada, to "patriate" Canada's constitution, ending the necessity for the British parliament to be involved in making changes to the Constitution of Canada.

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Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (La Charte canadienne des droits et libertés), in Canada often simply the Charter, is a bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution of Canada.

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Canon law

Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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The Carbonari (Italian for "charcoal makers") was an informal network of secret revolutionary societies active in Italy from about 1800 to 1831.

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Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.

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Catalan constitutions

The Catalan constitutions (Constitucions catalanes) were the laws of the Principality of Catalonia promulgated by the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona and approved by the Catalan Courts.

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Catalan Courts

The Catalan Courts or General Court of Catalonia (Corts Catalanes or Cort General de Catalunya) was the policymaking and parliamentary body of the Principality of Catalonia from the 13th to the 18th century.

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Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.

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Charles Felix of Sardinia

Charles Felix (6 April 1765 – 27 April 1831) was the Duke of Savoy, Piedmont, Aosta and King of Sardinia from 1821 to 1831.

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Charles I of England

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

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Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.

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Charles XII of Sweden

Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.

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Charter of Liberties

The Charter of Liberties, also called the Coronation Charter, was a written proclamation by Henry I of England, issued upon his accession to the throne in 1100.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Christopher Packe (politician)

Sir Christopher Packe (1593? – 1682), Lord Mayor of London; member of the Drapers Company; lord mayor, 1654; a prominent member of the Company of Merchant Adventurers; knighted and appointed an admiralty commissioner, 1655; a strong partisan of Oliver Cromwell, proposing on 23 February 1656, in the Protector's last Parliament, a Remonstrance (which became known as the "Humble Petition and Advice") which initially proposed that Cromwell should assume the title of king.

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Church Fathers

The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.

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Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.

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A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Civil service

The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.

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Cleisthenes (Κλεισθένης, Kleisthénēs; also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was an ancient Athenian lawgiver credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing in 508/7 BC.

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Code of Hammurabi

The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).

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Code of law

A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.

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Code of Ur-Nammu

The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known law code surviving today.

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Codex Theodosianus

The Codex Theodosianus (Eng. Theodosian Code) was a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors since 312.

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Commonwealth of England

The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.

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Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Connecticut Colony

The Connecticut Colony or Colony of Connecticut, originally known as the Connecticut River Colony or simply the River Colony, was an English colony in North America that became the U.S. state of Connecticut.

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Constituent assembly

A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a document called the constitution.

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Constitution of 3 May 1791

The Constitution of 3 May 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja, Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija) was adopted by the Great Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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Constitution of Canada

The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions.

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Constitution of Honduras

The Political Constitution of the Republic of Honduras (Constitución Política de la República de Honduras) was approved on 11 January 1982, published on 20 January 1982, amended by the National Congress of Honduras 26 times from 1984 to 2005,Dates of ratification.

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Constitution of India

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.

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Constitution of Massachusetts

The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the fundamental governing document of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, one of the 50 individual state governments that make up the United States of America.

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Constitution of Medina

The Constitution of Medina (دستور المدينة, Dustūr al-Madīnah), also known as the Charter of Medina (صحيفة المدينة, Ṣaḥīfat al-Madīnah; or: ميثاق المدينة, Mīthāq al-Madīnah), was drawn up on behalf of the Islamic prophet Muhammad shortly after his arrival at Medina (then known as Yathrib) in 622 CE argues that the initial agreement was shortly after the Hijra and the document was amended later, after the Battle of Badr (AH 2,.

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Constitution of Monaco

The Constitution of Monaco, first adopted in 1911 after the Monégasque Revolution and heavily revised by Prince Rainier III on December 17, 1962, outlines three branches of government, including several administrative offices and a number of councils, who share advisory and legislative power with the Prince.

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Constitution of Norway

The Constitution of Norway (complete name: the Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway; official name in Danish: Kongeriget Norges Grundlov; Norwegian Bokmål: Kongeriket Norges Grunnlov; Norwegian Nynorsk: Kongeriket Noregs Grunnlov) was first adopted on 16 May and subsequently signed and dated on 17 May 1814 by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll.

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Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk

The Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk (Конституція Пилипа Орлика (Konstytutsiya Pylypa Orlyka) or Pacts and Constitutions of Rights and Freedoms of the Zaporizhian Host Пакти і Конституції прав і вольностей Війська Запорозького (Pakty i Konstytutsii Prav i Volnostei Viyska Zaporozkoho), Pacta et Constitutiones Legum Libertatumque Exercitus Zaporoviensis) was a 1710 constitutional document written by Hetman Pylyp Orlyk, a Cossack of Ukraine.

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Constitution of San Marino

The Constitution of San Marino is distributed over a number of legislative instruments of which the most significant are the Statutes of 1600 and the Declaration of Citizen Rights of 1974 as amended in 2002.

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Constitution of the Athenians (Aristotle)

The Constitution of the Athenians or the Athenian Constitution (Greek: Ἀθηναίων πολιτεία, Athenaion Politeia; Latin: Atheniensium Respublica) is a work by Aristotle or one of his students.

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Constitution of the Roman Republic

The constitution of the Roman Republic was a set of unwritten norms and customs, which together with various written laws, guided the manner by which the Roman Republic was governed.

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Constitution of the Soviet Union

There were three versions of the constitution of the Soviet Union, modeled after the 1918 Constitution established by the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR), the immediate predecessor of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Constitution of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom does not have one specific constitutional document named as such.

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Constitutional amendment

A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution of a nation or state.

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Constitutional convention (political custom)

A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state.

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Constitutional court

A constitutional court is a high court that deals primarily with constitutional law.

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Constitutional crisis

In political science, a constitutional crisis is a problem or conflict in the function of a government that the political constitution or other fundamental governing law is perceived to be unable to resolve.

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Constitutional documents

In relation to juristic persons, the constitutional documents (sometimes referred to as the charter documents) of the entity are the documents which define the existence of the entity and regulate the structure and control of the entity and its members.

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Constitutional economics

Constitutional economics is a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the choices and activities of economic and political agents".

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Constitutional references to God

Constitutional references to God exist in the constitutions of a number of nations, most often in the preamble.

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Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law".

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Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.

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Constitutions of Ethiopia

Ethiopia has had four constitutions.

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Convention (meeting)

A convention, in the sense of a meeting, is a gathering of individuals who meet at an arranged place and time in order to discuss or engage in some common interest.

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Convention (norm)

A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.

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The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.

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Cornell University Press

The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.

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Corpus Juris Civilis

The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor.

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Corsican Constitution

The first Corsican Constitution was drawn up in 1755 for the short-lived Corsican Republic independent from Genoa beginning in 1755 and remained in force until the annexation of Corsica by France in 1769.

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Cortes Generales

The Cortes Generales (General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of the Kingdom of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house).

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Cossack Hetmanate

The Cossack Hetmanate (Гетьманщина), officially known as Zaporizhian Host (Військо Запорозьке), was a Cossack state in Central Ukraine between 1649 and 1764 (some sources claim until 1782).

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Criminal law

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.

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De jure belli ac pacis

De iure belli ac pacis (On the Law of War and Peace) is a 1625 book in Latin, written by Hugo Grotius and published in Paris, on the legal status of war.

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Decembrist revolt

The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (r) took place in Imperial Russia on.

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Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Determinacy is a subfield of set theory, a branch of mathematics, that examines the conditions under which one or the other player of a game has a winning strategy, and the consequences of the existence of such strategies.

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Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.

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Dictionary of National Biography

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.

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Doctrine of Basic Structure

Doctrine of basic structure is a judge-made Indian principle stating that a country's constitution has certain basic features that cannot be amended by its legislative body.

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Donald A. Grinde Jr.

Donald Andrew Grinde Jr., a professor at the University at Buffalo, New York, is noted for his scholarship and writing on Native American issues.

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Doom book

The Doom Book, Code of Alfred or Legal Code of Ælfred the Great was the code of laws ("dooms" being laws or judgments) compiled by Alfred the Great (893 AD).

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Double jeopardy

Double jeopardy is a procedural defence that prevents an accused person from being tried again on the same (or similar) charges and on the same facts, following a valid acquittal or conviction.

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Draco (lawgiver)

Draco (Δράκων, Drakōn; fl. c. 7th century BC) was the first recorded legislator of Athens in Ancient Greece.

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Dušan's Code

Dušan's Code (Душанов законик, Dušanov zakonik, known historically as Закон благовјернаго цара Стефана - Law of the pious Emperor Stefan) is a compilation of several legal systems that was enacted by Stefan Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia in 1349.

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Due process

Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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Ecumenical council

An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.

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Edicts of Ashoka

The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire during his reign from 269 BCE to 232 BCE.

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Edictum Rothari

The Edictum Rothari (lit. Edict of Rothari; also Edictus Rothari or Edictum Rotharis) was the first written compilation of Lombard law, codified and promulgated on 22 November 643 by King Rothari.

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Eike of Repgow

Eike of Repgow (Eike von Repgow, also von Repkow, von Repchow or von Repchau; –) was a medieval German administrator who compiled the Sachsenspiegel code of law in the 13th century.

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Eleanor of Arborea

Eleanor of Arborea (Sardinian: Elianora de Arbaree, 1347-1404) was one of the most powerful and important, and one of the last, judges of Sardinia, and Sardinia's most famous heroine.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.

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Entrenched clause

An entrenched clause or entrenchment clause of a basic law or constitution is a provision that makes certain amendments either more difficult or impossible to pass, making such amendments inadmissible.

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Erin McKean

Erin McKean (born 1971) is an American lexicographer, based in the San Francisco Bay Area.

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Ernest de Sarzec

Ernest Choquin de Sarzec (1832–1901) was a French archaeologist, to whom is attributed the discovery of the civilization of ancient Sumer.

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Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Euric (Gothic: *Aiwareiks, see Eric), also known as Evaric, or Eurico in Spanish and Portuguese (c. 440 – 28 December 484), son of Theodoric I, ruled as king (rex) of the Visigoths, after murdering his brother, Theodoric II, from 466 until his death in 484.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.

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Fetha Nagast

The Fetha Nagast (Ge'ez: ፍትሐ ነገሥት fətḥa nägäśt, "Law of the Kings") is a legal code compiled around 1240 by the Coptic Egyptian Christian writer, 'Abul Fada'il Ibn al-'Assal, in Arabic that was later translated into Ge'ez in Ethiopia and expanded upon with numerous local laws.

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First English Civil War

The First English Civil War (1642–1646) began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War (or "Wars").

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Fixed-term election

A fixed-term election is an election that occurs on a set date, and cannot be changed by a majority of incumbent politicians.

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Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011

The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (c. 14) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that received Royal Assent on 15 September 2011, introducing fixed-term elections to the Westminster parliament for the first time.

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Francis Jennings

Francis "Fritz" Jennings (1918November 17, 2000) was an American historian, best known for his works on the colonial history of the United States.

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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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Freedom of assembly

Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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French Constitution of 1791

The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

The Fundamental Orders were adopted by the Connecticut Colony council on January 14, 1639 OS (January 24, 1639 NS).

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Fundamental rights

Some universally recognized rights that are seen as fundamental, i.e., contained in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the U.N. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, or the U.N. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, include the following.

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Ge'ez (ግዕዝ,; also transliterated Giʻiz) is an ancient South Semitic language and a member of the Ethiopian Semitic group.

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George Mason University

George Mason University (GMU, Mason, or George Mason) is a public research university in Fairfax County, Virginia.

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Georgetown University

Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Giovanni Sartori

Giovanni Sartori (13 May 1924 – 4 April 2017) was an Italian political scientist specialized in the study of democracy and comparative politics.

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Giudicato of Arborea

The Giudicato of Arborea (Giudicato di Arborea, Judicadu de Arbaree, English: Courts of Arborea), also called Regno di Arborea (Rennu de Arbaree) was one of the four independent, hereditary "Judicatures" (giudicati) or Courts into which the island of Sardinia was divided in the High Middle Ages.

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Golden Bull of 1222

The Golden Bull of 1222 was a golden bull, or edict, issued by King Andrew II of Hungary.

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Golden Bull of 1356

The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg and Metz (Diet of Metz (1356/57)) headed by the Emperor Charles IV which fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, important aspects of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire.

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A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.

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Grandee (Grande,; Grande) is an official aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish nobility and, to a lesser extent, Portuguese nobility.

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Habeas corpus

Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.

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Haile Selassie

Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.

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Heads of Proposals

The Heads of Proposals was a set of propositions intended to be a basis for a constitutional settlement after King Charles I was defeated in the First English Civil War.

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The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.

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Henry I of England

Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death.

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Henry Neville (writer)

Henry Neville (1620–1694) was an English politician, author and satirist, best remembered for his tale of shipwreck and dystopia, The Isle of Pines published in 1668.

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History of India

The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.

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Hittite laws

The Hittite laws have been preserved on a number of Hittite cuneiform tablets found at Hattusa (CTH 291-292, listing 200 laws).

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Hongwu Emperor

The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Huang-Ming Zuxun

The Huáng-Míng Zǔxùn (Instructions of the Ancestor of the August Ming) were admonitions left by the Hongwu Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Chinese Ming dynasty, to his descendants.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Humble Petition and Advice

The Humble Petition and Advice was the second, and last, codified constitution of England after the Instrument of Government.

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Hywel Dda

Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good) or Hywel ap Cadell (c.880 – 950) was a King of Deheubarth who eventually came to rule most of Wales.

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Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire)

The Imperial Diet (Dieta Imperii/Comitium Imperiale; Reichstag) was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Indian English

Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.

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Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".

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Instrument of Government

The Instrument of Government was a constitution of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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Instrument of Government (1772)

Sweden's Constitution of 1772 (regeringsform, "Instrument of Government") took effect through a bloodless coup d'état, the Revolution of 1772, carried out by King Gustav III, who had become king in 1771, establishing a brief absolute monarchy in Sweden.

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International law

International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.

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International organization

An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.

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Isin (Sumerian: I3-si-inki, modern Arabic: Ishan al-Bahriyat) is an archaeological site in Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jack N. Rakove

Jack Norman Rakove (born June 4, 1947) is an American historian, author and professor at Stanford University.

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James Harrington (author)

James Harrington (or Harington) (3 January 1611 – 11 September 1677) was an English political theorist of classical republicanism, best known for his controversial work, The Commonwealth of Oceana (1656).

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James Tyrrell (writer)

James Tyrrell (5 May 1642 – 17 June 1718) was an English author, Whig political philosopher, and historian.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Joannes Zonaras

Joannes or John Zonaras (Ἰωάννης Ζωναρᾶς, Iōánnēs Zōnarâs; fl. 12th century) was a Byzantine chronicler and theologian who lived in Constantinople.

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John Lambert (general)

John Lambert (Autumn 1619 – March 1684) was an English Parliamentary general and politician.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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John Markoff (sociologist)

John Markoff (born 1942) is Professor of Sociology and History at the University of Pittsburgh.

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John Milton

John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.

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John Scholasticus

John Scholasticus (c. 503 – 31 August 577) was the 32nd patriarch of Constantinople from April 12, 565 until his death in 577.

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John, King of England

John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.

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Judicial activism

Judicial activism refers to judicial rulings that are suspected of being based on personal opinion, rather than on existing law.

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Judicial restraint

Judicial restraint is a theory of judicial interpretation that encourages judges to limit the exercise of their own power.

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Judicial review

Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.

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The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.

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Jury trial

A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact.

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Justinian I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.

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Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.

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Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Regno dê Doje Sicilie, Regnu dî Dui Sicili, Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the largest of the states of Italy before the Italian unification.

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Kouroukan Fouga

According to the Epic of Sundiata, Kouroukan Fouga or Kurukan Fuga was the constitution of the Mali Empire created after the Battle of Krina (1235) by an assembly of nobles to create a government for the newly established empire.

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Kragujevac (Крагујевац) is the fourth largest city of Serbia and the administrative center of the Šumadija District in central Serbia.

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Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin America

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.

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Legal transplant

The term legal transplant was coined in the 1970s by the Scottish-American legal scholar W.A.J. 'Alan' Watson to indicate the moving of a rule or a system of law from one country to another (A. Watson, Legal Transplants: An Approach to Comparative Law, Edinburgh, 1974).

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A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

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Leo III the Isaurian

Leo III the Isaurian, also known as the Syrian (Leōn III ho Isauros; 675 – 18 June 741), was Byzantine Emperor from 717 until his death in 741.

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The Levellers was a political movement during the English Civil War (1642–1651).

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Lex Alamannorum

The Lex Alamannorum and Pactus Alamannorum were two early medieval law codes of the Alamanni.

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Lex Burgundionum

The Lex Burgundionum (Latin for Burgundian Laws, also Lex Gundobada) refers to the law code of the Burgundians, probably issued by king Gundobad.

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Lex Frisionum

Lex Frisionum, the "Law Code of the Frisians", was recorded in Latin during the reign of Charlemagne, after the year 785, when the Frankish conquest of Frisia was completed by the final defeat of the Saxon rebel leader Widukind.

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Liberal Revolution of 1820

The Liberal Revolution of 1820 (Revolução Liberal) was a Portuguese political revolution that erupted in 1820.

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Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.

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Lipit-Ishtar (Akkadian: Lipit-Ištar; fl. c. 1870 BC — c. 1860 BC by the short chronology of the ancient near east) was the 5th king of the First Dynasty of Isin, according to the "Sumerian King List" (SKL).

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List of Byzantine emperors

This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.

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List of Canadian constitutional documents

The Constitution of Canada is a large number of documents that have been entrenched in the constitution by various means.

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List of national constitutions

The following is a list of existing national constitutions by country, semi-recognized countries, and by codification.

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List of rulers in states compromising today territories of Ukraine

This list encompasses all rulers and leaders of what is today Ukraine, from ancient to modern times.

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The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.

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Lord Protector

Lord Protector (pl. Lords Protectors) is a title that has been used in British constitutional law for the head of state.

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Lycurgus of Sparta

Lycurgus (Λυκοῦργος, Lykoûrgos,; 820 BC) was the quasi-legendary lawgiver of Sparta who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi.

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Magna Carta

Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.

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Mali Empire

The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni or Niani; also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, sometimes shortened to Manden) was an empire in West Africa from 1230 to 1670.

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The Manusmṛti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also spelled as Manusmriti, is an ancient legal text among the many of Hinduism.

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Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Maurya Empire

The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.

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Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.

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Metagaming is any strategy, action or method used in a game which transcends a prescribed ruleset, uses external factors to affect the game, or goes beyond the supposed limits or environment set by the game.

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Metric system

The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Minority group

A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.

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A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.

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Monarchy of the United Kingdom

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.

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Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.

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Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.

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Motion of no confidence

A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.

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Mount Athos

Mount Athos (Άθως, Áthos) is a mountain and peninsula in northeastern Greece and an important centre of Eastern Orthodox monasticism.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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New Model Army

The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration.

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New Oxford American Dictionary

The New Oxford university American Dictionary (NOAD) is a single-volume dictionary of American English compiled by American editors at the Oxford University Press.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nicomachean Ethics

The Nicomachean Ethics (Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.

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Nipissing University

Nipissing University is a primarily undergraduate public liberal arts university located in North Bay, Ontario, Canada.

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Nomic is a game created in 1982 by philosopher Peter Suber in which the rules of the game include mechanisms for the players to change those rules, usually beginning through a system of democratic voting.

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A nomocanon (Νομοκανών, Nomokanōn; from the Greek nomos - law and kanon - a rule) is a collection of ecclesiastical law, consisting of the elements from both the Civil law and the Canon law.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Novellae Constitutiones

The Novellae Constitutiones ("new constitutions"; Novellæ constitutiones, Νεαραί διατάξεις), or Justinian's Novels, are now considered one of the four major units of Roman law initiated by Roman Emperor Justinian I in the course of his long reign (AD 527–565).

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Nueva Planta decrees

The Nueva Planta decrees (Decretos de Nueva Planta, Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon King of Spain—during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.

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Orestes Brownson

Orestes Augustus Brownson (September 16, 1803 – April 17, 1876) was a New England intellectual and activist, preacher, labor organizer, and noted Catholic convert and writer.

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In the context of United States constitutional interpretation, originalism is a way to interpret the Constitution's meaning as stable from the time of enactment, which can be changed only by the steps set out in Article Five.

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Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.

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Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949

The Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 are two Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which form part of the constitution of the United Kingdom.

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Parliament of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

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Parliamentary procedure

Parliamentary procedure is the body of rules, ethics and customs governing meetings and other operations of clubs, organizations, legislative bodies and other deliberative assemblies.

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Parliamentary sovereignty

Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Pedro I of Brazil

Dom Pedro I (English: Peter I; 12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834), nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil.

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Peninsular War

The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Philip V of Spain

Philip V (Felipe V, Philippe, Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 15 January 1724, and from his reascendancy of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.

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Philosophy of law

Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence that seeks to answer basic questions about law and legal systems, such as "What is law?", "What are the criteria for legal validity?", "What is the relationship between law and morality?", and many other similar questions.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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A plutocracy (πλοῦτος,, 'wealth' + κράτος,, 'rule') or plutarchy is a society that is ruled or controlled by people of great wealth or income.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Political prisoner

A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment.

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Politics (Aristotle)

Politics (Πολιτικά, Politiká) is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.

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Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.

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The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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A preamble is an introductory and expressionary statement in a document that explains the document's purpose and underlying philosophy.

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In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.

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The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.

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Prime minister

A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.

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Prince Shōtoku

, also known as or, was a semi-legendary regent and a politician of the Asuka period in Japan who served under Empress Suiko.

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Principality of Catalonia

The Principality of Catalonia (Principat de Catalunya, Principatus Cathaloniæ, Principautat de Catalonha, Principado de Cataluña) was a medieval and early modern political entity or state in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula.

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Private law

Private law is that part of a civil law legal system which is part of the jus commune that involves relationships between individuals, such as the law of contracts or torts (as it is called in the common law), and the law of obligations (as it is called in civil legal systems).

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Prophets and messengers in Islam

Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).

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Public notice

Public notice is a notice given to the public regarding certain types of legal proceedings.

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Putney Debates

The Putney Debates were a series of discussions between members of the New Model Army – a number of the participants being Levellers – concerning the makeup of a new constitution for Britain.

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Pylyp Orlyk

Pylyp Stepanovych Orlyk (Пилип Степанович Орлик, Filip Orlik) (born on October 11, 1672 in Kosuta, Ashmyany county, Grand Duchy of Lithuania (today in Vileyka Raion, Belarus), died on May 26, 1742 in Jassy, Principality of Moldavia (today Iaşi, Romania) was a Zaporozhian Cossack starshyna, Hetman of Ukraine in exile, diplomat, secretary and close associate of Hetman Ivan Mazepa. Founder of the first Constitution in Europe.

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Questia Online Library

Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.

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Quo warranto

In British and American common law, quo warranto (Medieval Latin for "by what warrant?") is a prerogative writ requiring the person to whom it is directed to show what authority they have for exercising some right, power, or franchise they claim to hold.

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R (HS2 Action Alliance Ltd) v Secretary of State for Transport

R (HS2 Action Alliance Ltd) v Secretary of State for Transport is a UK constitutional law case, concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law.

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A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.

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Restoration (England)

The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.

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In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).

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Right of revolution

In political philosophy, the right of revolution (or right of rebellion) is the right or duty of the people of a nation to overthrow a government that acts against their common interests and/or threatens the safety of the people without cause.

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Right to silence

The right to silence is a legal principle which guarantees any individual the right to refuse to answer questions from law enforcement officers or court officials.

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Robert Filmer

Sir Robert Filmer (c. 1588 – 26 May 1653) was an English political theorist who defended the divine right of kings.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman law

Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.

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Royal prerogative

The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.

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Royal prerogative in the United Kingdom

The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in the United Kingdom as the sole prerogative of the Sovereign and the source of many of the executive powers of the British government.

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Rule according to higher law

The rule according to a higher law means that no law may be enforced by the government unless it conforms with certain universal principles (written or unwritten) of fairness, morality, and justice.

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Rule by decree

Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators, absolute monarchs and military leaders.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".

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Rump Parliament

The Rump Parliament was the English Parliament after Colonel Thomas Pride purged the Long Parliament, on 6 December 1648, of those members hostile to the Grandees' intention to try King Charles I for high treason.

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Russkaya Pravda

Russkaya Pravda (Rus' Justice or Rus’ Law; Правда роусьскаꙗ, Pravda Rusĭskaya (13th century, 1280), Правда Руськая, Pravda Rus'kaya (second half of the 15th century); Русская правда, Russkaya Pravda; Руська Правда, Rus'ka Pravda) was the legal code of Kievan Rus' and the subsequent Rus' principalities during the times of feudal division.

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Sachem and Sagamore refer to paramount chiefs among the Algonquians or other Native American tribes of the northeast.

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The Sachsenspiegel (literally “Saxon Mirror”; Middle Low German: Sassen Speyghel; Sassenspegel) is the most important law book and custumal of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Saint Sava

Saint Sava (Свети Сава / Sveti Sava,, 1174 – 14 January 1236), known as The Enlightener, was a Serbian prince and Orthodox monk, the first Archbishop of the autocephalous Serbian Church, the founder of Serbian law, and a diplomat.

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Salic law

The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.

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Samuel Rutherford

Rev Prof Samuel Rutherford (or Samuell Rutherfoord; – 29 March 1661) was a Scottish Presbyterian pastor, theologian and author, and one of the Scottish Commissioners to the Westminster Assembly.

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San Marino

San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.

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Sarsa Dengel

Sarsa Dengel (Ge'ez ሠረጸ ድንግል śarṣa dingil, Amh. serṣe dingil "Sprout of the Virgin", 1550 – 4 October 1597) was nəgusä nägäst (throne name Malak Sagad I, Ge'ez መልአክ ሰገድ mal'ak sagad, Amh. mel'āk seged, "to whom the angel bows") (1563–1597) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty.

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The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Semi-presidential system

A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.

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Separation of powers

The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.

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Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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Serbia in the Middle Ages

The medieval history of Serbia begins in the 6th century with the Slavic invasion of the Balkans, and lasts until the Ottoman occupation of 1540.

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Serbian Orthodox Church

The Serbian Orthodox Church (Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches.

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Serbian Revolution

The Serbian Revolution was a national uprising and constitutional change in Serbia that took place between 1804 and 1835, during which this territory evolved from an Ottoman province into a rebel territory, a constitutional monarchy and modern Serbia.

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Sérres (Σέρρες) is a city in Macedonia, Greece, capital of the Serres regional unit and second largest city in the region of Central Macedonia, after Thessaloniki.

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Seventeen-article constitution

The is, according to the Nihon Shoki of 720, a document authored by Prince Shōtoku in 604.

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Sidney Lee

Sir Sidney Lee (5 December 1859 – 3 March 1926) was an English biographer, writer and critic.

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Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.

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Social contract

In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.

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Solon (Σόλων Sólōn; BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet.

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Solonian Constitution

The Solonian Constitution was created by Solon in the early 6th century BC.

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Southern Europe

Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spanish Constitution of 1812

The Political Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy (Constitución Política de la Monarquía Española), also known as the Constitution of Cádiz (Constitución de Cádiz) and as La Pepa, was the first Constitution of Spain and one of the earliest constitutions in world history.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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State (polity)

A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

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State of emergency

A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.

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A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.

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Statute of Westminster 1931

The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.

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Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942

The Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 is an Act of the Australian Parliament that formally adopted the Statute of Westminster 1931, an Act of the British Imperial Parliament enabling the legislative independence of the various self-governing Dominions of the British Empire.

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Statutory law

Statutory law or statute law is written law set down by a body of legislature or by a singular legislator (in the case of absolute monarchy).

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Stefan Dušan

Stefan Uroš IV Dušan (Стефан Урош IV Душан), known as Dušan the Mighty (Душан Силни/Dušan Silni; 1308 – 20 December 1355), was the King of Serbia from 8 September 1331 and Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks from 16 April 1346 until his death.

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Strict constructionism

In the United States, strict constructionism refers to a particular legal philosophy of judicial interpretation that limits or restricts judicial interpretation.

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Students' union

A students' union, student government, free student union, student senate, students' association, guild of students, or government of student body is a student organization present in many colleges, universities, and high schools.

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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.

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Supranational union

A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swiss Federal Constitution

The Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation (SR 10, Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft (BV), Constitution fédérale de la Confédération suisse (Cst.), Costituzione federale della Confederazione Svizzera (Cost.), Constituziun federala da la Confederaziun svizra) of 18 April 1999 (SR 101) is the third and current federal constitution of Switzerland.

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A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.

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Textualism is a formalist theory in which the interpretation of the law is primarily based on the ordinary meaning of the legal text, where no consideration is given to non-textual sources, such as: intention of the law when passed, the problem it was intended to remedy, or significant questions regarding the justice or rectitude of the law.

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The Protectorate

The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum) when England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland were governed by a Lord Protector as a republic.

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The Spirit of the Laws

The Spirit of the Laws (French: De l'esprit des lois, originally spelled De l'esprit des loix; also sometimes translated The Spirit of Laws) is a treatise on political theory, as well as a pioneering work in comparative law, published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.

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Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe

The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE; commonly referred to as the European Constitution or as the Constitutional Treaty) was an unratified international treaty intended to create a consolidated constitution for the European Union (EU).

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Treaty of Lisbon

The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).

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Twelve Tables

According to Greek tradition, the Law of the Twelve Tables (Leges Duodecim Tabularum or Duodecim Tabulae) was the legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law.

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Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Ultra vires

Ultra vires is a Latin phrase meaning "beyond the powers".

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(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations Charter

The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States Constitution

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.

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United States constitutional law

United States constitutional law is the body of law governing the interpretation and implementation of the United States Constitution.

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Universal suffrage

The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.

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Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.

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Uru-ka-gina, Uru-inim-gina, or Iri-ka-gina (𒌷𒅗𒄀𒈾; 24th century BC, short chronology) was a ruler (''ensi'') of the city-state Lagash in Mesopotamia.

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Usages of Barcelona

The Usages of Barcelona (Usatges de Barcelona,; Latin: Usatici Barchinonae) were the customs that form the basis for the Catalan Constitutions.

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Usury is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender.

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Veliky Novgorod

Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.

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Visigothic Code

The Visigothic Code (Latin, Forum Iudicum or Liber Iudiciorum; Spanish, Libro de los Jueces, Book of the Judges), also called Lex Visigothorum (English: Law of the Visigoths) is a set of laws first promulgated by king Chindasuinth (642-653) of the Visigothic Kingdom in his second year of rule (642-643) that survives only in fragments.

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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Welsh law

Welsh law is the primary and secondary legislation generated by the National Assembly for Wales, according to devolved authority granted in the Government of Wales Act 2006.

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Western Roman Empire

In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.

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Westminster system

The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.

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Wiki-constitutionalism is a neologism coined by political analyst Daniel Lansberg-Rodriguez in a 2010 article for The New Republic.

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In common law, a writ (Anglo-Saxon gewrit, Latin breve) is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court.

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Yaroslav the Wise

Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus, known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise (tr; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jarizleifr Valdamarsson;; Iaroslaus Sapiens; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule.

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The Nomocanon of Saint Sava, known in Serbian as Zakonopravilo (Законоправило) or Krmčija (Крмчија), was the first Serbian constitution and the highest code in the Serbian Orthodox Church, finished in 1219.

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Zaporozhian Host

Zaporozhian Host (or Zaporizhian Host) is a term for a military force inhabiting or originating from Zaporizhia, the territory beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River in what is Central Ukraine today, from the 15th to the 18th centuries.

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Zara Yaqob

Zar'a Ya`qob or Zera Yacob (Ge'ez ዘርአ:ያዕቆብ zar'ā yāʿiqōb) (1399 – 26 August 1468) was the Emperor (nəgusä nägäst) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty who ruled under regnal name Kwestantinos I (Ge'ez ቈስታንቲኖስ qʷastāntīnōs) or Constantine I. Born at Telq in the province of Fatajar (now part of the Oromia Region, near the Awash River), Zara Yaqob was the youngest son of Dawit I and his youngest wife, Igzi Kebra. The British expert on Ethiopia, Edward Ullendorff, stated that Zara Yaqob "was unquestionably the greatest ruler Ethiopia had seen since Ezana, during the heyday of Aksumite power, and none of his successors on the throne – excepted only the emperors Menelik II and Haile Selassie – can be compared to him." Paul B. Henze repeats the tradition that the jealousy of his older brother Tewodros I forced the courtiers to take Zara Yaqob to Tigray where he was brought up in secret, and educated in Axum and at the monastery of Debre Abbay. While admitting that this tradition "is invaluable as providing a religious background for Zar'a-Ya'iqob's career", Taddesse Tamrat dismisses this story as "very improbable in its details." The professor notes that Zara Yaqob wrote in his Mashafa Berhan that "he was brought down from the royal prison of Mount Gishan only on the eve of his accession to the throne.".

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1824 Constitution of Mexico

The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 (Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1824) was enacted on October 4 of 1824, after the overthrow of the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide.

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2009 Honduran constitutional crisis

The 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis was a political dispute over plans to rewrite the Constitution of Honduras.

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613 commandments

The tradition that 613 commandments (תרי"ג מצוות, taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud Makkot 23b.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution

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