201 relations: Adelphi Charter, Aftermarket (merchandise), Alberta (Education) v Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency (Access Copyright), All rights reserved, American Institute for Conservation, American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, Anthropomorphism, Artificial scarcity, Audio Home Recording Act, Australia, Author, Baker v. Selden, Berne Convention, Book, Bookselling, Broadcast Music, Inc., Broadcasting, Bruce Lehman, BSD licenses, Buenos Aires Convention, Canada, Capitalism, Censorship, Choreography, Civil law (common law), Commodification, Common law copyright, Commonwealth of Nations, Compact disc, Compulsory license, Conflict of laws, Copyfraud, Copying, Copyleft, Copynorms, Copyright Act of 1976, Copyright Alliance, Copyright alternatives, Copyright aspects of hyperlinking and framing, Copyright Clause, Copyright collective, Copyright Directive, Copyright for Creativity, Copyright formalities, Copyright in architecture in the United States, Copyright infringement, Copyright law of Germany, Copyright on religious works, Copyright on the content of patents and in the context of patent prosecution, Copyright protection for fictional characters, ..., Copyright registration, Copyright symbol, Copyright term, Copyright Term Extension Act, Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, Cornell University, Court, Creative Barcode, Creative Commons, Creative Commons license, Creative work, Criminal law, Crypto-anarchism, Debian Free Software Guidelines, Definition of Free Cultural Works, Der Spiegel, Derivative work, Design, Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Digital rights, Digital rights management, Digital watermarking, Download, Drama, Drawing, English law, Entertainment law, Europe, European Union, European Union law, Evidence (law), Exclusive right, Exhaustion of intellectual property rights, Fair use, File sharing, Film, First-sale doctrine, Free Culture (book), Free license, Freedom of panorama, GNU General Public License, Good Copy Bad Copy, Gratis versus libre, Hal Abelson, Harvard Business School, Industrial design, Intellectual property, Intellectual property education, Intellectual property protection of typefaces, International organization, Internet, James Boyle (academic), Joint authorship, Jurisdiction, Kirtsaeng v. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Latin America, Law of Australia, Law of the United States, Lawrence Lessig, Legal advice, Legal aspects of file sharing, Legislation, License, Licensing of the Press Act 1662, Limitations and exceptions to copyright, List of Copyright Acts, List of copyright case law, Little Nemo, Mickey Mouse, Middle Ages, MIT Sloan School of Management, Model release, Moral rights, Music, Music industry, Natural and legal rights, Nimmer on Copyright, Open data, Opposition to copyright, Originality, Painting, Paracopyright, Parallel import, Parliament of England, Parody, Patent, Performance rights organisation, Performing rights, Permission culture, Permissive software licence, Philosophy of copyright, Photography, Photography and the law, Pirate Party, Plagiarism detection, Poetry, Poor man's copyright, Postmark, Prima facie, Printing press, Private copying levy, Production music, Public domain, Publication, Radio, Real estate, Recording Industry Association of America, Rent-seeking, Reproduction fees, Right to property, RiP!: A Remix Manifesto, Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations, Samizdat, Sculpture, SESAC, Shuman Ghosemajumder, Software, Software copyright, Sound recording and reproduction, Sound recording copyright symbol, Sovereignty, Soviet Union, Statute of Anne, Statutory damages for copyright infringement, Steamboat Willie, Sui generis database right, Supreme Court of Canada, Supreme Court of the United States, Television, The Free Software Definition, The Open Source Definition, The Walt Disney Company, Thesis, Threshold of originality, Threshold pledge system, Title 17 of the United States Code, Trademark, Trans-Pacific Partnership, TRIPS Agreement, United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property, United Kingdom, United States Copyright Office, Universal Copyright Convention, Unregistered design right, Washington State University, WIPO Copyright Treaty, WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty, Work for hire, World Intellectual Property Organization, World Trade Organization, Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers. Expand index (151 more) » « Shrink index
The Adelphi Charter on Creativity, Innovation and Intellectual Property is the result of a project commissioned by the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce, London, UK, and is intended as a positive statement of what good intellectual property policy is.
In many economic literature, the term "aftermarket" refers to a secondary market for the goods and services that are 1) complementary or 2) related to its primary market goods (original equipment). Thus, in many industries, the primary market consists of durable goods, whereas the aftermarket consists of consumable or non-durable products or services. Accordingly, the "aftermarket goods" mainly include products and services for replacement parts, upgrade, maintenance and enhancement of the use of its original equipment.
Alberta (Education) v Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency (Access Copyright),, is a Supreme Court of Canada case that considered whether the photocopying of textbook excerpts by teachers, on their own initiative, to distribute to students as part of course materials is fair dealing pursuant to the provisions of the Copyright Act.
"All rights reserved" is a copyright formality indicating that the copyright holder reserves, or holds for its own use, all the rights provided by copyright law.
The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC) is a national membership organization of conservation professionals, headquartered in Washington D.C..
The American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) is an American not-for-profit performance-rights organization (PRO) that protects its members' musical copyrights by monitoring public performances of their music, whether via a broadcast or live performance, and compensating them accordingly.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
Artificial scarcity describes the scarcity of items even though either the technology and production, or sharing capacity exists to create a theoretically limitless abundance, as well as the use of laws to create scarcity where otherwise there wouldn't be.
The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA) amended the United States copyright law by adding Chapter 10, "Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media".
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is thus also a writer.
Baker v. Selden,,. was a leading Supreme Court of the United States copyright case cited to explain the idea-expression dichotomy.
The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, usually known as the Berne Convention, is an international agreement governing copyright, which was first accepted in Berne, Switzerland, in 1886.
A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it.
Bookselling is the commercial trading of books which is the retail and distribution end of the publishing process.
Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI) is one of five United States performing rights organizations, along with ASCAP, SESAC, Global Music Rights, &. It collects license fees on behalf of songwriters, composers, and music publishers and distributes them as royalties to those members whose works have been performed.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
Bruce A. Lehman (born September 19, 1945) served from August 5, 1993 through 1998 as the United States Assistant Secretary of Commerce and Commissioner of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
BSD licenses are a family of permissive free software licenses, imposing minimal restrictions on the use and redistribution of covered software.
The Buenos Aires Convention (Third Pan-American Convention) is a copyright treaty signed at Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 11 August 1910, providing mutual recognition of copyrights where the work carries a notice containing a statement of reservation of rights (Art. 3).
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Choreography is the art or practice of designing sequences of movements of physical bodies (or their depictions) in which motion, form, or both are specified.
Civil law is a branch of the law.
Commodification is the transformation of goods, services, ideas and people into commodities, or objects of trade.
Common law copyright is the legal doctrine which grants copyright protection based on common law of various jurisdictions, rather than through protection of statutory law.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
A compulsory license provides that the owner of a patent or copyright licenses the use of their rights against payment either set by law or determined through some form of adjudication or arbitration.
Conflict of laws concerns relations across different legal jurisdictions between natural persons, companies, corporations and other legal entities, their legal obligations and the appropriate forum and procedure for resolving disputes between them.
Copyfraud refers to false copyright claims by individuals or institutions with respect to content that is in the public domain.
Copying is the duplication of information or an artifact based only on an instance of that information or artifact, and not using the process that originally generated it.
Copyleft (a play on the word copyright) is the practice of offering people the right to freely distribute copies and modified versions of a work with the stipulation that the same rights be preserved in derivative works down the line.
As used by copyright theorists, the term copynorm (or more frequently copynorms) is used to refer to a normalized social standard regarding the ethical issue of duplicating copyrighted material.
The Copyright Act of 1976 is a United States copyright law and remains the primary basis of copyright law in the United States, as amended by several later enacted copyright provisions.
The Copyright Alliance is a nonprofit, nonpartisan 501(c)(4) organization representing artistic creators across a broad range of copyright disciplines.
Various copyright alternatives in an alternative compensation systems (ACS) have been proposed as ways to allow the widespread reproduction of digital copyrighted works while still paying the authors and copyright owners of those works.
In copyright law, the legal status of hyperlinking (also termed "linking") and that of framing concern how courts address two different but related web technologies.
The Copyright Clause (also known as the Intellectual Property Clause, Copyright and Patent Clause, or the Progress Clause) describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 8).
A copyright collective (also known as a copyright collecting agency, licensing agency or copyright collecting society or collective management organization) is a body created by copyright law or private agreement which engages in collective rights management.
The Copyright Directive (officially the Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society, also known as the Information Society Directive or the InfoSoc Directive), is a directive of the European Union enacted to implement the WIPO Copyright Treaty and to harmonise aspects of copyright law across Europe, such as copyright exceptions. The directive was enacted under the internal market provisions of the Treaty of Rome. The directive was subject to unprecedented lobbying and has been cited as a success for copyright industries. The directive gives EU Member States significant freedom in certain aspects of transposition. Member States had until 22 December 2002 to implement the directive into their national laws. However, only Greece and Denmark met the deadline and the European Commission eventually initiated enforcement action against six Member States for non-implementation.
Copyright for Creativity - A Declaration for Europe issued on 5 May 2010, is intended as a statement of how copyright policy could be constructed in the Internet Age.
Copyright formalities are legal (generally statutory) requirements needed to obtain a copyright in a particular jurisdiction.
Copyright in architecture is an important, but little understood subject in the architectural discipline.
Copyright infringement is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works.
German authors' right or Deutsches Urheberrecht is codified in the Gesetz über Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte (also referred to as Urhebergesetz or Urheberrechtsgesetz and abbreviated UrhG).
In regards to copyright on religious works, it is not always clear who the rightholder is.
The copyright status of the content of patent applications and patents may vary from one legislation to another.
Copyright protection is available to the creators of a range of works including literary, musical, dramatic and artistic works.
The purpose of copyright registration is to place on record a verifiable account of the date and content of the work in question, so that in the event of a legal claim, or case of infringement or plagiarism, the copyright owner can produce a copy of the work from an official government source.
The copyright symbol, or copyright sign, © (a circled capital letter C for copyright), is the symbol used in copyright notices for works other than sound recordings (which are indicated with the ℗ symbol).
Copyright term is the length of time copyright subsists in a work before it passes into the public domain.
The Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA) of 1998 extended copyright terms in the United States.
The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, also known as the CDPA, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that received Royal Assent on 15 November 1988.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.
Creative Barcode is a nonprofit organization that allows members to share new ideas without the risk of unauthorized copying.
Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.
A Creative Commons (CC) license is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work.
A creative work is a manifestation of creative effort including fine artwork (sculpture, paintings, drawing, sketching, performance art), dance, writing (literature), filmmaking, and musical composition.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Crypto-anarchism (or crypto-anarchy) is a cyber-spatial realization of anarchism.
The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) is a set of guidelines that the Debian Project uses to determine whether a software license is a free software license, which in turn is used to determine whether a piece of software can be included in Debian.
The Definition of Free Cultural Works is a definition of free content from 2006.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
In copyright law, a derivative work is an expressive creation that includes major copyright-protected elements of an original, previously created first work (the underlying work).
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
The term digital rights describes the human rights that allow individuals to access, use, create, and publish digital media or to access and use computers, other electronic devices, or communications networks.
Digital rights management (DRM) is a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works.
A digital watermark is a kind of marker covertly embedded in a noise-tolerant signal such as an audio, video or image data.
In computer networks, to download (abbreviation DL) is to receive data from a remote system, typically a server such as a web server, an FTP server, an email server, or other similar systems.
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play performed in a theatre, or on radio or television.
Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
Entertainment law, also referred to as media law is legal services provided to the entertainment industry.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.
The law of evidence, also known as the rules of evidence, encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding.
In Anglo-Saxon law, an exclusive right, or exclusivity, is a de facto, non-tangible prerogative existing in law (that is, the power or, in a wider sense, right) to perform an action or acquire a benefit and to permit or deny others the right to perform the same action or to acquire the same benefit.
The exhaustion of intellectual property rights constitutes one of the limits of intellectual property (IP) rights.
Fair use is a doctrine in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder.
File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents or electronic books.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
The first-sale doctrine is a legal concept playing an important role in U.S. copyright and trademark law by limiting certain rights of a copyright or trademark owner.
Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity (published in paperback as Free Culture: The Nature and Future of Creativity) is a 2004 book by law professor Lawrence Lessig that was released on the Internet under the Creative Commons Attribution/Non-commercial license on March 25, 2004.
A free license or open license is a license agreement which contains conditions permitted to the user from the holder on a specific list of uses for his work, which gives him four major freedoms.
Freedom of panorama (FOP) is a provision in the copyright laws of various jurisdictions that permits taking photographs and video footage and creating other images (such as paintings) of buildings and sometimes sculptures and other art works which are permanently located in a public place, without infringing on any copyright that may otherwise subsist in such works, and the publishing of such images.
The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
Good Copy Bad Copy (subtitled "A documentary about the current state of copyright and culture") is a 2007 documentary film about copyright and culture in the context of Internet, peer-to-peer file sharing and other technological advances, directed by Andreas Johnsen, Ralf Christensen, and Henrik Moltke.
The English adjective free is commonly used in one of two meanings: "for free" (gratis) and "with little or no restriction" (libre).
Harold "Hal" Abelson (born April 26, 1947) is a Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, a fellow of the IEEE, and a founding director of both Creative Commons and the Free Software Foundation.
Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate business school of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts.
Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production.
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
Intellectual property education is the teaching of explanations of and arguments concerning intellectual property laws, especially copyright and related violations.
Typefaces, fonts, and their glyphs raise intellectual property considerations in copyright, trademark, design patent, and related laws.
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
James Boyle (born 1959) is a Scottish intellectual property scholar who is the William Neal Reynolds Professor of Law and co-founder of the Center for the Study of the Public Domain at Duke University School of Law in Durham, North Carolina.
Joint authorship of a copyrightable work is when two or more persons contribute enough to the work to be the author of that work.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
Kirtsaeng v. Wiley, 568 U.S. 519, 133 S. Ct.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The law of Australia comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law.
The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States.
Lester Lawrence "Larry" Lessig III (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic, attorney, and political activist.
Legal advice is the giving of a professional or formal opinion regarding the substance or procedure of the law in relation to a particular factual situation.
File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents or electronic books.
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit).
The Licensing of the Press Act 1662 is an Act of the Parliament of England (14 Car. II. c. 33), long title "An Act for preventing the frequent Abuses in printing seditious treasonable and unlicensed Books and Pamphlets and for regulating of Printing and Printing Presses." It was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863.
Limitations and exceptions to copyright are provisions, in local copyright law or Berne Convention, which allow for copyrighted works to be used without a license from the copyright owner.
This is a list of copyright Acts, which are laws enacting the copyright.
The following is a list of cases that deal with issues of concern to copyright in various jurisdictions.
Little Nemo is a fictional character created by American cartoonist Winsor McCay.
Mickey Mouse is a funny animal cartoon character and the mascot of The Walt Disney Company.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The MIT Sloan School of Management (also known as MIT Sloan or Sloan) is the business school of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
A model release, known in similar contexts as a liability waiver, is a legal release typically signed by the subject of a photograph granting permission to publish the photograph in one form or another.
Moral rights are rights of creators of copyrighted works generally recognized in civil law jurisdictions and, to a lesser extent, in some common law jurisdictions.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
The music industry consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows, audio and video recordings, compositions and sheet music, and the organizations and associations that aid and represent music creators.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
Nimmer on Copyright is a multi-volume legal treatise on United States copyright law that is widely cited in American courts, and has been influential for decades as the leading secondary source on American copyright law.
Open data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control.
Opposition to copyright or anti-copyright refers to a movement dissenting the nature of current copyright law, often focusing on perceived negative philosophical, economical or social effects of such laws.
Originality is the aspect of created or invented works as being new or novel, and thus distinguishable from reproductions, clones, forgeries, or derivative works.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
Paracopyright ("pseudocopyright" or "metacopyright") is legal protection above and beyond traditional copyright.
A parallel import is a non-counterfeit product imported from another country without the permission of the intellectual property owner.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
A parody (also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on something, caricature, or joke) is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
A performance rights organisation (PRO), also known as a performing rights society, provides intermediary functions, particularly collection of royalties, between copyright holders and parties who wish to use copyrighted works publicly in locations such as shopping and dining venues.
Performing rights are the right to perform music in public.
Permission culture is a term often employed by Lawrence Lessig and other copyright activists such as Luis Villa and Nina Paley to describe a society in which copyright restrictions are pervasive and enforced to the extent that any and all uses of copyrighted works need to be explicitly leased.
A permissive software license, sometimes also called BSD-like or BSD-style license, is a free software software license with minimal requirements about how the software can be redistributed.
The philosophy of copyright considers philosophical issues linked to copyright policy, and other jurisprudential problems that arise in legal systems' interpretation and application of copyright law.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
The intellectual property rights on photographs are protected in different jurisdictions by the laws governing copyright and moral rights.
Pirate Party is a label adopted by political parties in different countries.
Plagiarism detection is the process of locating instances of plagiarism within a work or document.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Poor man's copyright is a method of using registered dating by the postal service, a notary public or other highly trusted source to date intellectual property, thereby helping to establish that the material has been in one's possession since a particular time.
USS ''Texas'' A postmark is a postal marking made on a letter, package, postcard or the like indicating the date and time that the item was delivered into the care of the postal service.
Prima facie is a Latin expression meaning on its first encounter or at first sight.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
A private copying levy (also known as blank media tax or levy) is a government-mandated scheme in which a special tax or levy (additional to any general sales tax) is charged on purchases of recordable media.
Production music (also known as stock music or library music) is the name given to recorded music that can be licensed to customers for use in film, television, radio and other media.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
To publish is to make content available to the general public.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a trade organization that represents the recording industry in the United States.
In public choice theory and in economics, rent-seeking involves seeking to increase one's share of existing wealth without creating new wealth.
Reproduction fees are charged by image collections for the right to reproduce images in publications.
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
RiP!: A Remix Manifesto is a 2008 open-source documentary film about "the changing concept of copyright" directed by Brett Gaylor.
Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations
The Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations was accepted by members of BIRPI, the predecessor to the modern World Intellectual Property Organization, on 26 October 1961.
Samizdat was a form of dissident activity across the Eastern bloc in which individuals reproduced censored and underground publications by hand and passed the documents from reader to reader.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
SESAC, originally the Society of European Stage Authors and Composers is a performance-rights organization (PRO) in the United States.
Shuman Ghosemajumder (born 1974) is a Canadian technologist, entrepreneur, and author.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
Software copyright is the extension of copyright law to machine-readable software.
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.
The sound recording copyright symbol, represented by the graphic symbol ℗ (a circled capital letter P), is the copyright symbol used to provide notice of copyright in a sound recording (phonogram) embodied in a phonorecord (LPs, audiotapes, cassette tapes, compact discs, etc.). Present in Europe since at least the mid-1960s, the use of the symbol in United States copyright lawAct of Oct.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Statute of Anne, also known as the Copyright Act 1710 (cited either as 8 Ann. c. 21 or as 8 Ann. c. 19), is an act of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1710, which was the first statute to provide for copyright regulated by the government and courts, rather than by private parties.
Statutory damages for copyright infringement are available under some countries' copyright laws.
Steamboat Willie is a 1928 American animated short film directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks.
A sui generis database right is considered to be a property right, comparable to but distinct from copyright, that exists to recognise the investment that is made in compiling a database, even when this does not involve the "creative" aspect that is reflected by copyright.
The Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
The Free Software Definition written by Richard Stallman and published by Free Software Foundation (FSF), defines free software as being software that ensures that the end users have freedom in using, studying, sharing and modifying that software.
The Open Source Definition is a document published by the Open Source Initiative, to determine whether a software license can be labeled with the open-source certification mark.
The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate, headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California.
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
The threshold of originality is a concept in copyright law that is used to assess whether a particular work can be copyrighted.
The threshold pledge or fund and release system is a way of making a fundraising pledge as a group of individuals, often involving charitable goals or financing the provision of a public good.
Title 17 of the United States Code is the United States Code that outlines United States copyright law.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a trade agreement between Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, Vietnam, and United States signed on 4 February 2016, which was not ratified as required and did not take effect.
The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international legal agreement between all the member nations of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
The United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property (BIRPI) was an international organization.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Copyright Office, a part of the Library of Congress, is the official U.S. government body that maintains records of copyright registration in the United States, including a Copyright Catalog.
The Universal Copyright Convention (UCC), adopted in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1952, is one of the two principal international conventions protecting copyright; the other is the Berne Convention.
Washington State University (WSU) is a public research university in Pullman, Washington, in the Palouse region of the northwest United States. Founded in 1890, WSU (colloquially "Wazzu") is a land-grant university with programs in a broad range of academic disciplines. It is ranked in the top 140 universities in America with high research activity, as determined by U.S. News & World Report. With an undergraduate enrollment of 24,470 and a total enrollment of 29,686, it is the second largest institution of higher education in Washington state behind the University of Washington. The university also operates campuses across Washington known as WSU Spokane, WSU Tri-Cities, WSU Everett and WSU Vancouver, all founded in 1989. In 2012, WSU launched an Internet-based Global Campus, which includes its online degree program, WSU Online. These campuses award primarily bachelor's and master's degrees. Freshmen and sophomores were first admitted to the Vancouver campus in 2006 and to the Tri-Cities campus in 2007. Enrollment for the four campuses and WSU Online exceeds 29,686 students. This includes 1,751 international students. WSU's athletic teams are called the Cougars and the school colors are crimson and gray. Six men's and nine women's varsity teams compete in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference. Both men's and women's indoor track teams compete in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation.
The World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty (WIPO Copyright Treaty or WCT) is an international treaty on copyright law adopted by the member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in 1996.
The WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (or WPPT) is an international treaty signed by the member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization was adopted in Geneva on 20 December 1996.
In the copyright law of the United States, a work made for hire (work for hire or WFH) is a work subject to copyright that is created by an employee as part of their job, or some limited types of works for which all parties agree in writing to the WFH designation.
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN).
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
The Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers (until 1937 the Worshipful Company of Stationers), usually known as the Stationers' Company, is one of the livery companies of the City of London.
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