98 relations: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī, Aberration of light, Ad hoc, Aether (classical element), Al-Battani, Al-Sijzi, Almagest, Andreas Osiander, Anthropocentrism, Apparent retrograde motion, Archimedes, Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotelian physics, Arthur Koestler, Astrolabe, Astronomy, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Averroes, Averroism, Basel, Book of Joshua, Cambridge University Press, Capua, Cicero, Circular orbit, Cleanthes, Commentariolus, Copernican principle, Cosmology, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, Deferent and epicycle, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Domenico Maria Novara da Ferrara, Earth, Eccentricity (mathematics), Equant, Erasmus Reinhold, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Friedrich Bessel, Galileo Galilei, Geocentric model, Georg Joachim Rheticus, Georg von Peuerbach, Gilles Ménage, Giordano Bruno, Giovanni Battista Zupi, Heliocentrism, Heraclides Ponticus, Hicetas, Historiography of science, ..., Ibn al-Shatir, Ilkhanate, Inverse-square law, Isaac Newton, James Bradley, Johannes Kepler, Magnitude (astronomy), Maragheh observatory, Middle Ages, Muʾayyad al-Dīn al-ʿUrḍī, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Newton's law of universal gravitation, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nikolaus von Schönberg, Nur ad-Din al-Bitruji, Old Testament, Orbit, Otto E. Neugebauer, Parallax, Philolaus, Planet, Plutarch, Pope Paul III, Prutenic Tables, Ptolemaic dynasty, Ptolemy, Pythagoras, Pythagoreanism, Regiomontanus, Rotation around a fixed axis, Scientific modelling, Scientific Revolution, Speed of light, Star, Stellar parallax, Sun, Telescope, Thābit ibn Qurra, The Copernican Revolution (book), The Sand Reckoner, The Sleepwalkers (Koestler book), Thomas Kuhn, Trajectory, Tusi couple, Tycho Brahe, Tychonic system, Universe, Vienna. Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
, also known as Al-Zarkali or Ibn Zarqala (1029–1087), was an Arab Muslim instrument maker, astrologer, and one of the leading astronomers of his time.
The aberration of light (also referred to as astronomical aberration, stellar aberration, or velocity aberration) is an astronomical phenomenon which produces an apparent motion of celestial objects about their true positions, dependent on the velocity of the observer.
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally "for this".
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.
Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jābir ibn Sinān al-Raqqī al-Ḥarrānī aṣ-Ṣābiʾ al-Battānī (Arabic: محمد بن جابر بن سنان البتاني) (Latinized as Albategnius, Albategni or Albatenius) (c. 858 – 929) was an Arab astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician.
Abu Sa'id Ahmed ibn Mohammed ibn Abd al-Jalil al-Sijzi (c. 945 - c. 1020, also known as al-Sinjari and al-Sijazi; ابوسعید سجزی; Al-Sijzi is short for "Al-Sijistani") was an Iranian Muslim astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer.
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
Andreas Osiander (19 December 1498 – 17 October 1552) was a German Lutheran theologian and Protestant reformer.
Anthropocentrism (from Greek ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos, "human being"; and κέντρον, kéntron, "center") is the belief that human beings are the most significant entity of the universe.
Apparent retrograde motion is the apparent motion of a planet in a direction opposite to that of other bodies within its system, as observed from a particular vantage point.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
Aristarchus of Samos (Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σάμιος, Aristarkhos ho Samios; c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it (see Solar system).
Aristotelian physics is a form of natural science described in the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–).
Arthur Koestler, (Kösztler Artúr; 5 September 1905 – 1 March 1983) was a Hungarian-British author and journalist.
An astrolabe (ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; ٱلأَسْطُرلاب al-Asturlāb; اَختِرِیاب Akhteriab) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Averroism refers to a school of medieval philosophy based on the application of the works of 12th-century Andalusian Islamic philosopher Averroes, a Muslim commentator on Aristotle, in 13th-century Latin Christian scholasticism.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
The Book of Joshua (ספר יהושע) is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, Campania, southern Italy, situated north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
A circular orbit is the orbit with a fixed distance around the barycenter, that is, in the shape of a circle.
Cleanthes (Κλεάνθης Kleanthēs; c. 330 BC – c. 230 BC), of Assos, was a Greek Stoic philosopher and successor to Zeno of Citium as the second head (scholarch) of the Stoic school in Athens.
The Commentariolus (Little Commentary) is Nicolaus Copernicus's brief outline of an early version of his revolutionary heliocentric theory of the universe.
In physical cosmology, the Copernican principle, is an alternative name of the mediocrity principle, or the principle of relativity, stating that humans (the Earth, or the Solar system) are not privileged observers of the universe.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543).
In the Hipparchian and Ptolemaic systems of astronomy, the epicycle (from ἐπίκυκλος, literally upon the circle, meaning circle moving on another circle) was a geometric model used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets.
The Dictionary of Scientific Biography is a scholarly reference work that was published from 1970 through 1980.
Domenico Maria Novara (1454–1504) was an Italian scientist.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
In mathematics, the eccentricity, denoted e or \varepsilon, is a parameter associated with every conic section.
Equant (or punctum aequans) is a mathematical concept developed by Claudius Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD to account for the observed motion of the planets.
Erasmus Reinhold (October 22, 1511 – February 19, 1553) was a German astronomer and mathematician, considered to be the most influential astronomical pedagogue of his generation.
Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios) was an ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Archytas and Plato.
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (22 July 1784 – 17 March 1846) was a German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.
Georg Joachim de Porris, also known as Rheticus (16 February 1514 – 4 December 1574), was a mathematician, astronomer, cartographer, navigational-instrument maker, medical practitioner, and teacher.
Georg von Peuerbach (also Purbach, Peurbach, Purbachius; born May 30, 1423 – April 8, 1461) was an Austrian astronomer, mathematician and instrument maker, best known for his streamlined presentation of Ptolemaic astronomy in the Theoricae Novae Planetarum.
Gilles Ménage (15 August 1613 – 23 July 1692) was a French scholar.
Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.
Giovanni Battista Zupi or Zupus (c. 1590 – 1650) was an Italian astronomer, mathematician, and Jesuit priest.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Heraclides Ponticus (Ἡρακλείδης ὁ Ποντικός Herakleides; c. 390 BC – c. 310 BC) was a Greek philosopher and astronomer who was born in Heraclea Pontica, now Karadeniz Ereğli, Turkey, and migrated to Athens.
Hicetas (Ἱκέτας or Ἱκέτης; c. 400 – c. 335 BC) was a Greek philosopher of the Pythagorean School.
The historiography of science is the study of the history and methodology of the sub-discipline of history, known as the history of science, including its disciplinary aspects and practices (methods, theories, schools) and to the study of its own historical development ("History of History of Science", i.e., the history of the discipline called History of Science).
ʿAlāʾ al‐Dīn ʿAlī ibn Ibrāhīm known as Ibn al-Shatir or Ibn ash-Shatir (ابن الشاطر; 1304–1375) was an Arab astronomer, mathematician and engineer.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
James Bradley FRS (March 1693 – 13 July 1762) was an English astronomer and priest and served as Astronomer Royal from 1742, succeeding Edmond Halley.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
In astronomy, magnitude is a logarithmic measure of the brightness of an object in a defined passband, often in the visible or infrared spectrum, but sometimes across all wavelengths.
Maragheh observatory (رصدخانه مراغه), was an institutionalized astronomical observatory which was established in 1259 CE under the patronage of the Ilkhanid Hulagu and the directorship of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, a Persian scientist and astronomer.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Al-Urdi (full name: Muʾayyad (al‐Milla wa‐) al‐Dīn (Muʾayyad ibn Barīk) al‐ʿUrḍī (al‐ʿĀmirī al‐Dimašqī) (مؤيد (الملة و) الدين (مؤيد ابن بريك) ألعرضي (العامري الدمشقي d. 1266) was a medieval Syrian-Arab astronomer.
Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tūsī (محمد بن محمد بن حسن طوسی‎ 18 February 1201 – 26 June 1274), better known as Nasir al-Din Tusi (نصیر الدین طوسی; or simply Tusi in the West), was a Persian polymath, architect, philosopher, physician, scientist, and theologian.
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
Nikolaus von Schönberg (11 August 1472 – 7 September 1537) was a German Archbishop of Capua.
Nur ad-Din al-Bitruji (also spelled Nur al-Din Ibn Ishaq Al-Betrugi and Abu Ishâk ibn al-Bitrogi; another spelling is al Bidrudschi) (known in the West by the Latinized name of Alpetragius) (died c. 1204) was a Spanish-Arab astronomer and a Qadi in al-Andalus.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
Otto Eduard Neugebauer (May 26, 1899 – February 19, 1990) was an Austrian American mathematician and historian of science who became known for his research on the history of astronomy and the other exact sciences in antiquity and into the Middle Ages.
Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
Philolaus (Φιλόλαος, Philólaos) was a Greek Pythagorean and pre-Socratic philosopher.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Pope Paul III (Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.
The Prutenic Tables (Tabulae prutenicae from Prutenia meaning "Prussia", Prutenische oder Preußische Tafeln), were an ephemeris (astronomical tables) by the astronomer Erasmus Reinhold published in 1551.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.
Johannes Müller von Königsberg (6 June 1436 – 6 July 1476), better known as Regiomontanus, was a mathematician and astronomer of the German Renaissance, active in Vienna, Buda and Nuremberg.
Rotation around a fixed axis or about a fixed axis of revolution or motion with respect to a fixed axis of rotation is a special case of rotational motion.
Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Stellar parallax is the apparent shift of position of any nearby star (or other object) against the background of distant objects.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
(ثابت بن قره, Thebit/Thebith/Tebit; 826 – February 18, 901) was a Syrian Arab Sabian mathematician, physician, astronomer, and translator who lived in Baghdad in the second half of the ninth century during the time of Abbasid Caliphate.
The Copernican Revolution is a 1957 book by the philosopher Thomas Kuhn, in which the author provides an analysis of the Copernican Revolution, documenting the pre-Ptolemaic understanding through the Ptolemaic system and its variants until the eventual acceptance of the Keplerian system.
The Sand Reckoner (Ψαμμίτης, Psammites) is a work by Archimedes in which he set out to determine an upper bound for the number of grains of sand that fit into the universe.
The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe is a 1959 book by Arthur Koestler.
Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.
A trajectory or flight path is the path that a massive object in motion follows through space as a function of time.
The Tusi couple is a mathematical device in which a small circle rotates inside a larger circle twice the diameter of the smaller circle.
Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
The Tychonic system (or Tychonian system) is a model of the Solar system published by Tycho Brahe in the late 16th century which combines what he saw as the mathematical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical and "physical" benefits of the Ptolemaic system.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.