227 relations: Absolute monarchy, Act of Settlement 1701, Advice (constitutional), Agustín de Iturbide, Albanian Kingdom (1928–39), Alexander I of Russia, Allegiance, Anatolian peoples, Andorra, Anglo-Corsican Kingdom, Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Australian Monarchist League, Austria-Hungary, Autocracy, Bedchamber Crisis, Belgium, Benito Mussolini, Bhumibol Adulyadej, Bhutan, Bhutanese democracy, Bill of Rights 1689, Bourbon Restoration, Brazil, Bronze Age, Budget, Cabinet (government), Cambodia, Cambridge University Press, Chancellor of Germany, Charles X of France, Claim of Right Act 1689, Coalition government, Commonwealth realm, Constantine II of Greece, Constitution, Constitution of 3 May 1791, Constitution of Bhutan, Constitution of the German Empire, Constitutional conventions of the United Kingdom, Convention of Estates (1689), Coregency, Dissolution of parliament, Dominion of Ceylon, Double dissolution, Elective monarchy, Electoral college, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, Elizabeth II, Emperor of Japan, Empire of Brazil, ..., Executive (government), Federation, Figurehead, First Mexican Empire, France, French Revolution, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George III of the United Kingdom, German Empire, Glorious Revolution, Gough Whitlam, Government of the United Kingdom, Grand Duchy of Finland, Grand duke, Greece, Greek military junta of 1967–1974, Greek republic referendum, 1974, Gyanendra of Nepal, Head of state, Henry Campbell-Bannerman, History of Corsica, Hittites, House of Zogu, Hugh Childers, Hungary, Iceland, Iran, Iranian Constitutional Revolution, Italy, Japan, John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, July Monarchy, Kaiser, Kamehameha III, Karađorđević dynasty, King of Italy, Kingdom of Afghanistan, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Hawaii, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Laos, Kingdom of Romania, Kingdom of Scotland, Kingdom of Serbia, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Korean Empire, Lapsed power, Lèse majesté in Thailand, Liechtenstein, Louis Philippe I, Louis XVIII of France, Luxembourg, Magna Carta, Malaysia, Malcolm Fraser, Malta, Manuel II of Portugal, Maximilian I of Mexico, Member of parliament, Mexico, Michael I of Romania, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mohammed Zahir Shah, Monaco, Monarchism, Monarchy, Monarchy of Antigua and Barbuda, Monarchy of Australia, Monarchy of Barbados, Monarchy of Belgium, Monarchy of Belize, Monarchy of Canada, Monarchy of Denmark, Monarchy of Fiji, Monarchy of Grenada, Monarchy of Iceland, Monarchy of Jamaica, Monarchy of Liechtenstein, Monarchy of Luxembourg, Monarchy of Monaco, Monarchy of New Zealand, Monarchy of Norway, Monarchy of Papua New Guinea, Monarchy of Saint Lucia, Monarchy of Spain, Monarchy of Sweden, Monarchy of Thailand, Monarchy of the Bahamas, Monarchy of the Netherlands, Monarchy of the Solomon Islands, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Monarchy of Tuvalu, Montenegro, Montesquieu, Morocco, Napoleon, Napoleon III, Nepal, Norman Davies, Oath of Allegiance (United Kingdom), Otto von Bismarck, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Parliament, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliamentary Affairs, Partisan (political), Pathet Lao, Patriotism, Pedro I of Brazil, Pedro II of Brazil, Peter II of Yugoslavia, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Political science, Politics of Bhutan, Popular monarchy, Portugal, President of France, Prime minister, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prince, Protestantism, Public policy, Queen of Ghana, Queen of Guyana, Queen of the Gambia, Queen of Trinidad and Tobago, Queen Victoria, Representative democracy, Republic, Republicanism in Australia, Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, Reserve power, Responsible government, Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell, Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, Royal assent, Royal prerogative, Scottish Militia Bill, Second French Empire, Second Mexican Empire, Serbia, Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Sisavang Vatthana, Sovereign immunity, Sovereignty, Sri Lanka, States and federal territories of Malaysia, Sweden, The English Constitution, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Ukkin, Uncodified constitution, Unification of Germany, Union of Lublin, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, United States Constitution, Vernon Bogdanor, Walter Bagehot, Western Europe, Westminster system, William Ewart Gladstone, William IV of the United Kingdom, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, William Pitt the Younger, World War I, World War II, Yale University Press, Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Zog I of Albania, 1840 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii, 1975 Australian constitutional crisis. Expand index (177 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns on Protestants only.
Advice, in constitutional law, is formal, usually binding, instruction given by one constitutional officer of state to another.
Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (27 September 178319 July 1824), also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician.
The Kingdom of Albania (Gheg Albanian: Mbretnija Shqiptare, Standard Albanian: Mbretëria Shqiptare) was the official name of Albania between 1928 and 1939.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
An allegiance is a duty of fidelity said to be owed, or freely committed, by the people, subjects or citizens to their state or sovereign.
Anatolians were Indo-European peoples of Anatolia identified by their use of the Anatolian languages.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
The Anglo-Corsican Kingdom was a client state of the Kingdom of Great Britain that existed on the island of Corsica between 1794 and 1796, during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.
The Australian Monarchist League is a non-profit organisation, headquartered in Sydney, Australia, promoting the monarchy of Australia, and providing information to members of the public about Australian history and the Australian Constitution.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
The Bedchamber Crisis occurred on 7 May 1839 after Whig politician Lord Melbourne declared his intention to resign as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after a government bill was passed by a very narrow margin of only five votes in the House of Commons.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bhumibol Adulyadej (ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช;;; see full title below; 5 December 1927 – 13 October 2016), conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
The development of Bhutanese democracy has been marked by the active encouragement and participation of reigning Bhutanese monarchs since the 1950s, beginning with legal reforms such as the abolition of slavery, and culminating in the enactment of Bhutan's Constitution.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
A budget is a financial plan for a defined period of time, usually a year.It may also include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
Charles X (Charles Philippe; 9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836) was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830.
The Claim of Right is an Act passed by the Parliament of Scotland in April 1689.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.
Constantine II (Κωνσταντίνος Βʹ, Konstantínos II,; born 2 June 1940) reigned as the King of Greece, from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1973.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Constitution of 3 May 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja, Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija) was adopted by the Great Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The Constitution of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་གི་རྩ་ཁྲིམས་ཆེན་མོ་; Wylie: 'Druk-gi cha-thrims-chen-mo) was enacted 18 July 2008 by the Royal Government of Bhutan.
The Constitution of the German Empire (Verfassung des Deutschen Reiches) was the basic law of the German Empire of 1871-1918, from 16 April 1871, coming into effect on 4 May 1871.
While the United Kingdom does not have a codified constitution that is a single document, the collection of legal instruments that have developed into a body of law known as constitutional law has existed for hundreds of years.
The Convention of Estates of 1689 was a Convention of Estates of Scotland that sat between 16 March 1689 and 5 June 1689 to determine the settlement of the Scottish throne following the invasion of England by William, Prince of Orange.
A coregency or co-principality is the situation where a monarchical position (such as king, queen, emperor or empress), normally held by only a single person, is held by two or more.
In parliamentary and some semi-presidential systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election.
Between 1948 and 1972, CeylonThe Sri Lanka Independence Act 1947 uses the name "Ceylon" for the new dominion; nowhere does that Act use the term "Dominion of Ceylon", which although sometimes used was not the official name.
A double dissolution is a procedure permitted under the Australian Constitution to resolve deadlocks in the bicameral Parliament of Australia between the House of Representatives (lower house) and the Senate (upper house).
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.
An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate to a particular office.
Elements of the Philosophy of Right (Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts) is a work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel published in 1820, though the book's original title page dates it to 1821.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and (until 1828) Uruguay.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power.
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) was a short-lived monarchy and the first independent post-colonial state in Mexico.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Edward Gough Whitlam (11 July 191621 October 2014) was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
The monarchic title of grand duke (feminine: grand duchess) ranked in order of precedence below emperor and king, and above that of sovereign prince and sovereign duke.
The Greek military junta of 1967–1974, commonly known as the Regime of the Colonels (καθεστώς των Συνταγματαρχών), or in Greece simply The Junta (or; Χούντα), The Dictatorship (Η Δικτατορία) and The Seven Years (Η Επταετία), was a series of far-right military juntas that ruled Greece following the 1967 Greek coup d'état led by a group of colonels on 21 April 1967.
A referendum on retaining the republic was held in Greece on 8 December 1974.
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev (ज्ञानेन्द्र शाह; Jñānendra Śāh; born 7 July 1947) reigned as the last King of Nepal from 2001 to 2008.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 183622 April 1908) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1905 to 1908 and Leader of the Liberal Party from 1899 to 1908.
That the history of Corsica has been influenced by its strategic position at the heart of the western Mediterranean and its maritime routes, only from Sardinia, from the Isle of Elba, from the coast of Tuscany and from the French port of Nice, was first proposed by the 19th-century German theorist, Friedrich Ratzel.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
The House of Zogu is an Albanian dynasty founded in the early 20th century.
Hugh Culling Eardley Childers (25 June 1827 – 29 January 1896) was a British Liberal statesman of the nineteenth century.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Persian Constitutional Revolution (مشروطیت Mashrūtiyyat, or انقلاب مشروطه Enghelāb-e Mashrūteh), also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, took place between 1905 and 1911.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known by his courtesy title Lord John Russell before 1861, was a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on two occasions during the early Victorian era.
The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.
Kaiser is the German word for "emperor".
Kamehameha III (born Kauikeaouli) (March 17, 1814 – December 15, 1854) was the third king of the Kingdom of Hawaii from 1825 to 1854.
The Karađorđević (Карађорђевић, Karađorđevići / Карађорђевићи) is a Serbian dynastic family, founded by Karađorđe Petrović, the Veliki Vožd ("Grand Leader") of Serbia in the early 1800s during the First Serbian Uprising.
King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Afghanistan (د افغانستان واکمنان, Dǝ Afġānistān wākmanān; Persian:, Pādešāhī-ye Afġānistān) was a constitutional monarchy in southern and central Asia established in 1926 as a successor state to the Emirate of Afghanistan.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi originated in 1795 with the unification of the independent islands of Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Maui, Molokaʻi, and Lānaʻi under one government.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Laos was a constitutional monarchy that ruled Laos beginning with its independence on 9 November 1953.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
The Great Korean Empire was proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty, under pressure after the Donghak Peasant Revolution of 1894 to 1895 and the Gabo Reforms that swept the country from 1894 to 1896.
In politics and government, lapsed power is a term often used to describe a certain constitutionally-granted power of government that is no longer used, according to constitutional convention.
In Thailand, lèse majesté is criminalized by Section 112 of the Thai Criminal Code.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
John Malcolm Fraser (21 May 1930 – 20 March 2015) was an Australian politician who served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1975 to 1983 as leader of the Liberal Party.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Dom Manuel II (15 November 1889 – 2 July 1932), "the Patriot" ("o Patriota") or "the Unfortunate" ("o Desventurado"), was the last King of Portugal, ascending the throne after the assassination of his father, King Carlos I, and his elder brother, Luís Filipe, the Prince Royal.
Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michael I (Mihai I; 25 October 1921 – 5 December 2017) was the last King of Romania, reigning from 20 July 1927 to 8 June 1930 and again from 6 September 1940 until his abdication on 30 December 1947.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Mohammed Zahir Shah (محمد ظاهرشاه, محمد ظاهر شاه; 16 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Antigua and Barbuda is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch since 1 November 1981.
The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nation's sovereign.
The Monarchy of Barbados is the core of the country's Westminster style parliamentary democracy, being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the government.
The monarchy of Belgium is a constitutional, hereditary, and popular monarchy whose incumbent is titled the King or Queen of the Belgians (Koning(in) der Belgen, Roi / Reine des Belges, König(in) der Belgier) and serves as the country's head of state.
The monarch of Belize is the head of state of Belize.
The monarchy of Canada is at the core of both Canada's federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy.
The Monarchy of Denmark, colloquially known as the Danish Monarchy, is a constitutional institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark.
The monarchy of Fiji arose in the mid-nineteenth century when native ruler Seru Epenisa Cakobau consolidated control of the Fijian Islands and declared himself King or paramount chief of Fiji (Tui Viti).
The monarch of Grenada is the head of state of Grenada.
The Monarchy of Iceland (Icelandic: Konungsríkið Ísland; Danish: Kongeriget Island), was the system of government in which an hereditary monarch was the sovereign of the Kingdom of Iceland from 1918 to 1944.
The monarchy of Jamaica is a constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of Jamaica.
The Prince Regnant of Liechtenstein (German: Fürst von Liechtenstein) is the monarch and head of state of Liechtenstein.
The Grand Duke of Luxembourg is the monarchical head of state of Luxembourg.
The Sovereign Prince or Princess of Monaco is the reigning monarch and head of state of the Principality of Monaco.
The monarchy of New Zealand is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of New Zealand.
The Norwegian monarch is the monarchical head of state of Norway, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system.
The monarchy of Papua New Guinea is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Papua New Guinea.
The monarchy of Saint Lucia is a system of government in which a hereditary, constitutional monarch is the sovereign of Saint Lucia.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5.
The monarchy of Thailand (whose monarch is referred to as the King of Thailand or historically as the King of Siam; พระมหากษัตริย์ไทย) refers to the constitutional monarchy and monarch of the Kingdom of Thailand (formerly Siam). The King of Thailand is the head of state and head of the ruling Royal House of Chakri. Although the current Chakri Dynasty was created in 1782, the existence of the institution of monarchy in Thailand is traditionally considered to have its roots from the founding of the Sukhothai Kingdom in 1238, with a brief interregnum from the death of Ekkathat to the accession of Taksin in the 18th century. The institution was transformed into a constitutional monarchy in 1932 after the bloodless Siamese Revolution of 1932. The monarchy's official ceremonial residence is the Grand Palace in Bangkok, while the private residence has been at the Dusit Palace. The King of Thailand's titles include Head of State, Head of the Royal Thai Armed Forces, Adherent of Buddhism and Upholder of religions.
The monarchy of the Bahamas is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas.
The monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the Constitution of the Netherlands.
The monarchy of the Solomon Islands is a system of government in which a constitutional monarch is the head of state of Solomon Islands.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
The monarchy of Tuvalu is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Tuvalu.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
The Oath of Allegiance (Judicial or Official Oath) is a promise to be loyal to the British monarch, and his or her heirs and successors, sworn by certain public servants in the United Kingdom, and also by newly naturalised subjects in citizenship ceremonies.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Parliamentary Affairs is a British peer-reviewed quarterly academic journal.
In politics, a partisan is a committed member of a political party or political coalitions.
The Pathet Lao (Lao: ປະເທດລາວ, "Lao Nation") was a communist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid-20th century.
Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.
Dom Pedro I (English: Peter I; 12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834), nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil.
Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II; 2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years.
Peter II (Petar/Петар; 6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970) was the last King of Yugoslavia, and the last reigning member of the Karađorđević dynasty which came to prominence in the early 19th century.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
The Government of Bhutan has been a constitutional monarchy since 18 July 2008.
Popular monarchy is a term used by Kingsley Martin (1936) for royal titles referring to a people rather than a territory.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
A prince is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family ranked below a king and above a duke.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
From 1957 to 1960, Ghana was an independent constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II as its queen.
Elizabeth II was Queen of Guyana from 1966 to 1970, when Guyana was independent sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy.
Elizabeth II was Queen of The Gambia from 1965 to 1970, when The Gambia was a constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth of Nations.
Elizabeth II was Queen of Trinidad and Tobago from 1962 to 1976.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Republicanism in Australia is a movement to change Australia's system of government from a constitutional monarchy to a republic.
The republics in the Commonwealth of Nations are the sovereign states in the Commonwealth of Nations with a republican form of government.
In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government.
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.
The Diocese of Urgell is a Roman Catholic diocese in Spain and Andorra in the historical County of Urgell, Catholic-Hierarchy.org.
The Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, passed by Parliament in 1829, was the culmination of the process of Catholic Emancipation throughout the UK.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.
The Scottish Militia Bill (known formerly as the Scotch Militia Bill) is the usual name given to a bill that was passed by the House of Commons and House of Lords of the Parliament of Great Britain in early 1708.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) or Second Mexican Empire (Segundo Imperio Mexicano) was the name of Mexico under a limited hereditary monarchy declared by the Assembly of Notables on July 10, 1863, during the Second French intervention in Mexico.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Simeon II of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Симеон Борисов Сакскобургготски, (transliteration: Simeon Borisov Sakskoburggotski) or Цар Симеон II (Tsar Simeon II); Wettin; Simeone di Sassonia-Coburgo-Gotha; born 16 June 1937) is the last reigning Bulgarian monarch and later served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 to 2005.
Sisavang Vatthana (ພຣະບາທສົມເດັຈພຣະເຈົ້າມະຫາຊີວິຕສີສວ່າງວັດທະນາ) or sometimes Savang Vatthana (full title: Samdach Brhat Chao Mavattaha Sri Vitha Lan Xang Hom Khao Phra Rajanachakra Lao Parama Sidha Khattiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri Savangsa Vadhana; 13 November 1907 – 13 May 1978 or 1984) was the last king of the Kingdom of Laos and the 6th Prime Minister of Laos serving from 15 October to 21 November 1951.
Sovereign immunity, or crown immunity, is a legal doctrine by which the sovereign or state cannot commit a legal wrong and is immune from civil suit or criminal prosecution.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The states and federal territories of Malaysia are the principal administrative divisions of Malaysia.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The English Constitution is a book by Walter Bagehot.
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, FRS FRSE PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig politician.
Ukkin (UKKIN) is the Sumerian word or symbol for assembly, temple council or Divine council, written ideographically with the cuneiform sign 𒌺 (Borger 2003 nr. 73, encoded by Unicode at codepoint U+1233A).
An uncodified constitution is a type of constitution where the fundamental rules often take the form of customs, usage, precedent and a variety of statutes and legal instruments.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was a pluricontinental monarchy formed by the elevation of the Portuguese colony named State of Brazil to the status of a kingdom and by the simultaneous union of that Kingdom of Brazil with the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of the Algarves, constituting a single state consisting of three kingdoms.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
Vernon Bernard Bogdanor (born 16 July 1943) is Research Professor at the Institute for Contemporary British History at King's College London and Professor of Politics at the New College of the Humanities.
Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877) was a British journalist, businessman, and essayist, who wrote extensively about government, economics, and literature.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, (15 March 1779 – 24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830–1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835–1841).
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (literally "He Who Was Made Lord", Jawi: يڠ دڤرتوان اݢوڠ), also known as the King, is the monarch and head of state of Malaysia.
Zog I, King of the Albanians (Nalt Madhnija e Tij Zogu I, Mbreti i Shqiptareve,; 8 October 18959 April 1961), born Ahmet Muhtar Zogolli, taking the surname Zogu in 1922, was the leader of Albania from 1922 to 1939.
The 1840 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii titled "Ke Kumukānāwai a me nā Kānāwai o ko Hawai’i Pae ‘Āina, Honolulu, 1840" was the first fully written constitution for the Kingdom of Hawaiokinai.
The 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, also known simply as the Dismissal, has been described as the greatest political and constitutional crisis in Australian history.
Ceremonial monarchies, Constitutional Monarch, Constitutional Monarchy, Constitutional democratic monarchy, Constitutional monarch, Constitutional monarchies, Constitutional monarchism, Constitutional monarchists, Constitutional monarchs, Constitutional royalists, Democratic Monarchy, Limited monarchy, Monarchic republic, Parliamentary Monarchy, Parliamentary monarchies, Parliamentary monarchy, Representative monarchy, Semi Constitutional Monarchy, Semi-constitutional monarchy.