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Tahrir Square, Tanzania, Text file, The American University in Cairo, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Theophilus (biblical), Theotokos, Uganda, Upper Egypt, Vicar, White Monastery, Zabbaleen, Zambia, Zimbabwe, 2011 Alexandria bombing. 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Abbassia (العباسية) is a neighbourhood in Cairo, Egypt.
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
Abuna Basilios (April 23, 1891 – October 13, 1970) was the first Ethiopian-born Archbishop or Abuna, and later the first Patriarch, of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church.
Abuna Takla Haymanot or Abune Takla Haymanot (died May 1988) was the third Patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church.
Abune Theophilos, also known as Abune Tewophilos, (24 April 1910 – 14 August 1979) was the second Patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church.
Abune Antonios (born 12 July 1929) is the third Patriarch of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church.
Abuna Merkorios (Patriarch and Catholicos of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church) was the fourth Patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, elected after the death of Abuna Takla Haymanot in May 1988.
Abune Paulos (3 November 1936 – 16 August 2012) was Patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (1992–2012).
Abune Phillipos was the first Patriarch of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church.
Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.
Al-Ahram (الأهرام; The Pyramids), founded on 5 August 1875, is the most widely circulating Egyptian daily newspaper, and the second oldest after al-Waqa'i`al-Masriya (The Egyptian Events, founded 1828).
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Alexandrian Rite is the liturgical rite used by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, as well as by the three corresponding Eastern Catholic Churches.
Alodia, also referred to as Alwa or Aloa, was a medieval Nubian kingdom in what is now central and southern Sudan.
Anathema, in common usage, is something or someone that is detested or shunned.
An anchorite or anchoret (female: anchoress; adj. anchoritic; from ἀναχωρητής, anachōrētḗs, "one who has retired from the world", from the verb ἀναχωρέω, anachōréō, signifying "to withdraw", "to retire") is someone who, for religious reasons, withdraws from secular society so as to be able to lead an intensely prayer-oriented, ascetic, or Eucharist-focused life.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Saint Anthony or Antony (Ἀντώνιος Antṓnios; Antonius); January 12, 251 – January 17, 356) was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony such as, by various epithets of his own:,, and For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church. The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness (about 270), which seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature. Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases. In the past, many such afflictions, including ergotism, erysipelas, and shingles, were referred to as St. Anthony's fire.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
In Catholicism, an apostolic see is any episcopal see whose foundation is attributed to one or more of the apostles of Jesus.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).
Arius (Ἄρειος, 250 or 256–336) was a Christian presbyter and ascetic of Berber origin, and priest in Baucalis in Alexandria, Egypt.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
Asmara (ኣስመራ), known locally as Asmera (meaning "They made them unite" in Tigrinya), is the capital city and largest city of Eritrea.
An assistant bishop in the Anglican Communion is a bishop appointed to assist a diocesan bishop.
Athanasius of Alexandria (Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας; ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲓⲕⲟⲥ or Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲁ̅; c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the 20th bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I).
Athenagoras (Ἀθηναγόρας ὁ Ἀθηναῖος; c. 133 – c. 190 AD) was a Father of the Church, an Ante-Nicene Christian apologist who lived during the second half of the 2nd century of whom little is known for certain, besides that he was Athenian (though possibly not originally from Athens), a philosopher, and a convert to Christianity.
Autocephaly (from αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchical Christian Church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop (used especially in Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Independent Catholic churches).
An auxiliary bishop is a bishop assigned to assist the diocesan bishop in meeting the pastoral and administrative needs of the diocese.
Axion estin (Greek: Ἄξιον ἐστίν, Slavonic: Достóйно éсть, Dostóino yesť), or It is Truly Meet, is a megalynarion and a theotokion, i.e. a magnification of and a Hymn to Mary which is chanted in the Divine Services of the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches.
Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).
Benedict of Nursia (Benedictus Nursiae; Benedetto da Norcia; Vulgar Latin: *Benedecto; Benedikt; 2 March 480 – 543 or 547 AD) is a Christian saint, who is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion and Old Catholic Churches.
The Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs is an academic research center at Georgetown University in Washington, DC dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of religion, ethics, and politics.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired.
The British Orthodox Church, formerly known as the Orthodox Church of the British Isles, is a small independent Oriental Orthodox church defining its mission to the people of the British Isles.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
In the practice of Christianity, canonical hours mark the divisions of the day in terms of periods of fixed prayer at regular intervals.
The Catechetical School of Alexandria was a school of Christian theologians and priests in Alexandria.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.
Chalcedonian Christianity is the Christian denominations adhering to christological definitions and ecclesiological resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, the Fourth Ecumenical Council held in 451.
A chorbishop is a rank of Christian clergy below bishop.
Christian Cannuyer (born 1957) is a Belgian historian of religion, professor at the Lille Catholic University, a specialist in Coptic Studies and a genealogist.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity in Africa began in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
Christotokos is the Greek title of Mary, the mother of Jesus used historically by non-Ephesians followers of the Church of the East.
The Church History (Ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἱστορία; Historia Ecclesiastica or Historia Ecclesiae) of Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea was a 4th-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the 1st century to the 4th century.
The Church of Alexandria in Egypt is the Christian Church headed by the Patriarch of Alexandria.
The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Church with independent hierarchy from the Nestorian Schism (431–544), while tracing its history to the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan in the Parthian Empire.
Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria (Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 150 – c. 215), was a Christian theologian who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria.
CNSNews.com (formerly known as Cybercast News Service) is a politically conservative American news and commentary website founded by L. Brent Bozell III and owned by Media Research Center, Bozell's Reston, Virginia-based organization.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
Coptic architecture is the architecture of the Copts, who form the majority of Christians in Egypt.
The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is a liturgical calendar that was used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and is still used in Egypt.
The Coptic diaspora consists of Copts who live outside of their primary area of residence within parts of present-day Egypt, Libya and Sudan.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
Coptic Orphans is an award-winning international Christian development organization that unlocks the God-given potential of Egypt's most vulnerable children through the power of education.
This article, dealing with the Coptic Orthodox Church in Africa, is about the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria in African countries other than Egypt.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria has many churches and congregations in the continent of Asia.
This article is about Coptic Orthodoxy in Australia.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria has several churches in Great Britain and Ireland, under the jurisdiction of four diocesan bishops.
The immigration of the Copts to Canada (Copts in Canada) might have started as early as the late 1950s.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria has many churches and congregations in Europe and on 2 June 1974 Pope Shenouda III has received in the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria a native Orthodox Church in France known as the French Orthodox Eparchy, along with their Primate, who in turn was accepted after consecration into the Episcopate, in the Holy Synod of the Church of Alexandria and hence was appointed their Primate Marcos (Mark), as the first Bishop and Athanasius as Chorbishop of The French Orthodox Eparchy.
Coptic Orthodox Church in Mexico represents adherents, religious communities, institutions and organizations of Coptic Orthodox Church in Mexico.
The Copts began to immigrate to the United States as early as the late 1940s.
The Coptic Orthodox Church in South America has bishops in Bolivia and Brazil.
The immigration of the Copts to the United States of America started as early as the late 1940s.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
Copts in Egypt refers to Coptic people born in or residing in Egypt.
Copts in Libya may refer to people born in or residing in Libya of full or partial Coptic origin.
Copts in Sudan may refer to people born in or residing in Sudan of full or partial Coptic origin.
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon.
The Council of Ephesus was a council of Christian bishops convened in Ephesus (near present-day Selçuk in Turkey) in AD 431 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
Cyril of Alexandria (Κύριλλος Ἀλεξανδρείας; Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲕⲩⲣⲓⲗⲗⲟⲩ ⲁ̅ also ⲡⲓ̀ⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲕⲓⲣⲓⲗⲗⲟⲥ; c. 376 – 444) was the Patriarch of Alexandria from 412 to 444.
Découvertes Gallimard (literally in English “Discoveries Gallimard”; in United Kingdom: New Horizons, in United States: Abrams Discoveries) is an encyclopaedic of illustrated, pocket-sized books on a variety of subjects, aimed at adults and teenagers.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
The Derg, Common Derg or Dergue (Ge'ez: ደርግ, meaning "committee" or "council") is the short name of the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police and Territorial Army that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987.
The Desert Fathers (along with Desert Mothers) were early Christian hermits, ascetics, and monks who lived mainly in the Scetes desert of Egypt beginning around the third century AD.
Didymus the Blind (alternatively spelled Dedimus or Didymous) (c. 313398) was a Christian theologian in the Church of Alexandria, where he taught for about half a century.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
In Christian theology, dyophysitism (Greek: δυοφυσιτισμός, from δυο (dyo), meaning "two" and φύσις (physis), meaning "nature") is the Christological position that two natures, divine and human, exist in the person of Jesus Christ.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
The ancient Egyptian calendar was a solar calendar with a 365-day year.
The Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights or EIPR (المبادرة المصرية للحقوق الشخصية) is an independent Egyptian human rights organization, established in 2002.
The Egyptian revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution (ثورة 25 يناير), and as the Egyptian Revolution of Dignity began on 25 January 2011 and took place across all of Egypt.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church with its headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Eutyches (Εὐτυχής; c. 380 – c. 456) was a presbyter and archimandrite at Constantinople.
The term exarch comes from the Ancient Greek ἔξαρχος, exarchos, and designates holders of various historical offices, some of them being political or military and others being ecclesiastical.
The First Council of Constantinople (Πρώτη σύνοδος της Κωνσταντινουπόλεως commonly known as Β΄ Οικουμενική, "Second Ecumenical"; Concilium Constantinopolitanum Primum or Concilium Constantinopolitanum A) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This second ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, except for the Western Church,Richard Kieckhefer (1989).
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
The flight into Egypt is a story recounted in the Gospel of Matthew (Matthew 2:13–23) and the New Testament apocrypha.
In Christian tradition, the Four Evangelists are Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the authors attributed with the creation of the four Gospel accounts in the New Testament that bear the following titles: Gospel according to Matthew; Gospel according to Mark; Gospel according to Luke and Gospel according to John.
The French Coptic Orthodox Church (Métropole copte orthodoxe de France) is a Coptic Orthodox church centered in France.
Saint Frumentius (ፍሬምናጦስ Fremnāṭos; born in Tyre, Eastern Roman Empire, in the early fourth century, died circa 383, Kingdom of Aksum) was the first bishop of Axum, and is credited with bringing Christianity to the Kingdom of Aksum.
Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denominations that they share certain essential principles of Christian theology.
General Congregation Council (المجلس الملي العام للأقباط الأرثوذكس) is part of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria and represents the laity of the Church, it is also known as the Coptic Orthodox Lay Council Established in February 1874 during the vacancy time of the Patriarchal Throne before the election of Pope Cyril V of Alexandria.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
The Gospel According to Luke (Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan evangelion), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and all Africa (Greek: Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀλεξανδρείας καὶ πάσης Ἀφρικῆς, Patriarcheîon Alexandreías kaì pásēs Aphrikês) is an autocephalous Byzantine Rite jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Church, having the African continent as its canonical territory.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Greensboro (formerly Greensborough) is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Hegumen, hegumenos, or igumen (ἡγούμενος, trans.) is the title for the head of a monastery in the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, similar to the title of abbot.
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
Hexapla (Ἑξαπλᾶ, "sixfold") is the term for a critical edition of the Hebrew Bible in six versions, four of them translated into Greek, preserved only in fragments.
The history of the Catholic Church begins with Jesus Christ and His teachings (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30), and the Catholic Church is a continuation of the early Christian community established by Jesus.
The Holy Family consists of the Child Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and Saint Joseph.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
The Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the highest Orthodox authority in the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Hosius of Corduba (c. 256 – 359), also known as Osius or Ossius, was a bishop of Corduba (now Córdoba, Spain) and an important and prominent advocate for Homoousion Christianity in the Arian controversy that divided the early Christianity.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Hypostasis (Greek: ὑπόστασις) is the underlying state or underlying substance and is the fundamental reality that supports all else.
Hypostatic union (from the Greek: ὑπόστασις hypóstasis, "sediment, foundation, substance, subsistence") is a technical term in Christian theology employed in mainstream Christology to describe the union of Christ's humanity and divinity in one hypostasis, or individual existence.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
The Institute of Coptic Studies (معهد الدراسات القبطية) was founded in 1954 by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
Inter Press Service (IPS) is a global news agency.
Irreligion in Egypt is controversial due to the largely conservative nature of the country.
Isaiah (or;; ܐܹܫܲܥܝܵܐ ˀēšaˁyā; Greek: Ἠσαΐας, Ēsaïās; Latin: Isaias; Arabic: إشعيا Ašaʿyāʾ or šaʿyā; "Yah is salvation") was the 8th-century BC Jewish prophet for whom the Book of Isaiah is named.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.
John Chrysostom (Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; c. 349 – 14 September 407), Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
The area of North Africa which has been known as Libya since 1911 was under Roman domination between 146 BC and 672 AD.
This is a list of the Abunas of Ethiopia, the spiritual heads of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church.
The following is a list of all of the Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria who have led the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria and have succeeded the Apostle Mark the Evangelist in the office of Bishop of Alexandria, who founded the Church in the 1st century, and therefore marked the beginning of Christianity in Africa.
The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria has the title Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria and All Africa. The following list contains all the incumbents of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria.
Lower Egypt (مصر السفلى.) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.
Luke the Evangelist (Latin: Lūcās, Λουκᾶς, Loukãs, לוקאס, Lūqās, לוקא, Lūqā&apos) is one of the Four Evangelists—the four traditionally ascribed authors of the canonical Gospels.
Macarius of Egypt (Ὅσιος Μακάριος ο Ἀιγύπτιος, Osios Makarios o Egyptios; ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲙⲁⲕⲁⲣⲓ; 300-391) was an Egyptian Christian monk and hermit.
The Kingdom of Makuria (Old Nubian: ⲇⲱⲧⲁⲩⲟ, Dotawo; Greek: Μακογρια, Makouria; مقرة, al-Muqurra) was a Nubian kingdom located in what is today Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt.
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
Marcian (Flavius Marcianus Augustus; Μαρκιανός; 392 – 26 January 457) was the Eastern Roman Emperor from 450 to 457.
Saint Mark the Evangelist (Mārcus; Μᾶρκος; Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ; מרקוס; مَرْقُس; ማርቆስ; ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
The term "Melkite", also written "Melchite", refers to various Byzantine Rite Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East.
A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications.
A metropolis or metropolitan archdiocese is a see or city whose bishop is the metropolitan of a province.
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.
Miaphysitism is a Christological formula holding that in the person of Jesus Christ, divine nature and human nature are united (μία, mia – "one" or "unity") in a compound nature ("physis"), the two being united without separation, without mixture, without confusion and without alteration.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Minya Governorate (محافظة المنيا) is one of the governorates of Upper Egypt.
A missionary bishop is one assigned in the Anglican Communion to an area that is not already organized under a bishop of a church.
The Mohr Siebeck Verlag is a long-established academic publisher focused on the humanities and social sciences and based in Tübingen, Germany.
The Monastery of Saint Anthony is a Coptic Orthodox monastery standing in an oasis in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, in the southern part of the Suez Governorate.
The Monastery of Saint Fana is a Coptic Orthodox monastery.
The Monastery of Saint Macarius '''the Great''' also known as Dayr Abū Maqār (دير الأنبا مقار) is a Coptic Orthodox monastery located in Wadi El Natrun, Beheira Governorate, about 92 km north west of Cairo, and off the highway between Cairo and Alexandria.
The Monastery of Saint Matthew the Potter, also known as the Monastery of Saint Matthew the Poor, is a Coptic Orthodox monastery in Upper Egypt.
The Monastery of Saint Mina is a monastery of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria located in the Western Desert near Alexandria.
The Monastery of Saint Paul the Anchorite in Egypt is a Coptic Orthodox monastery located in the Eastern Desert, near the Red Sea mountains.
The Monastery of Saint Pishoy (also spelled Bishoy, Pshoi, or Bishoi) in Wadi El Natrun, Beheira Governorate, Egypt, is the most famous monastery of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria named after Pishoy.
The Monastery of Saint Ammonius, also known as the Monastery of the Martyrs, is a Coptic Orthodox monastery near Esna.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.
The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt or Arab conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire, which had its capital at Constantinople.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
Nestorius (in Νεστόριος; 386 – 450) was Archbishop of Constantinople (now Istanbul) from 10 April 428 to August 431, when Emperor Theodosius II confirmed his condemnation by the Council of Ephesus on 22 June.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The Nicene Creed (Greek: or,, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Nobatia or Nobadia (Greek: Νοβαδἰα, Nobadia; Old Nubian: ⲙⲓⲅⲓⲧⲛ︦ ⲅⲟⲩⲗ, Migitin Goul) was a late antique kingdom in Lower Nubia.
Non-Chalcedonianism is a religious doctrine of those Christian churches that do not accept the Confession of Chalcedon as defined at the ecumenical Council of Chalcedon in 451.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
Nubians are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization.
Oikonomos (οἰκονόμος, from oiko- 'house' and -nomos 'rule, law'), latinized oeconomus or œconomus, was an Ancient Greek word meaning 'manager' or 'housekeeper'.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
An ordinary (from Latin ordinarius) is an officer of a church or civic authority who by reason of office has ordinary power to execute laws.
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
Oxyrhynchus (Ὀξύρρυγχος Oxýrrhynkhos; "sharp-nosed"; ancient Egyptian Pr-Medjed; Coptic Pemdje; modern Egyptian Arabic El Bahnasa) is a city in Middle Egypt, located about 160 km south-southwest of Cairo, in the governorate of Al Minya.
Saint Pachomius (Παχώμιος, ca. 292–348), also known as Pachome and Pakhomius, is generally recognized as the founder of Christian cenobitic monasticism.
Saint Pantaenus the Philosopher (Πάνταινος; died c. 200) was a Greek theologian and a significant figure in the Catechetical School of Alexandria from around AD 180.
The Paromeos Monastery (ⲡⲁⲣⲟⲙⲉⲟⲥ), also known as Baramos Monastery (البراموس), is a Coptic Orthodox monastery located in Wadi El Natrun (the Nitrian Desert), Beheira Governorate, Egypt.
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).
The Patriarch of Alexandria is the archbishop of Alexandria, Egypt.
Paul of Thebes, commonly known as Paul or in Egyptian Arabic as Amba Bola, the First Hermit or Paul the Anchorite,; (d. c. 341) is regarded as the first Christian hermit; who lived alone in the desert from the age of sixteen to one hundred thirteen years of his age.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
St Alexander I of Alexandria, 19th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.
This article uses dates and years written in the Coptic calendar, using the A.M. (Anno Martyrum) calendar era, in addition to the Gregorian calendar, using the A.D. (Anno Domini) calendar era. Pope Cyril VI of Alexandria also called Abba Kyrillos VI, Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲕⲩⲣⲓⲗⲗⲟⲩ ⲋ̅; born (8 August 1902 – 9 March 1971; 2 Mesori 1618 –30 Meshir 1687), 116th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark from 10 May 1959 (2 Pashons 1675) to his death on 9 March 1971 (30 Meshir 1687).
Pope Dioscorus I of Alexandria, 25th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.
Pope Heraclas (Theoclas), 13th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.
Pope Joseph II of Alexandria (Abba Yousab II) was the 115th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.
The Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, a faith with ancient Christian roots in Egypt.
Pope Shenouda III (Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ϣⲉⲛⲟⲩϯ ⲅ̅; بابا الإسكندرية شنودة الثالث; 3 August 1921 – 17 March 2012) was the 117th Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.
This article uses dates and years written in the Coptic calendar, using the A.M. (Anno Martyrum) calendar era, in addition to the Gregorian calendar, using the A.D. calendar era. Pope Tawadros II (Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲑⲉⲟ́ⲇⲱⲣⲟⲥ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩ ⲃ̅ Papa Abba Theódōrōs II; البابا تواضروس الثاني al-Bābā Tawāḍurūs al-ṯhānī, English: Pope Theodore II) (born 4 November 1952; 25 Paopi 1668) is the 118th and current Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark, succeeding the late Pope Shenouda III as leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
Theophilus was the 23rd Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St.
Pope Timothy I of Alexandria, 22nd Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark. He presided over the second Ecumenical Council at Constantinople called by Emperor Theodosius.
Pope Timothy II of Alexandria (died 477), also known as Αἴλουρος/Aelurus (from Greek cat because of his small build or in this case probably "weasel"), succeeded twice in supplanting the Chalcedonian Patriarch of Alexandria.
In the New Testament, a presbyter (Greek πρεσβύτερος: "elder") is a leader of a local Christian congregation.
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some archbishops in certain Christian churches.
A prophecy is a message that is claimed by a prophet to have been communicated to them by a god.
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
Hieromartyr Proterius of Alexandria (died 457) was Patriarch of Alexandria from 451 to 457.
The Red Monastery is a Coptic Orthodox monastery named after an Egyptian saint called Pishay (who is not to be confused with the famous Saint Pishoy).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral is a Coptic church in Alexandria, Egypt.
Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral is a Coptic Orthodox church in Azbakeya, Cairo.
Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.
Saint Samuel the Confessor (referred to in academic literature as Samuel of Kalamoun or Samuel of Qalamun) is a Coptic Orthodox saint, venerated in all Oriental Orthodox Churches.
The Second Council of Ephesus was a Christological church synod in 449 AD convened by Emperor Theodosius II under the presidency of Pope Dioscorus I of Alexandria.
A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, herds, feeds, or guards herds of sheep.
Smith, Elder & Co. or Smith, Elder, and Co. or Smith, Elder and Co. was a British publishing company who were most noted for the works they published in the 19th century.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop.
A suffragan diocese is one of the dioceses other than the metropolitan archdiocese that constitute an ecclesiastical province.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
The Syrian Monastery is a Coptic Orthodox monastery located in Wadi El Natrun (the Nitrian Desert), Beheira Governorate, Egypt.
Tahrir Square (ميدان التحرير,, English: Liberation Square), also known as "Martyr Square", is a major public town square in Downtown Cairo, Egypt.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
A text file (sometimes spelled "textfile"; an old alternative name is "flatfile") is a kind of computer file that is structured as a sequence of lines of electronic text.
The American University in Cairo (abbreviated to AUC; الجامعة الأمريكية بالقاهرة) is an independent, English language, private, research university located in Cairo, Egypt.
The Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., focused on the foreign policy of the United States as it pertains to the countries in the Near East.
Theophilus is the name or honorary title of the person to whom the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles are addressed (Luke 1:3, Acts 1:1).
Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, mother of God, used especially in Eastern Christianity.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
A vicar (Latin: vicarius) is a representative, deputy or substitute; anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior (compare "vicarious" in the sense of "at second hand").
The Coptic White Monastery is a Coptic Orthodox monastery named after Saint Shenouda the Archimandrite.
The Zabbaleen (زبالين) is a word which literally means "garbage people" in Egyptian Arabic.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The 2011 Alexandria bombing was an attack on Coptic Christians in Alexandria, Egypt, on Saturday, 1 January 2011.
Alexandrian Coptic Church, Alexandrian Coptic Patriarchate, Alexandrian Oriental Orthodox, Alexandrian Oriental Orthodox Church, Alexandrian Oriental Orthodox Patriarchate, Alexandrian Oriental-Orthodox, Alexandrian Oriental-Orthodox Church, Alexandrian Oriental-Orthodox Patriarchate, Christian - Coptic Orthodox, Christian coptic orthodox church of egypt, Coptic Christian, Coptic Christian Church, Coptic Church, Coptic Church of Alexandria, Coptic Nation, Coptic Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox Christian, Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Coptic Orthodox Church, Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate, Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria, Coptic Orthodox church, Coptic Orthodoxy, Coptic christian, Coptic church of Alexandria, Coptic nation, Coptic orthodox, Coptic orthodox church of alexandria, Coptic orthodoxy, Egyptian Christianity, Egyptian Church, Egyptian Orthodox, Egyptian Orthodox Church, Egyptian christianity, Egyptian church, Orienatal Orthodoxy in Egypt, Oriental Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria, Orthodox Church in Africa, Orthodox Spiritual Healing Amongst Egyptians, Orthodox spiritual healing amongst Egyptians, Qibti, The Coptic Orthodox Church, The Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria, The Third Epistle of Saint Cyril to Nestorius, Third Epistle of Saint Cyril to Nestorius, Ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos ente alexandrias, Ϯⲉⲕ'ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ 'ⲛⲣⲉⲙ'ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ 'ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ.