115 relations: Admiralty, Age of Sail, Aid Convoy, Airstrike, Allied submarines in the Pacific War, Anti-submarine warfare, Arctic convoys of World War II, Armed merchantman, Atlantic U-boat campaign of World War I, Battle of Dogger Bank (1781), Battle of Portland, Battle of Pulo Aura, Battle of the Atlantic, Battle of the Barents Sea, Battle of the Bismarck Sea, Battle of Ushant (1781), Battle off Samar, Battleship, Beaufort scale, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brest, France, CAM ship, Camel train, Caravan (travellers), Charles A. Lockwood, Chernobyl disaster, Citizens band radio, Cold War, Convoy (1978 film), Convoy (song), Convoy commodore, Convoy HX 106, Convoy HX 84, Convoy of Hope, Convoy PQ 16, Convoy PQ 17, Convoy PQ 18, Convoy SC 7, Corvette, Destroyer escort, Direction finding, Drafting (aerodynamics), Eastern Europe, Enigma machine, Ernest King, Escort carrier, European route E6, French Revolutionary Wars, Frigate, ..., Glorious First of June, Hardangervidda, Hedgehog (weapon), HMS Dreadnought (1906), Humanitarian aid, Iran–Iraq War, Iraq, Japan, Kosovo, Kuwait, La Rochelle, List of Allied convoy codes during World War II, List of Allied convoys during World War II by region, Malta convoys, Merchant aircraft carrier, Multiple-vehicle collision, Napoleonic Wars, National Maximum Speed Law, Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, Naval tactics, Naval tactics in the Age of Steam, Naval warfare, Non-governmental organization, North Africa, Norwegian National Road 7, On the Psychology of Military Incompetence, Operation Earnest Will, Operation Pedestal, Operations research, Opportunity cost, Persian Gulf, Piracy, Piracy off the coast of Somalia, Privateer, Q-ship, Radar, Road train, Romania, Royal Navy, Saltfjellet, Second Happy Time, Semi-trailer truck, Shoaling and schooling, Sonar, Spanish treasure fleet, Speed limit enforcement, Standardization Agreement, Submarine, Tank truck, Tanker (ship), Truck driver, Type IX submarine, Type VII submarine, U-boat, Ukraine, United Nations, United States Navy, Vehicle, Wagon train, Western Europe, Wolfpack (naval tactic), Workers' Aid for Bosnia, World War I, World War II, Yugoslavia. Expand index (65 more) » « Shrink index
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
The Age of Sail (usually dated as 1571–1862) was a period roughly corresponding to the early modern period in which international trade and naval warfare were dominated by sailing ships, lasting from the 16th to the mid-19th century.
Aid Convoy is a British charitable organisation running and supporting various humanitarian aid projects, mostly in Eastern Europe.
An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.
Allied submarines were used extensively during the Pacific War and were a key contributor to the defeat of the Empire of Japan.
Anti-submarine warfare (ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage, or destroy enemy submarines.
The Arctic convoys of World War II were oceangoing convoys which sailed from the United Kingdom, Iceland, and North America to northern ports in the Soviet Union – primarily Arkhangelsk (Archangel) and Murmansk in Russia.
An armed merchantman is a merchant ship equipped with guns, usually for defensive purposes, either by design or after the fact.
The Atlantic U-boat campaign of World War I (sometimes called the "First Battle of the Atlantic", in reference to the World War II campaign of that name) was the prolonged naval conflict between German submarines and the Allied navies in Atlantic waters—the seas around the British Isles, the North Sea and the coast of France.
The Battle of the Dogger Bank was a naval battle that took place on 5 August 1781 during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, contemporaneously related to the American Revolutionary War, in the North Sea.
The naval Battle of Portland, or Three Days' Battle took place during 18–20 February 1653 (28 February – 2 March 1653 (Gregorian calendar)), during the First Anglo-Dutch War, when the fleet of the Commonwealth of England under General at Sea Robert Blake was attacked by a fleet of the Dutch Republic under Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp escorting merchant shipping through the English Channel. The battle failed to settle supremacy of the English Channel, although both sides claimed victory, and ultimate control over the Channel would only be decided at the Battle of the Gabbard which allowed the English to blockade the Dutch coast until the Battle of Scheveningen, where Admiral Maarten Tromp would meet his fate at the hands of an English musket ball. As such, it can be considered a slight setback for the English nation and another example of Dutch superiority regarding pure seamanship at the time. It also illustrated England's drive to control the seas, which would ultimately allow it to become the prime maritime power of the world.
The Battle of Pulo Aura was a minor naval engagement of the Napoleonic Wars, fought on 14 February 1804, in which a large convoy of Honourable East India Company (HEIC) East Indiamen, well-armed merchant ships, intimidated, drove off and chased a powerful French naval squadron.
The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
The Battle of the Barents Sea was a naval engagement on 31 December 1942 between warships of the Nazi German Kriegsmarine and British ships escorting convoy JW 51B to Kola Inlet in the USSR.
The Battle of the Bismarck Sea (2–4 March 1943) took place in the South West Pacific Area (SWPA) during World War II when aircraft of the U.S. Fifth Air Force and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) attacked a Japanese convoy carrying troops to Lae, New Guinea.
The Second Battle of Ushant was a naval battle fought between French and British squadrons near the island of Ushant on 12 December 1781, as part of the Anglo-French War.
The Battle off Samar (Filipino: Labanan sa may Samar) was the centermost action of the Battle of Leyte Gulf, one of the largest naval battles in history, which took place in the Philippine Sea off Samar Island, in the Philippines on October 25, 1944.
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.
The Beaufort scale is an empirical measure that relates wind speed to observed conditions at sea or on land.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany.
CAM ships were World War II-era British merchant ships used in convoys as an emergency stop-gap until sufficient escort carriers became available.
A camel train or caravan is a series of camels carrying passengers and/or goods on a regular or semi-regular service between points.
Caravans A caravan (from کاروان) is a group of people traveling together, often on a trade expedition.
Charles Andrews Lockwood (May 6, 1890 – June 7, 1967) was a vice-admiral and flag officer of the United States Navy.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
Citizens band radio (also known as CB radio) is, in many countries, a system of short-distance radio communications between individuals typically on a selection of 40 channels within the 27 MHz (11 m) band.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Convoy is a 1978 action film directed by Sam Peckinpah and starring Kris Kristofferson, Ali MacGraw, Ernest Borgnine, Franklyn Ajaye and Burt Young.
"Convoy" is a 1975 novelty song performed by C. W. McCall (a character co-created and voiced by Bill Fries, along with Chip Davis) that became a number-one song on both the country and pop charts in the US and is listed 98th among Rolling Stone magazine's 100 Greatest Country Songs of All Time.
Convoy commodore also known as Commodore, convoys was the title of a civilian put in charge of the good order of the merchant ships in the British convoys used during World War II.
Convoy HX 106 was the 106th of the numbered series of Allied HX convoys of merchant ships from Halifax, Nova Scotia to Liverpool, England.
Convoy HX 84 was the 84th of the numbered series of Allied North Atlantic HX convoys of merchant ships from Halifax, Nova Scotia to Liverpool, England during the battle of the Atlantic.
Convoy of Hope is a faith-based nonprofit organization founded in 1994 and known for its international programs of feeding and otherwise helping poor people.
Convoy PQ 16 was an Arctic convoy sent from Great Britain by the Western Allies to aid the Soviet Union during the Second World War.
PQ 17 was the code name for an Allied convoy in the Arctic Ocean during the Second World War.
Convoy PQ 18 was an Arctic convoy of forty Allied freighters from Scotland and Iceland to Arkhangelsk in the Soviet Union in the war against Nazi Germany.
SC 7 was the code name for a large Allied World War II convoy of 35 merchant ships and six escorts, which sailed eastbound from Sydney, Nova Scotia for Liverpool and other United Kingdom ports on 5 October 1940.
A corvette is a small warship.
Destroyer escort (DE) was the United States Navy mid-20th-century classification for a warship designed with endurance to escort mid-ocean convoys of merchant marine ships.
Direction finding (DF), or radio direction finding (RDF), is the measurement of the direction from which a received signal was transmitted.
Drafting or slipstreaming is a technique where two vehicles or other moving objects are caused to align in a close group reducing the overall effect of drag due to exploiting the lead object's slipstream.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.
Ernest Joseph King (23 November 1878 – 25 June 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet (COMINCH) and Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) during World War II.
The escort carrier or escort aircraft carrier (US hull classification symbol CVE), also called a "jeep carrier" or "baby flattop" in the United States Navy (USN) or "Woolworth Carrier" by the Royal Navy, was a small and slow type of aircraft carrier used by the Royal Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force, and the United States Navy in World War II.
European route E6 (Europavei 6, Europaväg 6, or simply E6) is the main north-south road through Norway, and the west coast of Sweden.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
The Glorious First of June (also known in France as the Bataille du 13 prairial an 2 or Combat de Prairial)Note A of 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Hardangervidda (Hardanger Plateau) is a mountain plateau (Norwegian: vidde) in central southern Norway, covering parts of the counties of Buskerud, Hordaland and Telemark.
The Hedgehog (also known as an Anti-Submarine Projector) was a forward-throwing anti-submarine weapon that was used during the Battle of the Atlantic in the Second World War.
HMS Dreadnought was a battleship built for the Royal Navy that revolutionised naval power.
Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
This is a list of convoy codes used by the Allies during World War II There were over 300 convoy routes organized, in all areas of the world; each was designated by a two- or three letter code.
This is a List of Allied convoys during World War II by region.
The Malta convoys were Allied supply convoys of the Second World War.
A merchant aircraft carrier (also known as a MAC) was a limited-purpose aircraft carrier operated under British and Dutch civilian registry during World War II.
A multiple vehicle collision (colloquially known as a multi-car collision, multi-vehicle collision, or simply a multi) is a road traffic accident involving many vehicles.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Maximum Speed Law (NMSL) in the United States was a provision of the Federal 1974 Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act that prohibited speed limits higher than.
The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, sometimes referred to as the Third and Fourth Battles of Savo Island, the Battle of the Solomons, the Battle of Friday the 13th, or, in Japanese sources, the, took place from 12–15 November 1942, and was the decisive engagement in a series of naval battles between Allied (primarily American) and Imperial Japanese forces during the months-long Guadalcanal Campaign in the Solomon Islands during World War II.
Naval tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy ship or fleet in battle at sea during naval warfare, the naval equivalent of military tactics on land.
The development of the steam ironclad firing explosive shells in the mid 19th century rendered sailing ship tactics obsolete.
Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Norwegian National Road 7 (Riksvei 7) is a national road in Norway which runs from the town of Hønefoss in Buskerud county to the village of Granvin in Hordaland county.
On The Psychology of Military Incompetence is a work by Norman F. Dixon, first published in 1976, which applies insights from psychology to military history.
Operation Earnest Will (24 July 1987 – 26 September 1988) was the American military protection of Kuwaiti-owned tankers from Iranian attacks in 1987 and 1988, three years into the Tanker War phase of the Iran–Iraq War.
Operation Pedestal (Battaglia di Mezzo Agosto, "Battle of mid-August"), known in Malta as the Santa Marija Convoy (Il-Konvoj ta' Santa Marija), was a British operation to carry supplies to the island of Malta in August 1942, during the Second World War.
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
In microeconomic theory, the opportunity cost, also known as alternative cost, is the value (not a benefit) of the choice in terms of the best alternative while making a decision.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Piracy off the coast of Somalia has been a threat to international shipping since the second phase of the Somali Civil War, around 2000, when foreign ships exploited the absence of an effective national coast guard by invading the fishing grounds and also dumping illegal waste that would further diminish the local catch.
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
Q-ships, also known as Q-boats, decoy vessels, special service ships, or mystery ships, were heavily armed merchant ships with concealed weaponry, designed to lure submarines into making surface attacks.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
A road train or land train is a trucking vehicle of a type used in rural and remote areas of Australia, Europe, and the United States, to move freight efficiently.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Saltfjellet is a mountain area in Nordland county, Norway that separates the two regions of Helgeland and Salten.
The Second Happy Time, also known among German submarine commanders as the American shooting season, was the informal name for a phase in the Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping and Allied naval vessels along the east coast of North America.
A semi-trailer truck (more commonly semi truck or simply "semi") is the combination of a tractor unit and one or more semi-trailers to carry freight.
In biology, any group of fish that stay together for social reasons are shoaling (pronounced), and if the group is swimming in the same direction in a coordinated manner, they are schooling (pronounced). In common usage, the terms are sometimes used rather loosely.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
The Spanish treasure fleet, or West Indies Fleet from Spanish Flota de Indias, also called silver fleet or plate fleet (from the Spanish plata meaning "silver"), was a convoy system adopted by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790, linking Spain with its territories in America across the Atlantic.
Speed limit enforcement is the effort made by appropriately empowered authorities to improve driver compliance with speed limits.
In NATO a STANdardization AGreement (STANAG) defines processes, procedures, terms, and conditions for common military or technical procedures or equipment between the member countries of the alliance.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
A tank truck or tanker truck (United States usage) or tanker (United Kingdom usage), is a motor vehicle designed to carry liquefied loads, dry bulk cargo or gases on roads.
A tanker (or tank ship or tankship) is a ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk.
A truck driver (commonly referred to as a trucker, teamster or driver in the United States and Canada; a truckie in Australia and New Zealand; a lorry driver, or driver in Ireland, the United Kingdom, India, Nepal and Pakistan) is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck (usually a semi truck, box truck or dump truck).
The Type IX U-boat was designed by Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine in 1935 and 1936 as a large ocean-going submarine for sustained operations far from the home support facilities.
Type VII U-boats were the most common type of German World War II U-boat.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
A vehicle (from vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo.
A wagon train is a group of wagons traveling together.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The term wolfpack refers to the mass-attack tactics against convoys used by German U-boats of the Kriegsmarine during the Battle of the Atlantic, and by submarines of the United States Navy against Japanese shipping in the Pacific Ocean in World War II.
Workers' Aid for Bosnia (sometimes abbreviated to "Workers' Aid") was founded in London, United Kingdom in 1993, after a call by the Campaign Against Fascism in Europe (CAFE).
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.