233 relations: Aiptasia, Al-Biruni, Alcyonacea, Aleutian Islands, Algae, Algae scrubber, Allele frequency, Allopatric speciation, Animal, Anthoathecata, Anthozoa, Aquaculture of coral, Aquarium, Aragonite, Aristotle, Asexual reproduction, Australia, Ayurveda, Bamboo coral, Biogeography, Bivalvia, Black coral, Blast fishing, Blue coral, Bone grafting, Brachiopod, Brain coral, Budding, Building material, Calcification, Calcite, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Cambrian, Canal, Cape Wrath, Carbon dioxide, Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, Cladogram, Class (biology), Climate change adaptation, Cloning, Cnidaria, Cnidocyte, Coenosarc, Colony (biology), Conservation movement, Constantinople, Coral bleaching, Coral Rag Formation, ..., Coral reef, Coral Reef Alliance, Corallimorpharia, Corallite, Crustacean, Darwin Mounds, Daytime, Deep sea, Dinoflagellate, Diploria labyrinthiformis, East India Company, Echinoderm, Ecological niche, Ecosystem, Egg, Eilat, El Niño, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Elkhorn coral, Endangered species, Eusmilia, Exoskeleton, Fiji, Fire coral, Fish, Fisheries management, Fossil, Full moon, Fungia, Fungiidae, Galen, Gamete, Gastropoda, Gastrovascular cavity, Gault, Gene flow, Genotype, Genus, Geochemistry, Geochronology, Geology, Gonochorism, Gorgonian, Gorgonin, Great Barrier Reef, Greek language, Green Fins, Green fluorescent protein, Greenhouse gas, Habitat, Helioporacea, Herbivore, Hermaphrodite, Hermatypic coral, Hexacorallia, Holocene, Hydrozoa, Incremental dating, Intertropical Convergence Zone, Israel, Δ18O, Jellyfish, Jewellery, Jurassic, Larva, Light Fantastic (TV series), Limestone, Lipid, List of index fossils, Live rock, Lophelia, Lunar phase, Man and the Biosphere Programme, Marine invertebrates, Marine park, Marine protected area, Mesentery (zoology), Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, Metabolite, Microatoll, Microfauna, Mitochondrial DNA, Model organism, Mollusca, Monophyly, National monument, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Science Foundation, Nutrient, Ocean, Ocean acidification, Octocorallia, Ordovician, Overexploitation, Overfishing, Oxford, Oxford Castle, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, Paleozoic, Parrotfish, Pedanius Dioscorides, Penicillaria, Penjing, Permian, Petrus Gyllius, PH, Photosynthesis, Phototaxis, Phylogenetic tree, Phylum, Pillar coral, Plankton, Planula, Platygyra, Pliny the Elder, Pollution, Polymorphism (materials science), Polynesia, Polyp, Porites, Precious coral, Qianlong Emperor, Queensland, Radiocarbon dating, Red Sea, Reef aquarium, Reproductive synchrony, Rugosa, Salinity, Sanskrit, Scleractinia, Scuba diving, Sea anemone, Sea level, Sea pen, Sea surface temperature, Sedimentary rock, Sessility (motility), Sexual reproduction, Shale, Silurian, Smithsonian Institution, Snorkeling, Solomon Islands, South America, South Pacific convergence zone, Southeast Asia, Southern Hemisphere, Speciation, Species, Sperm, Spirularia, St Michael at the North Gate, Stable isotope ratio, Staghorn coral, Stolon, Strontium, Surface runoff, Symbiodinium, Symbiosis, Symmetry in biology, Tabulata, Tentacle, Terpenoid, TheGuardian.com, Theophrastus, Tide, Triassic, Trilobite, Tube-dwelling anemone, Unicellular organism, United States Geological Survey, Urban runoff, Vanuatu, Venom, Vienna Dioscurides, Washington (state), William Herschel, World Heritage site, Yucatán Peninsula, Zoantharia, Zooxanthellae. Expand index (183 more) » « Shrink index
Aiptasia is a genus of a symbiotic cnidarian belonging to the class Anthozoa (sea anemones, corals).
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Alcyonacea, or soft corals, is an order of corals which do not produce calcium carbonate skeletons.
The Aleutian Islands (Tanam Unangaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts", possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U.S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
An algae scrubber is a water filtering device (not to be confused with a scrubber pad used to clean glass) which uses light to grow algae; in this process, undesirable chemicals are removed from the water.
Allele frequency, or gene frequency, is the relative frequency of an allele (variant of a gene) at a particular locus in a population, expressed as a fraction or percentage.
Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Anthoathecata, or the athecate hydroids, are an order of hydrozoans belonging to the phylum Cnidaria.
Anthozoa is a class of marine invertebrates which includes the sea anemones, stony corals, soft corals and gorgonians.
Coral aquaculture, also known as coral farming or coral gardening, is the cultivation of corals for commercial purposes or coral reef restoration.
An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed.
Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Bamboo coral, family Isididae, is a family of mostly deep-sea coral of the phylum Cnidaria.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
Black corals (Antipatharia) are an order of deep water, tree-like corals.
Blast fishing or dynamite fishing is the practice of using explosives to stun or kill schools of fish for easy collection.
Blue coral (Heliopora coerulea) is a species of colonial coral.
Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone in order to repair bone fractures that are extremely complex, pose a significant health risk to the patient, or fail to heal properly.
Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.
Brain coral is a common name given to various corals in the families Mussidae and Merulinidae, so called due to their generally spheroid shape and grooved surface which resembles a brain.
Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.
Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Cape Wrath (Am Parbh, known as An Carbh in Lewis) is a cape in the Durness parish of the county of Sutherland in the Highlands of Scotland.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (19 April 1795 – 27 June 1876), German naturalist, zoologist, comparative anatomist, geologist, and microscopist, was one of the most famous and productive scientists of his time.
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
Climate change adaptation is a response to global warming and climate change, that seeks to reduce the vulnerability of social and biological systems to relatively sudden change and thus offset the effects of global warming.
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
A cnidocyte (also known as a cnidoblast or nematocyte) is an explosive cell containing one giant secretory organelle or cnida (plural cnidae) that defines the phylum Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydrae, jellyfish, etc.). Cnidae are used for prey capture and defense from predators.
In corals, the coenosarc is the living tissue overlying the stony skeletal material of the coral.
In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.
The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Coral bleaching occurs when coral polyps expel algae that live inside their tissues.
The Coral Rag Formation is a geologic formation in England.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
The Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL) is a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, California, that partners with local reef communities around the world to protect coral reefs.
Corallimorpharia is an order of marine cnidarians closely related to stony or reef building corals (Scleractinia).
A corallite is the skeletal cup, formed by an individual stony coral polyp, in which the polyp sits and into which it can retract.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Darwin Mounds is a large field of undersea sand mounds situated off the north west coast of Scotland that were first discovered in May 1998.
On Earth, daytime is roughly the period of the day during which any given point in the world experiences natural illumination from especially direct sunlight.
The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1800 m) or more.
The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.
Diploria labyrinthiformis, known by the common name grooved brain coral, is a species of stony coral in the family Mussidae.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
Eilat (help; 'aylaat or 'aylat, also 'Um 'al-Rashrash) is Israel's southernmost city, a busy port and popular resort at the northern tip of the Red Sea, on the Gulf of Aqaba.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
Elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) is a prominent Caribbean reef-building coral, although current populations are still struggling to recover from white band disease outbreak.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Eusmilia is a genus of stony coral (Scleractinia) in the family Meandrinidae.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
Fire corals (Millepora) are a genus of colonial marine organisms that exhibit physical characteristics similar to that of coral.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fisheries management is the activity of protecting fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible, drawing on fisheries science, and including the precautionary principle.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully illuminated from Earth's perspective.
Fungia is a genus of mushroom, disc or plate corals in the family Fungiidae.
The Fungiidae are a family of Cnidaria, often known as mushroom corals.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
The gastrovascular cavity is the primary organ of digestion and circulation in two major animal phyla: the Cnidaria (including jellyfish and corals) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms).
Gault is a rock formation of stiff blue clay deposited in a calm, fairly deep-water marine environment during the Lower Cretaceous Period (Upper and Middle Albian).
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
In biology, gonochorism (Greek offspring + disperse) or unisexualism or gonochory describes the state of having just one of at least two distinct sexes in any one individual organism.
Gorgonians are sessile colonial cnidarians found throughout the oceans of the world, especially in the tropics and subtropics.
Gorgonin is a complex protein that makes up the horny skeleton of the holaxonia suborder of gorgonians.
The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over over an area of approximately.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Green Fins is an organisation operating in South East Asia and the Indian Ocean that works with business operators, communities and governments.
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Helioporacea is an order of the subclass Octocorallia that forms massive lobed crystalline calcareous skeletons in colonial corals.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.
Hermatypic corals are those corals in the order Scleractinia which build reefs by depositing hard calcareous material for their skeletons, forming the stony framework of the reef.
Hexacorallia is a subclass of Anthozoa comprising approximately 4,300 species of aquatic organisms formed of polyps, generally with 6-fold symmetry.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Hydrozoa (hydrozoans, from ancient Greek ὕδρα, hydra, "sea serpent" and ζῷον, zoon, "animal") are a taxonomic class of individually very small, predatory animals, some solitary and some colonial, most living in salt water.
Incremental dating techniques allow the construction of year-by-year annual chronologies, which can be temporally fixed (i.e., linked to the present day and thus calendar or sidereal time) or floating.
The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
In geochemistry, paleoclimatology and paleoceanography δ18O or delta-O-18 is a measure of the ratio of stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and oxygen-16 (16O).
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
Light Fantastic is the title of a television documentary series that explores the phenomenon of light and aired in December 2004 on BBC Four.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Index fossils (also known as guide fossils or indicator fossils) are fossils used to define and identify geologic periods (or faunal stages).
Live rock is rock from the ocean that has been introduced into a saltwater aquarium.
Lophelia pertusa, the only species in the genus Lophelia, is a cold-water coral which grows in the deep waters throughout the North Atlantic ocean, as well as parts of the Caribbean Sea and Alboran Sea.
The lunar phase or phase of the Moon is the shape of the directly sunlit portion of the Moon as viewed from Earth.
Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats.
A marine park is a park consisting of an area of sea (or lake) sometimes protected for recreational use, but more often set aside to preserve a specific habitat and ensure the ecosystem is sustained for the organisms that exist there.
Marine protected areas (MPA) are protected areas of seas, oceans, estuaries or large lakes.
A mesentery is a membrane inside the body cavity of an animal.
The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS), also popularly known as the Great Mayan Reef or Great Maya Reef, is a marine region that stretches over from Isla Contoy at the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula down to Belize, Guatemala and the Bay Islands of Honduras.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
A microatoll is a circular colony of coral, dead on the top but living around the perimeter.
Microfauna (Ancient Greek mikros "small" + New Latin fauna "animal") refers to microscopic organisms that exhibit animal-like qualities.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
A national monument is a monument constructed in order to commemorate something of national importance such as the country's founding, independence or a war.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Octocorallia (also known Alcyonaria) is a subclass of Anthozoa comprising around 3,000 species of water-based organisms formed of colonial polyps with 8-fold symmetry.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Oxford Castle is a large, partly ruined Norman medieval castle on the western side of central Oxford in Oxfordshire, England.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Paleoecology (also spelled palaeoecology) is the study of interactions between organisms and/or interactions between organisms and their environments across geologic timescales.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Parrotfishes are a group of marine species found in relatively shallow tropical and subtropical oceans around the world.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
Penicillaria is an order of marine Cnidarians, tube-dwelling anemones, in the subclass Ceriantharia.
Penjing, also known as penzai, is the ancient Chinese art of depicting artistically formed trees, other plants, and landscapes in miniature.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
Petrus Gyllius or Gillius (or Pierre Gilles) (1490–1555) was a French natural scientist, topographer and translator.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phototaxis is a kind of taxis, or locomotory movement, that occurs when a whole organism moves towards or away from stimulus of light.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Pillar coral (Dendrogyra cylindrus) is a hard coral (order Scleractinia) found in the western Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
A planula is the free-swimming, flattened, ciliated, bilaterally symmetric larval form of various cnidarian species.
Platygyra is a genus of stony corals in the Merulinidae family.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.
A polyp in zoology is one of two forms found in the phylum Cnidaria, the other being the medusa.
Porites is a genus of stony coral; they are SPS (Small Polyp Stony) corals.
Precious coral, or red coral, is the common name given to a genus of marine corals, Corallium.
The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
A reef aquarium or reef tank is a marine aquarium that prominently displays live corals and other marine invertebrates as well as fish that play a role in maintaining the tropical coral reef environment.
Reproductive synchrony is a term used in evolutionary biology and behavioural ecology.
The Rugosa, also called the Tetracorallia, are an extinct order of solitary and colonial corals that were abundant in Middle Ordovician to Late Permian seas.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Scleractinia, also called stony corals or hard corals, are marine animals in the phylum Cnidaria that build themselves a hard skeleton.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
Sea pens are colonial marine cnidarians belonging to the order Pennatulacea.
Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
In biology, sessility (in the sense of positional movement or motility) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Snorkeling (British and Commonwealth English spelling: snorkelling) is the practice of swimming on or through a body of water while equipped with a diving mask, a shaped breathing tube called a snorkel, and usually swimfins.
Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), a reverse-oriented monsoon trough, is a band of low-level convergence, cloudiness and precipitation extending from the Western Pacific Warm Pool at the maritime continent south-eastwards towards French Polynesia and as far as the Cook Islands (160W, 20S).
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
Spirularia is an order of marine Cnidarians, tube-dwelling anemones, in the subclass Ceriantharia.
St Michael at the North Gate is a church in Cornmarket Street, at the junction with Ship Street, in central Oxford, England.
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.
The staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) is a branching, stony coral with cylindrical branches ranging from a few centimetres to over two metres in length and height.
In biology, stolons (from Latin stolō "branch"), also known as runners, are horizontal connections between organisms.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Symbiodinium is a genus that encompasses the largest and most prevalent group of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates known.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism.
The tabulate corals, forming the order Tabulata, are an extinct form of coral.
In zoology, a tentacle is a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals, most of them invertebrates.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
TheGuardian.com, formerly known as Guardian.co.uk and Guardian Unlimited, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.
Tube-dwelling anemones or ceriantharians look very similar to sea anemones but belong to an entirely different subclass of anthozoans.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Urban runoff is surface runoff of rainwater created by urbanization.
Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.
The Vienna Dioscurides or Vienna Dioscorides is an early 6th-century Byzantine Greek illuminated manuscript of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς in the original Greek) by Dioscorides in uncial script.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Frederick William Herschel, (Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline Herschel, with whom he worked.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.
Zoanthids (order Zoantharia also called Zoanthidea or Zoanthiniaria) are an order of cnidarians commonly found in coral reefs, the deep sea and many other marine environments around the world.
Zooxanthellae are single-celled dinoflagellates that are able to live in symbiosis with marine invertebrates such as corals, jellyfish, and sea anemones.