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Contour line

Index Contour line

A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value. [1]

158 relations: Absorbed dose, Active contour model, Aeronautical chart, Air pollutant concentrations, Air pollution, Altitude, Arithmetic, Atmospheric pressure, Aurora, Automatic label placement, Bathymetric chart, Bathymetry, Boundary tracing, Cartogram, Cartographic labeling, Cartography, Census tract, Charles Hutton, Choropleth map, Cloud, Coincidence, Color, Compass rose, Contour line, Contour plowing, Coverage (telecommunication), Curve, Dew point, Doppler effect, Dutch people, Dymaxion map, Earth's magnetic field, Economic geology, Economics, Edmond Halley, Electric potential, Elevation, Ellipse, Elliptical distribution, English Channel, Environmental noise, Equipotential, Erosion, Estate map, Factors of production, Fall line (topography), Fantasy map, Fathom, Fault (geology), Floor plan, ..., Flower, François-Nicolas-Benoît Haxo, France, Francis Galton, Freezing level, Function (mathematics), Geologic map, Geology, Geopotential, Geostrophic wind, Gradient, Graph of a function, Great Britain, Groundwater, Haarlem, Hail, Health effects from noise, Humidity, Ice, Illuminance, Indifference curve, Interpolation, Ireland, Isochrone map, Isocline, Isocost, Isogram, Isopach map, Isopotential map, Isopycnal, Isoquant, Joint probability distribution, Level set, Line (geometry), Magnetic declination, Magnetic dip, Map, Marching squares, Merwede, Meteorology, Metric (mathematics), Multiview projection, Nautical chart, Nicolaas Kruik, Noise barrier, Noise pollution, Oceanography, OCLC, Ordinary differential equation, Ordnance Survey, Paint sheen, Phase diagram, Philippe Buache, Pictometry International, Pictorial map, Pigment, Plat, Point (geometry), Political science, Polygonal chain, Population density, Population dynamics, Pressure, Probability density function, Radar, Received signal strength indication, Riparian zone, Road map, Russia, Sark, Schiehallion experiment, Sea level, Sedimentology, Semiconductor curve tracer, Slope, Snow, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Solar irradiance, Sound exposure, South-up map orientation, Spaarne, Stratigraphy, Stratum, Stream, Stream gradient, Structural geology, Surface (mathematics), Surface runoff, Temperature, TERCOM, Terrain, Terrain cartography, Thematic map, Thermal pollution, Thermodynamic diagrams, Thermodynamics, Thrust fault, Topographic map, Topography, Unconformity, Volume, Weather map, Weather satellite, Weather station, Wind, World map, World Meteorological Organization. Expand index (108 more) »

Absorbed dose

Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation.

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Active contour model

Active contour model, also called snakes, is a framework in computer vision for delineating an object outline from a possibly noisy 2D image.

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Aeronautical chart

An aeronautical chart is a map designed to assist in navigation of aircraft, much as nautical charts do for watercraft, or a roadmap for drivers.

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Air pollutant concentrations

Air pollutant concentrations, as measured or as calculated by air pollution dispersion modeling, must often be converted or corrected to be expressed as required by the regulations issued by various governmental agencies.

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Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).

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Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

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Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).

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Automatic label placement

Automatic label placement, sometimes called text placement or name placement, comprises the computer methods of placing labels automatically on a map or chart.

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Bathymetric chart

A bathymetric chart is the submerged equivalent of an above-water topographic map.

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Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors.

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Boundary tracing

Boundary tracing (also known as contour tracing) of a binary digital region can be thought of as a segmentation technique that identifies the boundary pixels of the digital region.

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A cartogram is a map in which some thematic mapping variable – such as travel time, population, or GNP – is substituted for land area or distance.

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Cartographic labeling

Cartographic labeling is a form of typography and strongly deals with form, style, weight and size of type on a map.

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Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Census tract

A census tract, census area, census district or meshblock is a geographic region defined for the purpose of taking a census.

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Charles Hutton

Charles Hutton FRS FRSE LLD (14 August 1737 – 27 January 1823) was a British mathematician and surveyor.

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Choropleth map

A choropleth map (from Greek χῶρος ("area/region") + πλῆθος ("multitude")) is a thematic map in which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the statistical variable being displayed on the map, such as population density or per-capita income.

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In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.

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A coincidence is a remarkable concurrence of events or circumstances that have no apparent causal connection with one another.

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Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.

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Compass rose

A compass rose, sometimes called a windrose or Rose of the Winds, is a figure on a compass, map, nautical chart, or monument used to display the orientation of the cardinal directions (north, east, south, and west) and their intermediate points.

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Contour line

A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value.

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Contour plowing

Contour plowing or contour farming or Contour ploughing is the farming practice of plowing and or planting across a slope following its elevation contour lines.

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Coverage (telecommunication)

In telecommunications, the coverage of a radio station is the geographic area where the station can communicate.

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In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but that need not be straight.

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Dew point

The dew point is the temperature to which air must be cooled to become saturated with water vapor.

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Doppler effect

The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.

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Dutch people

The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.

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Dymaxion map

The Dymaxion map or Fuller map is a projection of a world map onto the surface of an icosahedron, which can be unfolded and flattened to two dimensions.

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Earth's magnetic field

Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.

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Economic geology

Economic geology is concerned with earth materials that can be used for economic and/or industrial purposes.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Edmond Halley

Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.

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Electric potential

An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.

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The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum).

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In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.

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Elliptical distribution

In probability and statistics, an elliptical distribution is any member of a broad family of probability distributions that generalize the multivariate normal distribution.

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English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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Environmental noise

Environmental noise is the summary of noise pollution from outside, caused by transport, industrial and recreational activities.

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Equipotential or isopotential in mathematics and physics refers to a region in space where every point in it is at the same potential.

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In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).

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Estate map

Estate maps were maps commissioned by individual landowners or institutions, to show their extensive landed property, typically including fields, parkland and buildings.

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Factors of production

In economics, factors of production, resources, or inputs are which is used in the production process to produce output—that is, finished goods and services.

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Fall line (topography)

In mountain biking and skiing, a fall line refers to the line down a mountain or hill which is most directly downhill.

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Fantasy map

A fantasy map is type of map design that is a visual representation of an imaginary or fictional geography.

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A fathom is a unit of length in the imperial and the U.S. customary systems equal to, used especially for measuring the depth of water.

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Fault (geology)

In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.

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Floor plan

In architecture and building engineering, a floor plan is a drawing to scale, showing a view from above, of the relationships between rooms, spaces, traffic patterns, and other physical features at one level of a structure.

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A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).

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François-Nicolas-Benoît Haxo

François Nicolas Benoît, Baron Haxo (24 June 1774 – 25 June 1838) was a French Army general and military engineer during the French Revolution and First Empire.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francis Galton

Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.

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Freezing level

The freezing level, or 0 °C (zero-degree) isotherm, represents the altitude in which the temperature is at 0 °C (the freezing point of water) in a free atmosphere (i.e. allowing reflection of the sun by snow, etc.). Any given measure is valid for only a short period of time, often less than a day.

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Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.

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Geologic map

A geologic map or geological map is a special-purpose map made to show geological features.

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Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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Geopotential is the potential of the Earth's gravity field.

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Geostrophic wind

The geostrophic wind is the theoretical wind that would result from an exact balance between the Coriolis force and the pressure gradient force.

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In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.

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Graph of a function

In mathematics, the graph of a function f is, formally, the set of all ordered pairs, and, in practice, the graphical representation of this set.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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Haarlem (predecessor of Harlem in the English language) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands.

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Hail is a form of solid precipitation.

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Health effects from noise

Noise health effects are the physical and psychological health consequences of regular exposure, to consistent elevated sound levels.

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Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.

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Ice is water frozen into a solid state.

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In photometry, illuminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area.

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Indifference curve

In economics, an indifference curve connects points on a graph representing different quantities of two goods, points between which a consumer is indifferent.

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In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Isochrone map

An isochrone map (or chart/plan/diagram) in science and urban planning is a map showing areas related to isochrones between different points.

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Fig. 1: Isoclines (blue), slope field (black), and some solution curves (red) of y'.

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In economics an isocost line shows all combinations of inputs which cost the same total amount.

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An isogram (also known as a "nonpattern word") is a logological term for a word or phrase without a repeating letter.

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Isopach map

An isopach map illustrates thickness variations within a tabular unit, layer or stratum.

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Isopotential map

Isopotential maps are a measure of electrostatic potential in space.

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An isopycnal is a line connecting points of a specific density or potential density.

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An isoquant (derived from quantity and the Greek word iso, meaning equal) is a contour line drawn through the set of points at which the same quantity of output is produced while changing the quantities of two or more inputs. While an indifference curve mapping helps to solve the utility-maximizing problem of consumers, the isoquant mapping deals with the cost-minimization problem of producers. Isoquants are typically drawn along with isocost curves in capital-labor graphs, showing the technological tradeoff between capital and labor in the production function, and the decreasing marginal returns of both inputs. Adding one input while holding the other constant eventually leads to decreasing marginal output, and this is reflected in the shape of the isoquant. A family of isoquants can be represented by an isoquant map, a graph combining a number of isoquants, each representing a different quantity of output. Isoquants are also called equal product curves. An isoquant shows that extent to which the firm in question has the ability to substitute between the two different inputs at will in order to produce the same level of output. An isoquant map can also indicate decreasing or increasing returns to scale based on increasing or decreasing distances between the isoquant pairs of fixed output increment, as output increases. If the distance between those isoquants increases as output increases, the firm's production function is exhibiting decreasing returns to scale; doubling both inputs will result in placement on an isoquant with less than double the output of the previous isoquant. Conversely, if the distance is decreasing as output increases, the firm is experiencing increasing returns to scale; doubling both inputs results in placement on an isoquant with more than twice the output of the original isoquant. As with indifference curves, two isoquants can never cross. Also, every possible combination of inputs is on an isoquant. Finally, any combination of inputs above or to the right of an isoquant results in more output than any point on the isoquant. Although the marginal product of an input decreases as you increase the quantity of the input while holding all other inputs constant, the marginal product is never negative in the empirically observed range since a rational firm would never increase an input to decrease output. An isoquants shows all those combinations of factors which produce same level of output. An isoquants is also known as equal product curve or iso-product curve.

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Joint probability distribution

Given random variables X, Y,..., that are defined on a probability space, the joint probability distribution for X, Y,...

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Level set

In mathematics, a level set of a real-valued function ''f'' of ''n'' real variables is a set of the form that is, a set where the function takes on a given constant value c. When the number of variables is two, a level set is generically a curve, called a level curve, contour line, or isoline.

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Line (geometry)

The notion of line or straight line was introduced by ancient mathematicians to represent straight objects (i.e., having no curvature) with negligible width and depth.

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Magnetic declination

Magnetic declination or variation is the angle on the horizontal plane between magnetic north (the direction the north end of a compass needle points, corresponding to the direction of the Earth's magnetic field lines) and true north (the direction along a meridian towards the geographic North Pole).

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Magnetic dip

Magnetic dip, dip angle, or magnetic inclination is the angle made with the horizontal by the Earth's magnetic field lines.

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A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.

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Marching squares

Marching squares is a computer graphics algorithm that generates contours for a two-dimensional scalar field (rectangular array of individual numerical values).

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The Merwede (etymology uncertain, possibly derived from the ancient Dutch Merwe or Merowe, a word meaning "wide water") is the name of several connected stretches of river in The Netherlands, between the cities of Woudrichem, Dordrecht and Papendrecht.

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Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Metric (mathematics)

In mathematics, a metric or distance function is a function that defines a distance between each pair of elements of a set.

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Multiview projection

In technical drawing and computer graphics, a multiview projection is a technique of illustration by which a standardized series of orthographic two-dimensional pictures is constructed to represent the form of a three-dimensional object.

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Nautical chart

A nautical chart is a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions.

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Nicolaas Kruik

Nicolaas Samuelszoon Kruik (Nicolaus Samuelis Cruquius; 2 December 1678, Vlieland – 5 February 1754, Spaarndam), also known as Klaas Kruik and Nicolaes Krukius, was a Dutch land surveyor, cartographer, astronomer and weatherman.

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Noise barrier

A noise barrier (also called a soundwall, noise wall, sound berm, sound barrier, or acoustical barrier) is an exterior structure designed to protect inhabitants of sensitive land use areas from noise pollution.

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Noise pollution

Sound pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life.

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Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.

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OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated, is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs".

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Ordinary differential equation

In mathematics, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation containing one or more functions of one independent variable and its derivatives.

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Ordnance Survey

Ordnance Survey (OS) is a national mapping agency in the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain.

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Paint sheen

In paint technology, the sheen is the glossiness of a paint finish.

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Phase diagram

A phase diagram in physical chemistry, engineering, mineralogy, and materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions (pressure, temperature, volume, etc.) at which thermodynamically distinct phases occur and coexist at equilibrium.

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Philippe Buache

Philippe Buache (born La Neuville-au-Pont, 7 February 1700; died Paris, 24 January 1773) was a French geographer.

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Pictometry International

Pictometry International is an aerial measurement company based in Henrietta, New York that develops software that uses three-dimensional aerial photographs to view high-resolution images of buildings in their entirety.

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Pictorial map

Pictorial maps (also known as illustrated maps, panoramic maps, perspective maps, bird’s-eye view maps, and geopictorial maps) depict a given territory with a more artistic rather than technical style.

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A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.

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In the United States, a plat (plan or cadastral map) is a map, drawn to scale, showing the divisions of a piece of land.

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Point (geometry)

In modern mathematics, a point refers usually to an element of some set called a space.

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Political science

Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

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Polygonal chain

In geometry, a polygonal chain is a connected series of line segments.

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Population density

Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.

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Population dynamics

Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies the size and age composition of populations as dynamical systems, and the biological and environmental processes driving them (such as birth and death rates, and by immigration and emigration).

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Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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Probability density function

In probability theory, a probability density function (PDF), or density of a continuous random variable, is a function, whose value at any given sample (or point) in the sample space (the set of possible values taken by the random variable) can be interpreted as providing a relative likelihood that the value of the random variable would equal that sample.

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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Received signal strength indication

In telecommunications, received signal strength indicator (RSSI) is a measurement of the power present in a received radio signal.

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Riparian zone

A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream.

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Road map

A road map or route map is a map that primarily displays roads and transport links rather than natural geographical information.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Sark (Sercq; Sercquiais: Sèr or Cerq) is an island in the Channel Islands in the southwestern English Channel, off the coast of Normandy, France.

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Schiehallion experiment

The Schiehallion experiment was an 18th-century experiment to determine the mean density of the Earth.

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Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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Sedimentology encompasses the study of modern sediments such as sand, silt, and clay, and the processes that result in their formation (erosion and weathering), transport, deposition and diagenesis.

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Semiconductor curve tracer

A semiconductor curve tracer is a specialised piece of electronic test equipment used to analyze the characteristics of discrete semiconductor devices such as diodes, transistors, and thyristors.

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In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line.

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Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.

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Soil contamination

Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.

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Soil erosion

Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil degradation.

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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Sound exposure

Sound exposure is the integral, over time, of squared sound pressure.

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South-up map orientation

South-up map orientation is the orientation of a map with south up, or at the top of the map, amounting to a 180-degree rotation of the map from the standard convention of north-up.

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The Spaarne is a river, in North Holland, Netherlands.

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Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).

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In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.

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A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel.

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Stream gradient

Stream gradient is the grade measured by the ratio of drop in elevation of a stream per unit horizontal distance, usually expressed as metres per kilometre or feet per mile.

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Structural geology

Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of rock units with respect to their deformational histories.

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Surface (mathematics)

In mathematics, a surface is a generalization of a plane which needs not be flat, that is, the curvature is not necessarily zero.

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Surface runoff

Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Terrain Contour Matching, or TERCOM, is a navigation system used primarily by cruise missiles.

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Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.

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Terrain cartography

Terrain or relief is an essential aspect of physical geography, and as such its portrayal presents a central problem in cartography, and more recently GIS and geovisualization.

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Thematic map

A thematic map is a type of map specifically designed to show a particular theme connected with a specific geographic area.

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Thermal pollution

Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature.

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Thermodynamic diagrams

Thermodynamic diagrams are diagrams used to represent the thermodynamic states of a material (typically fluid) and the consequences of manipulating this material.

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Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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Thrust fault

A thrust fault is a break in the Earth's crust, across which older rocks are pushed above younger rocks.

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Topographic map

In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods.

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Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.

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An unconformity is a buried erosional or non-depositional surface separating two rock masses or strata of different ages, indicating that sediment deposition was not continuous.

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Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.

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Weather map

A weather map displays various meteorological features across a particular area at a particular point in time and has various symbols which all have specific meanings.

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Weather satellite

The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.

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Weather station

A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate.

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Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.

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World map

A world map is a map of most or all of the surface of the Earth.

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World Meteorological Organization

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contour_line

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