130 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Active site, Alcohol, Amaranthaceae, Amino acid, Ancestral reconstruction, Animal echolocation, Animal locomotion, Apple, Arabidopsis thaliana, Astrophytum, Atavism, Bat, Bee, Bird, Blind spot (vision), Brownian motion, C4 carbon fixation, Canidae, Carnivore, Carnivorous plant, Carpometacarpus, Catalytic triad, Cephalopod eye, Cephalotus, Cetacea, Chitinase, Cis-regulatory element, Clade, Cladistics, Cnidaria, Corvidae, Dicotyledon, Directional selection, Divergent evolution, DNA, Dolphin, Drag (physics), Eared seal, Earless seal, Ecological niche, Enzyme, Enzyme catalysis, Euphorbia, Evolution, Evolution of the eye, Exaptation, Eye color, Feather, Fish, ..., Flea, Flower chafer, Flowering plant, Flying frog, Flying squirrel, Fruit, Fruit anatomy, Genetic drift, Giant panda, Glucanase, Glycoside hydrolase family 19, Gray wolf, Gynoecium, Herring, Homology (biology), Human, Human skin color, Hypanthium, Ichthyosaur, Incomplete lineage sorting, Insect, Insect wing, Lemur, Maize, Marine mammal, Marsupial, Mesozoic, Monocotyledon, Mosquito, Myrmecochory, Natural selection, Negative selection (natural selection), Nepenthes alata, Non-coding DNA, Nucleophile, Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process, Parallel evolution, Pathogenesis-related protein, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Placentalia, Plant, Pome, Primate, Probability, Proboscis, Protease, Protein, Protein superfamily, Pterosaur, Purple acid phosphatases, Recent African origin of modern humans, Receptacle (botany), Recurrent evolution, Red fox, Richard Dawkins, Richard Owen, RNASET2, Sarracenia purpurea, Seed dispersal, Simon Conway Morris, Stephen Jay Gould, Steric effects, Structural gene, Succulent plant, Sugar glider, Sugarcane, Taxon, Tetrapod, Thaumatin, The Blind Watchmaker, Threonine protease, Thumb, Thylacine, Tomato, Translation (biology), Tree frog, Vertebrate, Wing, Wonderful Life (book). Expand index (80 more) » « Shrink index
The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Amaranthaceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the amaranth family, in reference to its type genus Amaranthus.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ancestral reconstruction (also known as Character Mapping or Character Optimization) is the extrapolation back in time from measured characteristics of individuals (or populations) to their common ancestors.
Echolocation, also called bio sonar, is the biological sonar used by several kinds of animals.
Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
Astrophytum is a genus of six species of cacti, native to North America.
In biology, an atavism is a modification of a biological structure whereby an ancestral trait reappears after having been lost through evolutionary change in previous generations.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
A blind spot, scotoma, is an obscurity of the visual field.
Brownian motion or pedesis (from πήδησις "leaping") is the random motion of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) resulting from their collision with the fast-moving molecules in the fluid.
C4 carbon fixation or the Hatch-Slack pathway is a photosynthetic process in some plants.
The biological family Canidae (from Latin, canis, “dog”) is a lineage of carnivorans that includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods.
The carpometacarpus is the fusion of the carpal and metacarpal bone, essentially a single fused bone between the wrist and the knuckles.
A catalytic triad is a set of three coordinated amino acids that can be found in the active site of some enzymes.
Cephalopods, as active marine predators, possess sensory organs specialized for use in aquatic conditions.
Cephalotus (or; Greek: κεφαλή "head", and οὔς/ὠτός "ear", to describe the head of the anthers) is a genus which contains one species, Cephalotus follicularis the Australian pitcher plant, a small carnivorous pitcher plant.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Chitinases (chitodextrinase, 1,4-beta-poly-N-acetylglucosaminidase, poly-beta-glucosaminidase, beta-1,4-poly-N-acetyl glucosamidinase, poly glycanohydrolase, (1->4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucan glycanohydrolase) are hydrolytic enzymes that break down glycosidic bonds in chitin.
Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) are regions of non-coding DNA which regulate the transcription of neighboring genes.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies, choughs, and nutcrackers.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
In population genetics, directional selection is a mode of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype.
Divergent evolution is the accumulation of differences between groups, leading to the formation of new species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
An eared seal or otariid or otary is any member of the marine mammal family Otariidae, one of three groupings of pinnipeds.
The earless seals, phocids or true seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal lineage, Pinnipedia.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.
Euphorbia is a very large and diverse genus of flowering plants, commonly called spurge, in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolution of the eye is attractive to study, because the eye distinctively exemplifies an analogous organ found in many animal forms.
Exaptation (Stephen Jay Gould and Elisabeth Vrba's proposed replacement for what he considered the teleologically-loaded term "pre-adaptation") and the related term co-option describe a shift in the function of a trait during evolution.
Eye color is a polygenic phenotypic character determined by two distinct factors: the pigmentation of the eye's iris and the frequency-dependence of the scattering of light by the turbid medium in the stroma of the iris.
Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
Flower chafers are a group of scarab beetles, comprising the subfamily Cetoniinae.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
A flying frog (also called a gliding frog) is a frog that has the ability to achieve gliding flight.
Flying squirrels (scientifically known as Pteromyini or Petauristini) are a tribe of 50 species of squirrels in the family Sciuridae.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally "black and white cat-foot";, literally "big bear cat"), also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China.
Glucanases are enzymes that break down a glucan, a polysaccharide made of several glucose sub-units.
In molecular biology, Glycoside hydrolase family 19 is a family of glycoside hydrolases.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues.
In angiosperms, a hypanthium or floral cup is a structure where basal portions of the calyx, the corolla, and the stamens form a cup-shaped tube.
Ichthyosaurs (Greek for "fish lizard" – ιχθυς or ichthys meaning "fish" and σαυρος or sauros meaning "lizard") are large marine reptiles.
Incomplete lineage sorting is a characteristic of phylogenetic analysis where the tree produced by a single gene differs from the population or species level tree.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Insect wings are adult outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly.
Lemurs are a clade of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
Myrmecochory ((sometimes myrmechory); from mýrmēks and χορεία khoreíā "circular dance") is seed dispersal by ants, an ecologically significant ant-plant interaction with worldwide distribution.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
In natural selection, negative selection or purifying selection is the selective removal of alleles that are deleterious.
Nepenthes alata (Latin: alatus "winged") is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to the Philippines.
In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
In mathematics, the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process (named after Leonard Ornstein and George Eugene Uhlenbeck), is a stochastic process that, roughly speaking, describes the velocity of a massive Brownian particle under the influence of friction.
Parallel evolution is the development of a similar trait in related, but distinct, species descending from the same ancestor, but from different clades.
Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are proteins produced in plants in the event of a pathogen attack.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Placentalia ("Placentals") is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
In botany, a pome (derived from Latin pōmum, meaning "fruit") is a type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
A proboscis is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal, either a vertebrate or an invertebrate.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein superfamily is the largest grouping (clade) of proteins for which common ancestry can be inferred (see homology).
Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.
Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are metalloenzymes that hydrolyse phosphate esters and anhydrides under acidic condition.
In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).
In botany, the receptacle or torus (an older term is thalamus, as in Thalamiflorae) is the thickened part of a stem (pedicel) from which the flower organs grow.
Recurrent evolution is the repeated evolution of a particular character.
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.
Sir Richard Owen (20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist.
Ribonuclease T2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNASET2 gene.
Sarracenia purpurea, commonly known as the purple pitcher plant, northern pitcher plant, turtle socks, or side-saddle flower, is a carnivorous plant in the family Sarraceniaceae.
Seed dispersal is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant.
Simon Conway Morris (born 1951) is an English palaeontologist, evolutionary biologist, and astrobiologist known for his study of the fossils of the Burgess Shale and the Cambrian explosion.
Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.
Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.
A structural gene is a gene that codes for any RNA or protein product other than a regulatory factor (i.e. regulatory protein).
In botany, succulent plants, also known as succulents, are plants that have some parts that are more than normally thickened and fleshy, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions.
The sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) is a small, omnivorous, arboreal, and nocturnal gliding possum belonging to the marsupial infraclass.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
Thaumatin is a low-calorie sweetener and flavour modifier.
The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe without Design is a 1986 book by Richard Dawkins, in which the author presents an explanation of, and argument for, the theory of evolution by means of natural selection.
Threonine proteases are a family of proteolytic enzymes harbouring a threonine (Thr) residue within the active site.
The thumb is the first digit of the hand.
The thylacine (or, also; Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
A tree frog is any species of frog that spends a major portion of its lifespan in trees, known as an arboreal state.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.
Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History is a 1989 book on the evolution of Cambrian fauna by Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould.
Analogous Structure, Analogous Structures, Analogous organ, Analogous structure, Analogous structures, Analogy (biology), Biological convergence, Convergance evolution, Convergence (biology), Convergence (evolution), Convergent Evolution, Convergent evolution in humans, Convergent feature, Convergently evolved, Covergent evolution, Evolutionary convergence, Evolutionary relay, Evolved convergently, Evolved independently, Homoplasies, Homoplasious, Homoplastic, Homoplastic trait, Homoplasty, Independent evolution, Independently evolved, Morphological convergence.