250 relations: Abortion, Abuse, Academic freedom, Act of Parliament, Acting (law), Affirmation in law, African National Congress, Ageism, Albie Sachs, Amnesty, Apartheid, Arbitrary arrest and detention, Auditor-General (South Africa), Basic education, Best interests, Bill (law), Bill of rights, Birth, Black people, Bodily integrity, Cabinet of South Africa, Cape Colony, Capital punishment, Centralized government, Chapter Two of the Constitution of South Africa, Chief Justice of South Africa, Child labour, Children in the military, Children's rights, Christian Lawyers Association v Minister of Health, Citation of Constitutional Laws Act, 2005, Citizenship, Civil and political rights, Civil liberties, Civil service, Colony of Natal, Coloureds, Commission for Gender Equality, Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities, Constituent assembly, Constitution, Constitutional Court of South Africa, Constitutional economics, Constitutional law, Constitutionalism, Courts of South Africa, Cruel and unusual punishment, Culture, Currency, Customary international law, ..., Customary law in South Africa, Democracy, Demolition, Deputy Chief Justice of South Africa, Dignity, Disability, Dispute resolution, Districts of South Africa, Dominion, Double jeopardy, Due process, Duty, Eastern Cape, Economic, social and cultural rights, Eighth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Election, Electoral Commission of South Africa, Eleventh Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Employment, English language, Environment (biophysical), Environmental protection, Ethnic group, Eviction, Ex post facto law, Executive Council (South Africa), Expropriation, Family, Federalism, Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, First Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Flag of South Africa, Floor crossing (South Africa), Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Fourth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Freedom of assembly, Freedom of association, Freedom of information, Freedom of movement, Freedom of religion, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press, Freedom of thought, Gauteng, Geography, Good faith, Government debt, Government Gazette of South Africa, Government of South Africa, Government procurement, Hate speech, Health care, High Court of South Africa, Human right to water and sanitation, Human rights, Incitement, Indefinite detention without trial, Independent Communications Authority of South Africa, Indian South Africans, Information, Interim Constitution (South Africa), International law, Involuntary servitude, Judicial Service Commission (South Africa), Judiciary, Judiciary of South Africa, Juridical person, Kader Asmal, KwaZulu-Natal, KwaZulu-Natal Legislature, Labor rights, Language, Languages of South Africa, Law, Law of South Africa, Lawyer, Legal aid, Legislature, Limpopo, Local government, Lower house, Magistrate's court (South Africa), Map, Marital status, Matatiele, Merafong City Local Municipality, Monarchy of South Africa, Money bill, Multi-party system, Municipal council, Municipal Demarcation Board, Municipalities of South Africa, National anthem, National Assembly of South Africa, National Council of Provinces, National flag, National Party (South Africa), National Prosecuting Authority, National Treasury (South Africa), Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa, Nelson Mandela, Ninth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, North West (South African province), Oath, Ombudsman, Orange River Colony, Parent, Parliament of South Africa, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Party-list proportional representation, Passport, Political campaign, Political party, Pregnancy, Premier (South Africa), President of South Africa, Presumption of innocence, Prime Minister of South Africa, Propaganda, Property, Protest, Provinces of South Africa, Provincial legislature (South Africa), Provisional constitution, Public administration, Public finance, Public Protector, Quorum, Racism, Referendum, Religion, Reproductive rights, Republic, Right to a fair trial, Right to an adequate standard of living, Right to counsel, Right to education, Right to food, Right to housing, Right to life, Right to privacy, Right to property, Right to protest, Right to science and culture, Right to silence, Rule of law, S v Makwanyane, Search and seizure, Second Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Secrecy of correspondence, Security of person, Self-determination, Self-incrimination, Senate of South Africa, Separation of powers, Seventeenth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Seventh Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Sexism, Sexual orientation, Sixteenth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Sixth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Slavery, South Africa, South Africa Act 1909, South African Constitution (1983), South African Constitution of 1961, South African general election, 1994, South African Human Rights Commission, South African National Defence Force, South African Police Service, South African Reserve Bank, State of emergency, State President of South Africa, State Security Agency (South Africa), Strike action, Suffrage, Supermajority, Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa, Tenth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Third Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Thirteenth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Torture, Trade union, Transvaal Colony, Tribal chief, Tricameral Parliament, Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa), Twelfth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa, Unfree labour, Union of South Africa, Universal access to education, Universal suffrage, Upper house, Violence, War, Welfare, Western Cape, White South Africans, Youth detention center. 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Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit.
Academic freedom is the conviction that the freedom of inquiry by faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy as well as the principles of academia, and that scholars should have freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts (including those that are inconvenient to external political groups or to authorities) without being targeted for repression, job loss, or imprisonment.
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
In law, when someone is said to be acting in a position it can mean one of three things.
In law, an affirmation is a solemn declaration allowed to those who conscientiously object to taking an oath.
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
Ageism (also spelled "agism") is stereotyping of and discrimination against individuals or groups on the basis of their age.
Albert "Albie" Louis Sachs (born 30 January 1935) is an activist and a former judge on the Constitutional Court of South Africa.
Amnesty (from the Greek ἀμνηστία amnestia, "forgetfulness, passing over") is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of people, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of people who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted." It includes more than pardon, inasmuch as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Arbitrary arrest and arbitrary detention are the arrest or detention of an individual in a case in which there is no likelihood or evidence that they committed a crime against legal statute, or in which there has been no proper due process of law.
The Auditor-General of South Africa (AGSA) is an office established by the 1996 Constitution of South Africa and is one of the Chapter nine institutions intended to support democracy, although its history dates back at least 100 years.
According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), basic education comprises the two stages primary education and lower secondary education.
Best interests or best interests of the child is a child rights principle, which derives from Article 3 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which says that “in all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration”.
A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.
A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights to the citizens of a country.
Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.
Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.
Bodily integrity is the inviolability of the physical body and emphasizes the importance of personal autonomy and the self-determination of human beings over their own bodies.
The Cabinet of South Africa is the most senior level of the executive branch of the Government of South Africa.
The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
A centralized government (also centralised government (Oxford spelling)) is one in which power or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive to which '''federal states''', local authorities, and smaller units are considered subject.
Chapter Two of the Constitution of South Africa contains the Bill of Rights, a human rights charter that protects the civil, political and socio-economic rights of all people in South Africa.
The Chief Justice of South Africa is the most senior judge of the Constitutional Court and head of the judiciary of South Africa, who exercises final authority over the functioning and management of all the courts.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
Children in the military are children (defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child as persons under the age of 18) who are associated with military organisations, such as state armed forces and non-state armed groups.
Children's rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors.
Christian Lawyers Association v Minister of Health is a case in which the Transvaal Provincial Division of the High Court of South Africa ruled on the constitutionality of the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act, the law which governs abortion in South Africa.
The Citation of Constitutional Laws Act, 2005 (Act No. 5 of 2005) is an act of the Parliament of South Africa which altered the way in which the Constitution and its amendments are numbered and referred to.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa.
Coloureds (Kleurlinge) are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Bantu speakers, Afrikaners, and sometimes also Austronesians and South Asians.
The Commission for Gender Equality (CGE) is an independent chapter nine institution in South Africa.
Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities
The Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities (CRL Rights Commission) is an independent chapter nine institution in South Africa.
A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a document called the constitution.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Constitutional Court of South Africa is a supreme constitutional court established by the Constitution of South Africa.
Constitutional economics is a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the choices and activities of economic and political agents".
Constitutional law is a body of law which defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the parliament or legislature, and the judiciary; as well as the basic rights of citizens and, in federal countries such as the United States and Canada, the relationship between the central government and state, provincial, or territorial governments.
Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law".
The courts of South Africa are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in South Africa.
Cruel and unusual punishment is a phrase describing punishment that is considered unacceptable due to the suffering, pain, or humiliation it inflicts on the person subjected to it.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.
South African customary law refers to a usually uncodified legal system developed and practised by the indigenous communities of South Africa.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Demolition or razing is the tearing down of buildings and other man-made structures.
The Deputy Chief Justice of South Africa is a judge in the Constitutional Court of South Africa and the second-highest judicial post in the Republic of South Africa, after the Chief Justice.
Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and respected for their own sake, and to be treated ethically.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
Dispute resolution is the process of resolving disputes between parties.
The nine provinces of South Africa are divided into 52 districts (sing. district, kgaolo; setereke; selete; distrikte; isifunda; isiyingi; isithili; isigodzi; tshiṱiriki; xifundza), which are either metropolitan or district municipalities.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Double jeopardy is a procedural defence that prevents an accused person from being tried again on the same (or similar) charges and on the same facts, following a valid acquittal or conviction.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
A duty (from "due" meaning "that which is owing"; deu, did, past participle of devoir; debere, debitum, whence "debt") is a commitment or expectation to perform some action in general or if certain circumstances arise.
The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa.
Economic, social and cultural rights are socio-economic human rights, such as the right to education, right to housing, right to adequate standard of living, right to health and the right to science and culture.
The Eighth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa allowed members of municipal councils to cross the floor from one political party to another without losing their seats.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.
The Electoral Commission of South Africa (often referred to as the Independent Electoral Commission or IEC) is South Africa's election management body, an independent organisation established under chapter nine of the Constitution.
The Eleventh Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa renamed the Northern Province to Limpopo, altered the procedure for intervention by the national government in a failing provincial government and intervention by a provincial government in a failing municipality, and expanded the powers of the provincial executive when it intervenes in a municipality.
Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization controlled or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Eviction is the removal of a tenant from rental property by the landlord.
An ex post facto law (corrupted from) is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences (or status) of actions that were committed, or relationships that existed, before the enactment of the law.
In South Africa, the Executive Council of a province is the cabinet of the provincial government.
The process of expropriation "occurs when a public agency (for example, the provincial government and its agencies, regional districts, municipalities, school boards, post-secondary institutions and utilities) takes private property for a purpose deemed to be in the public interest".
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa (formally the Constitution Fifteenth Amendment Act of 2008) repealed some of the provisions inserted into the Constitution by the Eighth and Tenth Amendments which allowed for floor-crossing, that is, allowed members of legislative bodies to move from one political party to another without losing their seats.
The Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa made two technical changes, one relating to national election procedures and the other to the membership of the Financial and Fiscal Commission.
The First Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa made changes related to the oath of office of the Acting President and to the jurisdiction of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
The flag of South Africa was designed in March 1994 and adopted on 27 April 1994, at the beginning of South Africa's 1994 general election, to replace the flag that had been used since 1928.
Floor crossing was a system introduced to the post-apartheid South African political system in 2002, under which members of Parliament, members of provincial legislatures and local government councillors could change political party (or form a new party) and take their seats with them when they did so.
The Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa (formally the Constitution Fourteenth Amendment Act of 2008) repealed some of the provisions inserted into the Constitution by the Ninth and Tenth Amendments which allowed for floor-crossing, that is, allowed members of legislative bodies to move from one political party to another without losing their seats.
The Fourth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa made two technical changes relating to the calling of provincial elections and the choice of delegates to the National Council of Provinces.
Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas.
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.
Freedom of information is an extension of freedom of speech, a fundamental human right recognized in international law, which is today understood more generally as freedom of expression in any medium, be it orally, in writing, print, through the Internet or through art forms.
Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,Jérémiee Gilbert, Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights (2014), p. 73: "Freedom of movement within a country encompasses both the right to travel freely within the territory of the State and the right to relocate oneself and to choose one's place of residence".
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.
Gauteng, which means "place of gold", is one of the nine provinces of South Africa.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Good faith (bona fides), in human interactions, is a sincere intention to be fair, open, and honest, regardless of the outcome of the interaction.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
The Government Gazette (Staatskoerant) is the gazette of record of South Africa.
The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary republic with three-tier system of government and an independent judiciary, operating in a parliamentary system.
Government procurement or public procurement is the procurement of goods, services or constructions on behalf of a public authority, such as a government agency.
Hate speech is speech that attacks a person or group on the basis of attributes such as race, religion, ethnic origin, national origin, gender, disability, sexual orientation, or gender identity.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
The High Court of South Africa is a superior court of law in South Africa.
The Human Right to Water and Sanitation (HRWS) was recognised as a human right by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly on 28 July 2010.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
In criminal law, incitement is the encouragement of another person to commit a crime.
Indefinite detention is the incarceration of an arrested person by a national government or law enforcement agency without a trial; the practice violates many national and international laws, including human rights laws.
The Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA) is an independent regulatory body of the South African government, established in 2000 by the ICASA Act to regulate both the telecommunications and broadcasting sectors in the public interest.
Indian South Africans are citizens and residents of South Africa of Indian descent.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
The Interim Constitution was the fundamental law of South Africa from the first non-racial general election on 27 April 1994 until it was superseded by the final constitution on 4 February 1997.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
Involuntary servitude or involuntary slavery is a United States legal and constitutional term for a person laboring against that person's will to benefit another, under some form of coercion other than the worker's financial needs.
The Judicial Service Commission is a body specially constituted by the South African Constitution to recommend persons for appointment to the judiciary of South Africa.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
The judiciary of South Africa is the body of judges and magistrates who sit in the courts of South Africa.
A juridical person is a non-human legal entity, in other words any organization that is not a single natural person but is authorized by law with duties and rights and is recognized as a legal person and as having a distinct identity.
Abdul Kader Asmal (8 October 1934 – 22 June 2011) was a South African politician.
KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.
The KwaZulu-Natal Legislature is the primary legislative body of the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal.
Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
There are eleven official languages of South Africa: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, SiSwati, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
South Africa has a 'hybrid' or 'mixed' legal system, formed by the interweaving of a number of distinct legal traditions: a civil law system inherited from the Dutch, a common law system inherited from the British, and a customary law system inherited from indigenous Africans (often termed African Customary Law, of which there are many variations depending on the tribal origin).
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
Legal aid is the provision of assistance to people otherwise unable to afford legal representation and access to the court system.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Limpopo is the northernmost province of South Africa.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
The magistrates' courts are the lowest level of the court system in South Africa.
A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.
Civil status, or marital status, is any of several distinct options that describe a person's relationship with a significant other.
Matatiele is a mid-sized town serving the farming and trading communities of East Griqualand in the foothills of the western Drakensberg, Eastern Cape, South Africa, on the border with KwaZulu-Natal and 20 km from the southern frontier of Lesotho.
Merafong City Local Municipality is a local municipality in West Rand District Municipality, Gauteng, South Africa.
From 1910 to 1961 the Union of South Africa was a self-governing country that shared a monarch with the United Kingdom, and other Dominions of the British Empire.
In the Westminster system (and, colloquially, in the United States), a money bill or supply bill is a bill that solely concerns taxation or government spending (also known as appropriation of money), as opposed to changes in public law.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
A municipal council is the local government of a municipality such as city councils and town councils.
The Municipal Demarcation Board is an independent authority responsible for delimiting the boundaries of South African districts and municipalities and the boundaries of the electoral wards within those municipalities.
Local government in South Africa consists of municipalities (bommasepala; bomasepala; bommasepala; munisipaliteite; ngomasipala; Southern Ndebele: bomasipala; ngoomasipala; bomasipala; vhomasipala; vamasipala) of various types.
A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.
The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province.
The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997.
A national flag is a flag that represents and symbolizes a country.
The National Party (Nasionale Party), also known as the Nationalist Party, was a political party in South Africa founded in 1914 and disbanded in 1997.
The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act No. 108 of 1996), created a single National Prosecution Authority (NPA), which is governed by the National Prosecuting Authority Act (Act No. 32 of 1998).
The National Treasury is one of the departments of the South African government.
The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the de Klerk government.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
The Ninth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa modified the scheme for the allocation of seats in the National Council of Provinces, to account for the possibility of changes in the party makeup of provincial legislatures.
North West is a province of South Africa.
Traditionally an oath (from Anglo-Saxon āð, also called plight) is either a statement of fact or a promise with wording relating to something considered sacred as a sign of verity.
An ombudsman, ombud, or public advocate is an official who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of maladministration or a violation of rights.
The Orange River Colony was the British colony created after Britain first occupied (1900) and then annexed (1902) the independent Orange Free State in the Second Boer War.
A parent is a caregiver of the offspring in their own species.
The Parliament of South Africa is South Africa's legislature and under the country's current Constitution is composed of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel.
A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group.
A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
In South Africa, a Premier is the head of government of one of South Africa's nine provinces.
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa.
The presumption of innocence is the principle that one is considered innocent unless proven guilty.
The Prime Minister of South Africa (Eerste Minister van Suid-Afrika) was the head of government in South Africa between 1910 and 1984.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
A protest (also called a remonstrance, remonstration or demonstration) is an expression of bearing witness on behalf of an express cause by words or actions with regard to particular events, policies or situations.
South Africa is divided into nine provinces.
In South Africa, a provincial legislature is the legislative branch of the government of a province.
A provisional constitution, interim constitution or transitional constitution is a constitution intended to serve during a transitional period until a permanent constitution is adopted.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy.
South Africa's Public Protector is one of six independent state institutions set up by the country's progressive Constitution to support and defend democracy.
A quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure, such as a legislature) necessary to conduct the business of that group.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health that vary amongst countries around the world.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
A trial which is observed by trial judge or by jury without being partial is a fair trial.
The right to an adequate standard of living is recognized as a human right in international human rights instruments and is understood to establish a minimum entitlement to food, clothing and housing at an adequate level.
Right to counsel means a defendant has a right to have the assistance of counsel (i.e., lawyers), and if the defendant cannot afford a lawyer, requires that the government appoint one or pay the defendant's legal expenses.
The right to education has been recognized as a human right in a number of international conventions, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights which recognizes a right to free, compulsory primary education for all, an obligation to develop secondary education accessible to all, in particular by the progressive introduction of free secondary education, as well as an obligation to develop equitable access to higher education, ideally by the progressive introduction of free higher education.
The right to food, and its non variations, is a human right protecting the right for people to feed themselves in dignity, implying that sufficient food is available, that people have the means to access it, and that it adequately meets the individual's dietary needs.
The right to housing is the economic, social and cultural right to adequate housing and shelter.
The right to life is a moral principle based on the belief that a human being has the right to live and, in particular, should not be killed by another human being.
The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
The right to protest is a perceived human right arising out of a number of recognized human rights.
The right to science and culture is one of the economic, social and cultural rights claimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and related documents of international human rights law.
The right to silence is a legal principle which guarantees any individual the right to refuse to answer questions from law enforcement officers or court officials.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
S v Makwanyane and Another (CCT 3/94) was a landmark 1995 judgement of the Constitutional Court of South Africa.
Search and Seizure is a procedure used in many civil law and common law legal systems by which police or other authorities and their agents, who, suspecting that a crime has been committed, commence a search of a person's property and confiscate any relevant evidence found in connection to the crime.
The Second Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa extended the terms of municipal councils and made various changes relating to certain independent commissions.
The secrecy of correspondence (Briefgeheimnis, secret de la correspondance) or literally translated as secrecy of letters, is a fundamental legal principle enshrined in the constitutions of several European countries.
Security of the person is a basic entitlement guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in 1948.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
Self-incrimination is the act of exposing oneself generally, by making a statement "to an accusation or charge of crime; to involve oneself or another in a criminal prosecution or the danger thereof." Self-incrimination can occur either directly or indirectly: directly, by means of interrogation where information of a self-incriminatory nature is disclosed; or indirectly, when information of a self-incriminatory nature is disclosed voluntarily without pressure from another person.
The Senate was the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa between 1910 and its abolition from 1 January 1981, and between 1994 and 1997.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
The Seventeenth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa (formally the Constitution Seventeenth Amendment Act of 2012) made a number of changes to the structure of the South African judiciary.
The Seventh Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa made various changes involving the financial management of national and provincial government.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
The Sixteenth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa (formally the Constitution Sixteenth Amendment Act of 2009) transferred Merafong City Local Municipality from North West to Gauteng, altering the boundary between the two provinces.
The Sixth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa made a number of changes, most importantly giving the title of "Chief Justice" to the head of the Constitutional Court instead of the head of the Supreme Court of Appeal.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The South Africa Act 1909 was an Act of the British Parliament which created the Union of South Africa from the British colonies of the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, Orange River Colony, and Transvaal.
The Constitution of 1983 (formally the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act, 1983) was South Africa's third constitution.
The Constitution of 1961 (formally the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act, 1961) was the fundamental law of South Africa for two decades.
General elections were held in South Africa between 26 and 29 April 1994.
The South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC) was inaugurated in October 1995 as an independent chapter nine institution.
The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) comprises the armed forces of South Africa.
The South African Police Service (SAPS) is the national police force of the Republic of South Africa.
The South African Reserve Bank (SARB) is the central bank of South Africa.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
The State President of the Republic of South Africa (Staatspresident) was the head of state of South Africa from 1961 to 1994.
The State Security Agency is the department of the South African government with overall responsibility for civilian intelligence operations.
Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
The Supreme Court of Appeal or SCA (formerly known as the Appellate Division) is an appellate court in South Africa.
The Tenth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa altered the provisions relating to membership of the National Assembly and the provincial legislatures, to allow members of those bodies to cross the floor (move from one party to another) at certain times without losing their seats.
The Third Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa made changes to allow the creation of municipalities that cross provincial boundaries.
The Thirteenth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa (formally the Constitution Thirteenth Amendment Act of 2007) re-enacted provisions of the Twelfth Amendment which the Constitutional Court ruled had not been validly enacted.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The Transvaal Colony was the name used to refer to the Transvaal region during the period of direct British rule and military occupation between the end of the Anglo-Boer War in 1902 when the South African Republic was dissolved, and the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
The Tricameral Parliament was the name given to the South African parliament and its structure from 1984 to 1994, established by the South African Constitution of 1983.
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like restorative justice body assembled in South Africa after the end of apartheid.
The Twelfth Amendment of the Constitution of South Africa (formally the Constitution Twelfth Amendment Act of 2005) altered the boundaries of seven of South Africa's nine provinces.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
Universal access to education is the ability of all people to have equal opportunity in education, regardless of their social class, gender, ethnicity background or physical and mental disabilities.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.
The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country.
White South Africans are South Africans descended from any of the white racial groups of Europe and the Levant who regard themselves, or are not regarded as, not being part of another racial group (for example, as Coloureds).
In American criminal justice systems a youth detention center, also known as a juvenile detention center (JDC),Stahl, Dean, Karen Kerchelich, and Ralph De Sola.
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