375 relations: Adenoviridae, Admiralty, Alderley Edge, Alexandria, Alkene, Alkyne, Alloy, Aluminium, Aluminium bronze, Aluminum building wiring, Alzheimer's disease, American Elements, Amide, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia solution, Anaconda Copper, Anatolia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Rome, Anemia, Annealing (metallurgy), Anode, Antimicrobial, Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces, Antofagasta PLC, Aphrodite, Aquaculture, Arsenic, Arthritis, Arthropod, Aspergillus niger, Atomic number, Augustus, Aurubis, Ayurveda, Azurite, Ötzi, Bacteriostatic agent, Bandage, Barnacle, Base (chemistry), Benedict's reagent, Beta decay, Bile, Bingham Canyon Mine, Biofouling, Bioleaching, Bloomery, Bordeaux mixture, ..., Bornite, Brass, Bravais lattice, Brazing, British Geological Survey, Bronze, Bronze Age, Cadiot–Chodkiewicz coupling, Caesium hexafluorocuprate(IV), California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Carbometalation, Carbon monoxide, Cathode ray tube, Cavity magnetron, Cellular respiration, Cellulose, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ceruloplasmin, Chalcocite, Chalcolithic, Chalcopyrite, Chelation, Chemical element, Chemical Reviews, Cheshire, Chino mine, Chromobacterium violaceum, Chuquicamata, Cirrhosis, Clostridium difficile (bacteria), Codelco, Coin, Cold water pitting of copper tube, Comminution, Computer keyboard, Constantan, Coordination complex, Copper alloys in aquaculture, Copper deficiency, Copper extraction, Copper monosulfide, Copper nanoparticle, Copper plating, Copper protein, Copper sheathing, Copper sulfide, Copper toxicity, Copper(I) acetylide, Copper(I) bromide, Copper(I) chloride, Copper(I) iodide, Copper(I) oxide, Copper(I) sulfide, Copper(II) acetate, Copper(II) bromide, Copper(II) carbonate, Copper(II) chloride, Copper(II) fluoride, Copper(II) hydroxide, Copper(II) nitrate, Copper(II) oxide, Copper(II) sulfate, Copper-64, Corinthian bronze, Corrosion, Coupling reaction, Covalent bond, Covellite, Creep (deformation), Crustacean, Crystallite, Cuprate, Cuprate superconductor, Cuprite, Cupronickel, Cyprus, Cytochrome c oxidase, Daguerreotype, Decorative arts, Depletion gilding, Dietary Reference Intake, Digenite, Disproportionation, DNA, Dome, Domestic roof construction, Door, Door handle, Downspout, Ductility, El Boleo, Electric power distribution, Electric power transmission, Electrical conductor, Electrical equipment, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrical wiring, Electricity generation, Electromagnet, Electromagnetic shielding, Electron shell, Electron transfer, Electronics, Electroplating, Electrowinning, Enargite, Engine, Enone, Enterohepatic circulation, Erosion corrosion of copper water tubes, Escherichia coli, Ethylenediamine, Eukaryote, European Food Safety Authority, Examine.com, Expansion joint, Falun Mine, Feed conversion ratio, Fehling's solution, Fineness, Flash smelting, Flashing (weatherproofing), Fluoride, Froth flotation, Functional group, Fungicide, Fungus, Galvanic corrosion, Gas metal arc welding, Gilman reagent, Gold, Gottfried Osann, Grasberg mine, Grignard reaction, Group 11 element, Half-life, Halide, Haloalkane, Handrail, Hardness, Harjavalta, Health club, Heat exchanger, Heat sink, Heavy metals, Hemocyanin, Hemoglobin, Hispania, History of copper currency in Sweden, Holism, Horseshoe crab, Hydrate, Hydrogen peroxide, Immediately dangerous to life or health, In situ leach, India, Induction motor, Inductor, Industrial Revolution, Influenza A virus, Ingot, Integrated circuit, Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries, International Resource Panel, Investment casting, Ion, Isle Royale, Isotope, Jewellery, Julius Caesar, Keweenaw Peninsula, Kharasch–Sosnovsky reaction, Laccase, Lacquer, Legionnaires' disease, Ligand, Lightning rod, List of countries by copper production, Lost-wax casting, Machinability, Machining, Malachite, Mass number, Matte (metallurgy), Metal aquo complex, Metal Stocks in Society report, Metal theft, Metallic bonding, Meteoric iron, Methicillin, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Microorganism, Minecart, Mineral (nutrient), Mitochondrion, Mollusca, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Muntz metal, Mussel, National Electrical Manufacturers Association, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Pollutant Inventory, Native copper, Native metal, Natural gas, Neolithic, Neutropenia, Nickel, Nicotiana, Nitrous-oxide reductase, Nuclear isomer, Nucleophilic conjugate addition, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Old Copper Complex, Old Kingdom of Egypt, OPEC, Open-pit mining, Operation Tremor, Organic Syntheses, Organic synthesis, Organolithium reagent, Outokumpu, Oxidation state, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxyanion, Parts-per notation, Passivation (chemistry), Patina, Peak copper, Peak oil, Periodic Videos, Permissible exposure limit, Placebo, Platinum, Polyol, Porphyry copper deposit, Positron emission, Positron emission tomography, Potassium ferrocyanide, Potassium hexafluorocuprate(III), Pourbaix diagram, Powder metallurgy, Power transmission, Premium efficiency, Printed circuit board, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Radioactive decay, Radioactive tracer, Radiocarbon dating, Rain gutter, Reactions of organocopper reagents, Reactive oxygen species, Recommended exposure limit, Redox, Reducing sugar, Reference Daily Intake, Renaissance, Reverberatory furnace, Roasting (metallurgy), Roman metallurgy, Roman province, Royal Society of Chemistry, Rust, Schweizer's reagent, Semi-finished casting products, Serum albumin, Shakudō, Shopping cart, Siemens (unit), Silicate, Silicon dioxide, Silver, Single crystal, Sink, Slag, Smelting, Sodium hydroxide, Solder, Soldering, Sonogashira coupling, Spin (physics), Spire, Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Statue of Liberty, Sterling silver, Strain gauge, Substitution reaction, Sulfosalt minerals, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Sumer, Superoxide, Superoxide dismutase, Surgery, Tap (valve), Tarnish, Telecommunication, Temple in Jerusalem, Tenorite, Tetrahedrite, Tetrapeptide, Thermal conductivity, Thermal expansion, Thermocouple, Tin, Tobacco smoke, Toilet, Trace element, Transition metal oxo complex, Turquoise, Tyrosinase, Ultimate tensile strength, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Vacuum tube, Venus (mythology), Verdigris, Vertebrate, Vinča culture, Waveguide, Welding, Wilson's disease, Work hardening, Yttrium barium copper oxide, Zinc. 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Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Alderley Edge is a village and civil parish in Cheshire, England.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
In organic chemistry, an alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium bronze is a type of bronze in which aluminium is the main alloying metal added to copper, in contrast to standard bronze (copper and tin) or brass (copper and zinc).
Aluminum building wiring is a type of electrical wiring for residential construction or houses that uses aluminum electrical conductors.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
American Elements is a global manufacturer and distributor of the elements on the periodic table with a 10,000-page online compendium of information on the properties and uses of the elements.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia solution, also known as ammonia water, ammoniacal liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or (inaccurately) ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water.
The Anaconda Copper Mining Company, part of the Amalgamated Copper Company from 1899 to 1915, was an American mining company.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces can prevent frequently touched surfaces from serving as reservoirs for the spread of pathogenic microbes.
Antofagasta plc is a Chilean business that operates in various sectors of the economy.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Aurubis AG (formerly Norddeutsche Affinerie AG) is listed on the stock exchange and is the largest copper producer in Europe (the second largest in the world) and the largest copper recycler worldwide.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Azurite is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits.
Ötzi (also called the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE.
A bacteriostatic agent or bacteriostat, abbreviated Bstatic, is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing, while not necessarily killing them otherwise.
A bandage is a piece of material used either to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint, or on its own to provide support to or to restrict the movement of a part of the body.
A barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Benedict's reagent (often called Benedict's qualitative solution or Benedict's solution) is a chemical reagent named after American chemist Stanley Rossiter Benedict.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
The Bingham Canyon Mine, more commonly known as Kennecott Copper Mine among locals, is an open-pit mining operation extracting a large porphyry copper deposit southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah, in the Oquirrh Mountains.
Biofouling or biological fouling is the accumulation of microorganisms, plants, algae, or animals on wetted surfaces.
Bioleaching is the extraction of metals from their ores through the use of living organisms.
A bloomery is a type of furnace once used widely for smelting iron from its oxides.
Bordeaux mixture (also called Bordo Mix) is a mixture of copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4) and slaked lime (Ca(OH)2) used as a fungicide.
Bornite, also known as peacock ore, is a sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu5FeS4 that crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (pseudo-cubic).
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.
Brazing is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.
The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a partly publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Cadiot–Chodkiewicz coupling in organic chemistry is a coupling reaction between a terminal alkyne and a haloalkyne catalyzed by a copper(I) salt such as copper(I) bromide and an amine base.
Caesium hexafluorocuprate is a quite rare example of the +4 oxidation state of copper with the chemical formula.
The Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, commonly referred to as OEHHA (pronounced oh-EEE-ha), is a specialized department within the cabinet-level California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) with responsibility for evaluating health risks from environmental chemical contaminants.
Carbometalation (less often carbometallation) is an organometallic reaction involving the insertion of alkenes and alkynes into a metal-carbon bond.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
The cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators).
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Ceruloplasmin (or caeruloplasmin) is a ferroxidase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CP gene.
Chalcocite, copper(I) sulfide (Cu2S), is an important copper ore mineral.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Chalcopyrite is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemical Reviews is peer-reviewed scientific journal published twice per month by the American Chemical Society.
Cheshire (archaically the County Palatine of Chester) is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire, Wales and Wrexham county borough to the west.
The Chino Mine ("Chino" is Spanish for the "Chinaman"), also known as the Santa Rita mine, is an open-pit copper mine located in the town of Santa Rita, New Mexico east of Silver City.
Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-sporing coccobacillus.
Chuquicamata, or "Chuqui" as it is more familiarly known, is by excavated volume the largest open pit copper mine in the world, located in the north of Chile, just outside Calama at above sea level, northeast of Antofagasta and north of the capital, Santiago.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Clostridium difficile (etymology and pronunciation), also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium.
CODELCO (Corporación Nacional del Cobre de Chile or, in English, the National Copper Corporation of Chile) is a Chilean state owned copper mining company.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Cold water pitting of copper tube occurs in only a minority of installations.
Comminution is the reduction of solid materials from one average particle size to a smaller average particle size, by crushing, grinding, cutting, vibrating, or other processes.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
Constantan is a copper–nickel alloy also known as Eureka, Advance, and Ferry.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copper alloys are important netting materials in aquaculture (the farming of aquatic organisms including fish farming).
Copper deficiency is a very rare hematological and neurological disorder.
Copper extraction refers to the methods used to obtaining copper from its ores.
Copper monosulfide is a chemical compound of copper and sulfur.
A copper nanoparticle is a copper based particle 1 to 100 nm in size.
Copper plating is the process of plating a layer of copper electrolytically on the surface of an item.
Copper proteins are proteins that contain one or more copper ions as prosthetic groups.
Copper sheathing is the practice of protecting the under-water hull of a ship or boat from the corrosive effects of salt water and biofouling through the use of copper plates affixed to the outside of the hull.
Copper sulfides (British English spelling: copper sulphide) describe a family of chemical compounds and minerals with the formula CuxSy.
Copper toxicity, also called copperiedus, is a type of metal poisoning caused by an excess of copper in the body.
Copper(I) acetylide, or cuprous acetylide, is a chemical compound with the formula Cu2C2.
Copper(I) bromide is the chemical compound with the formula CuBr.
Copper(I) chloride, commonly called cuprous chloride, is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl.
Copper(I) iodide is the inorganic compound with the formula CuI.
Copper(I) oxide or cuprous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Cu2O.
Copper(I) sulfide is a copper sulfide, a chemical compound of copper and sulfur.
Copper(II) acetate, also referred to as cupric acetate, is the chemical compound with the formula Cu(OAc)2 where AcO− is acetate.
Copper(II) bromide (CuBr2) is a chemical compound.
Copper(II) carbonate or cupric carbonate is a chemical compound with formula.
Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the chemical formula CuCl2.
Copper(II) fluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuF2.
Copper(II) hydroxide is the hydroxide of copper with the chemical formula of Cu(OH)2.
Copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2, is an inorganic compound that forms a blue crystalline solid.
Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula CuO.
Copper(II) sulfate, also known as cupric sulfate, or copper sulphate, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O)x, where x can range from 0 to 5.
Copper-64 is a positron emitting isotope of copper, with applications for molecular radiotherapy and positron emission tomography.
Corinthian bronze, also named Corinthian brass or æs Corinthiacum, was a highly valuable metal alloy in classical antiquity.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A coupling reaction in organic chemistry is a general term for a variety of reactions where two hydrocarbon fragments are coupled with the aid of a metal catalyst.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Covellite (also known as covelline) is a rare copper sulfide mineral with the formula CuS.
In materials science, creep (sometimes called cold flow) is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of mechanical stresses.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
Cuprate loosely refers to a material that can be viewed as containing anionic copper complexes.
Interest in cuprates sharply increased in 1986 with the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in the Non-stoichiometric cuprate lanthanum barium copper oxide La2−xBaxCuO4.
Cuprite is an oxide mineral composed of copper(I) oxide Cu2O, and is a minor ore of copper.
Cupronickel (also known as copper-nickel) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.
The Daguerreotype (daguerréotype) process, or daguerreotypy, was the first publicly available photographic process, and for nearly twenty years it was the one most commonly used.
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.
Depletion gilding is a method for producing a layer of nearly pure gold on an object made of gold alloy by removing the other metals from its surface.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
Digenite is a copper sulfide mineral with formula: Cu9S5.
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Interior view upward to the Byzantine domes and semi-domes of Hagia Sophia. See Commons file for annotations. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.
Domestic roof construction is the framing and roof covering which is found on most suburban detached houses in cold and temperate climates.
A door is a moving mechanism used to block off and allow access to, an entrance to or within an enclosed space, such as a building, room or vehicle.
A door handle is an attached object or mechanism used to manually open or close a door.
A downspout, waterspout, downpipe, drain spout, roof drain pipe, leader, or rone (Scotland) is a pipe for carrying rainwater from a rain gutter.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
El Boleo is a copper-cobalt-zinc-manganese deposit located adjacent to the port city of Santa Rosalía, Baja California Sur in Mexico.
Electric power distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electric power; it carries electricity from the transmission system to individual consumers.
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
Electrical equipment includes any machine powered by electricity.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electrical wiring is an electrical installation of cabling and associated devices such as switches, distribution boards, sockets and light fittings in a structure.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current.
Electromagnetic shielding is the practice of reducing the electromagnetic field in a space by blocking the field with barriers made of conductive or magnetic materials.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to another such chemical entity.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Electrowinning, also called electroextraction, is the electrodeposition of metals from their ores that have been put in solution via a process commonly referred to as leaching.
Enargite is a copper arsenic sulfosalt mineral with formula: Cu3AsS4.
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.
An enone, also called an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl, is a type of organic compound consisting of an alkene conjugated to a ketone.
Enterohepatic circulation refers to the circulation of biliary acids, bilirubin, drugs or other substances from the liver to the bile, followed by entry into the small intestine, absorption by the enterocyte and transport back to the liver.
Erosion corrosion, also known as impingement damage, is the combined effect of corrosion and erosion caused by rapid flowing turbulent water.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Ethylenediamine (abbreviated as en when a ligand) is the organic compound with the formula C2H4(NH2)2.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
Examine.com is a Canadian company that runs an online encyclopedia covering health, nutrition, and supplementation.
An expansion joint or movement joint is an assembly designed to safely absorb the temperature-induced expansion and contraction of construction materials, to absorb vibration, to hold parts together, or to allow movement due to ground settlement or earthquakes.
Falun Mine (Swedish: Falu Gruva) was a mine in Falun, Sweden, that operated for a millennium from the 10th century to 1992.
In animal husbandry, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or feed conversion rate is a ratio or rate measuring of the efficiency with which the bodies of livestock convert animal feed into the desired output.
Fehling's solution is a chemical reagent used to differentiate between water-soluble carbohydrate and ketone functional groups, and as a test for reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, supplementary to the Tollens' reagent test.
The fineness of a precious metal object (coin, bar, jewelry, etc.) represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities.
Development of flash smelting in the copper industry, related to the number of smelters using this technology. Flash smelting (Liekkisulatus, literally "flame-smeling") is a smelting process for sulfur-containing ores including chalcopyrite.
Flashing refers to thin pieces of impervious material installed to prevent the passage of water into a structure from a joint or as part of a ''weather resistant barrier'' (WRB) system.
Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Galvanic corrosion (also called bimetallic corrosion) is an electrochemical process in which one metal corrodes preferentially when it is in electrical contact with another, in the presence of an electrolyte.
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), sometimes referred to by its subtypes metal inert gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a welding process in which an electric arc forms between a consumable wire electrode and the workpiece metal(s), which heats the workpiece metal(s), causing them to melt and join.
A Gilman reagent is a lithium and copper (diorganocopper) reagent compound, R2CuLi, where R is an alkyl or aryl.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gottfried Wilhelm Osann (26 October 1796, Weimar – 10 August 1866, Würzburg) was a German chemist and physicist.
The Grasberg mine is the largest gold mine and the second largest copper mine in the world.
The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.
Group 11, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, consisting of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au).
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
A handrail is a rail that is designed to be grasped by the hand so as to provide stability or support.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
Harjavalta is a town and municipality of Finland.
A health club (also known as a fitness club, fitness centre, health spa, and commonly referred to as a gym) is a place that houses exercise equipment for the purpose of physical exercise.
A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.
A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins and abbreviated Hc) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
The Swedish Empire had the greatest and most numerous copper mines in Europe as it entered into its pre-eminence in the early 17th century as an emerging Great Power.
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
Horseshoe crabs are marine and brackish water arthropods of the family Limulidae, suborder Xiphosurida, and order Xiphosura.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
In-situ leaching (ISL), also called in-situ recovery (ISR) or solution mining, is a mining process used to recover minerals such as copper and uranium through boreholes drilled into a deposit, in situ.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An induction motor or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding.
An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Influenza A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses.
An ingot is a piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
The Intergovernmental Council of Countries Exporters of Copper (CIPEC) (French Conseil intergouvernemental des pays exportateurs de cuivre) was created in 1967 in Lusaka with the objective of coordinating policies of the country members looking for growth in the revenues coming from copper.
The International Resource Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aims to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs.
Investment casting is an industrial process based on lost-wax casting, one of the oldest known metal-forming techniques.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Isle Royale is an island of the Great Lakes, located in the northwest of Lake Superior, and part of the U.S. state of Michigan.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Keweenaw Peninsula (sometimes locally /ˈkiːvənɔː/) is the northernmost part of Michigan's Upper Peninsula.
The Kharasch–Sosnovsky reaction is the radical oxidation of an allylic alkene to a allylic alcohol using a copper catalyst and a peroxy ester (e.g. tert-Butyl peroxybenzoate) or a peroxide.
Laccases are copper-containing oxidase enzymes found in many plants, fungi, and microorganisms.
The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood.
Legionnaires' disease is a form of atypical pneumonia caused by any type of Legionella bacteria.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
A lightning rod (US, AUS) or lightning conductor (UK) is a metal rod mounted on a structure and intended to protect the structure from a lightning strike.
This is a list of countries by mined copper production.
Lost-wax casting (also called "investment casting", "precision casting", or cire perdue in French) is the process by which a duplicate metal sculpture (often silver, gold, brass or bronze) is cast from an original sculpture.
The term machinability refers to the ease with which a metal can be cut (machined) permitting the removal of the material with a satisfactory finish at low cost.
Machining is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process.
Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
Matte is a term used in the field of pyrometallurgy given to the molten metal sulfide phases typically formed during smelting of copper, nickel, and other base metals.
Metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand.
The report Metal Stocks in Society: Scientific Synthesis was the first of six scientific assessments on global metals to be published by the International Resource Panel (IRP) of the United Nations Environment Programme.
Metal theft is "the theft of items for the value of their constituent metals".
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
Meteoric iron, sometimes meteoritic iron, is a native metal found in meteorites and made from the elements iron and nickel mainly in the form of the mineral phases kamacite and taenite.
Methicillin, also known as meticillin, is a narrow-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The minecart or mine cart (also known as a mine trolley) is a type of rolling stock found on a mine railway, used for moving ore and materials procured in the process of traditional mining.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
Muntz metal is a form of alpha-beta brass with about 60% copper, 40% zinc and a trace of iron.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the largest trade association of electrical equipment manufacturers in the United States.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The National Pollutant Inventory or NPI is a database of Australian pollution emissions managed by the Australian Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments.
Native copper is an uncombined form of copper that occurs as a natural mineral.
A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form, either pure in nature.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Neutropenia or neutropaenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nicotiana is a genus of herbaceous plants and shrubs of the family Solanaceae, that is indigenous to the Americas, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific.
In enzymology, a nitrous oxide reductase also known as nitrogen:acceptor oxidoreductase (N2O-forming) is an enzyme that catalyzes the final step in bacterial denitrification, the reduction of nitrous oxide to dinitrogen.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nucleophilic conjugate addition is a type of organic reaction.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Old Copper Complex is a term used for ancient Native North American societies known to have been heavily involved in the utilization of copper for weaponry and tools.
The Old Kingdom, in ancient Egyptian history, is the period in the third millennium (c. 2686–2181 BC) also known as the 'Age of the Pyramids' or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders' as it includes the great 4th Dynasty when King Sneferu perfected the art of pyramid building and the pyramids of Giza were constructed under the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
Operation Tremor is a joint operation between British Transport Police, Lancashire Constabulary and Network Rail to combat thieves who have been stealing copper boilers and piping and taking copper cables from train tracks, which can disable signalling equipment and safety devices.
Organic Syntheses is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1921.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Organolithium reagents are organometallic compounds that contain carbon – lithium bonds.
Outokumpu Oyj is a group of companies headquartered in Helsinki, Finland, producing stainless steel, employing 10,785 employees in more than 30 countries.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
An oxyanion, or oxoanion, is an ion with the generic formula (where A represents a chemical element and O represents an oxygen atom).
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Patina is a thin layer that variously forms on the surface of copper, bronze and similar metals (tarnish produced by oxidation or other chemical processes), or certain stones, and wooden furniture (sheen produced by age, wear, and polishing), or any similar acquired change of a surface through age and exposure.
Peak copper is the point in time at which the maximum global copper production rate is reached.
Peak oil is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
A polyol is an organic compound containing multiple hydroxyl groups.
Porphyry copper deposits are copper orebodies that are formed from hydrothermal fluids that originate from a voluminous magma chamber several kilometers below the deposit itself.
Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Potassium ferrocyanide is the inorganic compound with formula K4·3H2O.
Potassium hexafluorocuprate(III) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula K3CuF6.
In electrochemistry, a Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, EH-pH diagram or a pE/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system.
Powder metallurgy (PM) is a term covering a wide range of ways in which materials or components are made from metal powders.
Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a location where it is applied to perform useful work.
As part of a concerted effort worldwide to reduce energy consumption, CO2 emissions and the impact of industrial operations on the environment, various regulatory authorities in many countries have introduced, or are planning, legislation to encourage the manufacture and use of higher efficiency motors.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
Pseudomonas fluorescens is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
A rain gutter or surface water collection channel is a component of water discharge system for a building.
Reactions of organocopper reagents involve species containing copper-carbon bonds acting as nucleophiles in the presence of organic electrophiles.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing sugar is any sugar that is capable of acting as a reducing agent because it has a free aldehyde group or a free ketone group.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
A reverberatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace that isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with combustion gases.
Roasting is a process of heating of sulfide ore to a high temperature in presence of air.
Metals and metal working had been known to the people of modern Italy since the Bronze Age.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.
Schweizer's reagent is the chemical complex tetraamminediaquacopper dihydroxide, (OH)2.
Semi-finished casting products are intermediate castings produced in a steel mill that need further processing before being a finished good.
Serum albumin, often referred to simply as blood albumin, is an albumin (a type of globular protein) found in vertebrate blood.
Shakudō (赤銅) is a Japanese billon of gold and copper (typically 4–10% gold, 96–90% copper), one of the irogane class of colored metals, which can be treated to develop a black, or sometimes indigo, patina, resembling lacquer.
A shopping cart (American English) or trolley (British English), also known by a variety of other names, is a cart supplied by a shop, especially supermarkets, for use by customers inside the shop for transport of merchandise to the checkout counter during shopping.
The siemens (symbol: S) is the derived unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI).
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
A single crystal or monocrystalline solid is a material in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample, with no grain boundaries.
A sink — also known by other names including sinker, washbowl, hand basin and wash basin—is a bowl-shaped plumbing fixture used for washing hands, dishwashing, and other purposes.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
Soldering (AmE:, BrE), is a process in which two or more items (usually metal) are joined together by melting and putting a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.
The Sonogashira reaction is a cross-coupling reaction used in organic synthesis to form carbon–carbon bonds.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, often a skyscraper or a church tower, similar to a steep tented roof.
Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States.
Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by weight of silver and 7.5% by weight of other metals, usually copper.
A strain gauge is a device used to measure strain on an object.
Substitution reaction (also known as single displacement reaction or single substitution reaction) is a chemical reaction during which one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional group.
Sulfosalt minerals are those complex sulfide minerals with the general formula: AmBnSp; where A represents a metal such as copper, lead, silver, iron, and rarely mercury, zinc, vanadium; B usually represents semi-metal such as arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and rarely germanium, or metals like tin and rarely vanadium; and S is sulfur or rarely selenium or/and tellurium.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2&minus) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A tap (also spigot or faucet: see usage variations) is a valve controlling the release of a liquid or gas.
Tarnish is a thin layer of corrosion that forms over copper, brass, silver, aluminum, magnesium, neodymium and other similar metals as their outermost layer undergoes a chemical reaction.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
Tenorite is a copper oxide mineral with the simple formula CuO.
Tetrahedrite is a copper antimony sulfosalt mineral with formula:.
A tetrapeptide is a peptide, classified as an oligopeptide, since it only consists of four amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
A thermocouple is an electrical device consisting of two dissimilar electrical conductors forming electrical junctions at differing temperatures.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Cigarette smoke is an aerosol produced by the incomplete combustion of tobacco during the smoking of cigarettes.
A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces.
A trace element is a chemical element whose concentration (or other measure of amount) is very low (a "trace amount").
A transition metal oxo complex is a coordination complex containing an oxo ligand.
Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O.
Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
Venus (Classical Latin) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory.
Verdigris is the common name for a green pigment obtained through the application of acetic acid to copper plates or the natural patina formed when copper, brass or bronze is weathered and exposed to air or seawater over a period of time.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The Vinča culture, also known as Turdaș culture or Turdaș–Vinča culture, is a Neolithic archaeological culture in Serbia and smaller parts of Romania (particularly Transylvania), dated to the period 5700–4500 BC.
A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body.
Work hardening, also known as strain hardening, is the strengthening of a metal or polymer by plastic deformation.
Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) is a family of crystalline chemical compounds, famous for displaying high-temperature superconductivity.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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