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Corporate law

Index Corporate law

Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses. [1]

187 relations: Aberdeen Rly Co v Blaikie Bros, Adams v Cape Industries plc, Administrative division, Adolf A. Berle, Aktiengesellschaft, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Annual general meeting, Apparent authority, Articles of association, Articles of incorporation, Australia, Authorised capital, Bank, Bankruptcy, Behavior, Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, Black's Law Dictionary, Board of directors, Bond (finance), Bubble Act, Bushell v Faith, Business, Business ethics, By-law, Capacity (law), Capital (economics), Capital market, Cartel, Certificate of incorporation, Charter, Civil law (legal system), Co-determination, Common law, Community, Companies Act 2006, Company, Company seal, Competition law, Conflict of interest, Constitution of South Africa, Consumer, Consumer protection, Contract, Cooperative, Corporate crime, Corporate finance, Corporate governance, Corporate manslaughter, Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007, ..., Corporation, Corporation sole, Credit union, Creditor, Delaware Court of Chancery, Delaware General Corporation Law, Delegation, Derivative suit, Discovery (law), Distribution of wealth, Dividend, Dutch East India Company, Dutch guilder, Dutch Republic, East India Company, Edward Matthew Ward, Employment, England, English law, Enterprise Act 2002, Environment (biophysical), Environmental law, European corporate law, Family business, Federal Court of Justice, Federal law, Fiduciary, Financial assistance (share purchase), Financial law, Foss v Harbottle, Gardiner Means, German company law, Germany, Great Depression, Harvard University, Hazem Daouk, Holland, Human rights, Incorporation (business), Insolvency, Insurance, Interest of the company, Investor, Joint Stock Companies Act 1844, Joint Stock Companies Act 1856, Joint-stock company, Judicial functions of the House of Lords, Jurisdiction, Labour law, Law, Law of agency, Lawyer, Legal person, Limited company, Limited liability, Limited Liability Act 1855, Limited liability company, Limited liability limited partnership, Limited liability partnership, Limited partnership, Liquidation, Liquidator (law), List of business entities, List of companies named after people, List of company name etymologies, List of company registers, Local ordinance, Macaura v Northern Assurance Co Ltd, Management science, Materiality (law), Memorandum of association, Model Business Corporation Act, Monopoly, Multinational Gas and Petrochemical Co v Multinational Gas and Petrochemical Services Ltd, Nonprofit organization, Offshore financial centre, Option (finance), Organization, Organizational culture, Partnership, Piercing the corporate veil, Preferred stock, Principal–agent problem, Private company limited by guarantee, Private company limited by shares, Profit maximization, Public company, Public limited company, Public service law, Quasi-corporation, Race to the bottom, Reflective loss, Renaissance, Rights, Robert C. Clark, Robert Lowe, Robert Rolfe, 1st Baron Cranworth, Ronald Coase, Royal British Bank v Turquand, Royal charter, Salomon v A Salomon & Co Ltd, Securities regulation in the United States, Security (finance), Senior management, Share (finance), Shareholder, Shareholders' agreement, Societas Europaea, Sole proprietorship, South Sea Company, Sovereign state, Stakeholder (corporate), State-owned enterprise, Stock, Stock exchange, Tate, The Companies (Model Articles) Regulations 2008, The Delaware Journal of Corporate Law, The Economist, The Modern Corporation and Private Property, Tort, Trust law, Tulip mania, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, U.S. state, Ultra vires, Unintended consequences, United Kingdom, United Kingdom company law, United States, United States corporate law, Unlimited company, Utpal Bhattacharya, Venture capital, Void (law), Voting trust, Warrant (finance). Expand index (137 more) »

Aberdeen Rly Co v Blaikie Bros

Aberdeen Railway Co v Blaikie Brothers is a UK company law case.

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Adams v Cape Industries plc

Adams v Cape Industries plc Ch 433 is the leading UK company law case on separate legal personality and limited liability of shareholders.

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Administrative division

An administrative division, unit, entity, area or region, also referred to as a subnational entity, statoid, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration.

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Adolf A. Berle

Adolf Augustus Berle Jr. (January 27, 1895 – February 17, 1971) was a lawyer, educator, author, and U.S. diplomat.

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Aktiengesellschaft (abbreviated AG) is a German word for a corporation limited by share ownership (i.e. one which is owned by its shareholders) and may be traded on a stock market.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Annual general meeting

An annual general meeting (commonly abbreviated as AGM, also known as the annual meeting) is a meeting of the general membership of an organization.

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Apparent authority

In the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and South Africa, apparent authority (also called "ostensible authority") relates to the doctrines of the law of agency.

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Articles of association

In corporate governance, a company's articles of association (AoA, called articles of incorporation in some jurisdictions) is a document which, along with the memorandum of association (in cases where the memorandum exists) form the company's constitution, defines the responsibilities of the directors, the kind of business to be undertaken, and the means by which the shareholders exert control over the board of directors.

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Articles of incorporation

Articles of incorporation, also referred to as the certificate of incorporation or the corporate charter, is a document or charter that establishes the existence of a corporation in the United States and Canada.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Authorised capital

The authorised capital of a company (sometimes referred to as the authorised share capital, registered capital or nominal capital, particularly in the United States) is the maximum amount of share capital that the company is authorised by its constitutional documents to issue (allocate) to shareholders.

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A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.

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Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.

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Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.

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Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law

The Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law is the law school of Yeshiva University, located in New York City.

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Black's Law Dictionary

Black's Law is the most widely used law dictionary in the United States.

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Board of directors

A board of directors is a recognized group of people who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency.

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Bond (finance)

In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.

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Bubble Act

Bubble Act 1720 (also Royal Exchange and London Assurance Corporation Act 1719) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain passed on 11 June 1720 that incorporated the Royal Exchange and London Assurance Corporation, but more significantly forbade the formation of any other joint-stock companies unless approved by royal charter.

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Bushell v Faith

Bushell v Faith AC 1099 is a UK company law case, concerning the possibility of weighting votes, and the relationship to section 184 of Companies Act 1948 (the predecessor of s 168 of the Companies Act 2006) which mandates that directors may be removed from a board by a simple majority of shareholders.

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Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).

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Business ethics

Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics, that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment.

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A by-law (bylaw) is a rule or law established by an organization or community to regulate itself, as allowed or provided for by some higher authority.

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Capacity (law)

The capacity of natural and juridical persons (legal persons) in general, determines whether they may make binding amendments to their rights, duties and obligations, such as getting married or merging, entering into contracts, making gifts, or writing a valid will.

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Capital (economics)

In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.

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Capital market

A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.

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A cartel is a group of apparently independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices.

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Certificate of incorporation

A certificate of incorporation is a legal document relating to the formation of a company or corporation.

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A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Codetermination (also "copartnership" or "worker participation") is the practice of workers of an enterprise having the right to vote for representatives on the board of directors in a company.

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.

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Companies Act 2006

The Companies Act 2006 (c 46) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which forms the primary source of UK company law.

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A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.

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Company seal

A company seal (sometimes referred to as the corporate seal or common seal) is an official seal used by a company.

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Competition law

Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.

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Conflict of interest

A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.

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Constitution of South Africa

The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the Republic of South Africa.

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A consumer is a person or organization that use economic services or commodities.

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Consumer protection

In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for this (a list including most or all developed countries with free market economies) consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers, as well as fair trade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace.

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A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.

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A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".

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Corporate crime

In criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation (i.e., a business entity having a separate legal personality from the natural persons that manage its activities), or by individuals acting on behalf of a corporation or other business entity (see vicarious liability and corporate liability).

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Corporate finance

Corporate finance is the area of finance dealing with the sources of funding and the capital structure of corporations, the actions that managers take to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders, and the tools and analysis used to allocate financial resources.

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Corporate governance

Corporate governance is the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and directed.

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Corporate manslaughter

Corporate manslaughter is a crime in several jurisdictions, including England and Wales and Hong Kong.

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Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007

The Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 (c. 19) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that seeks to broaden the law on corporate manslaughter in the United Kingdom.

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A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.

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Corporation sole

A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single ("sole") incorporated office, occupied by a single ("sole") natural person.

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Credit union

A credit union is a member-owned financial cooperative, controlled by its members and operated on the principle of people helping people, providing its members credit at competitive rates as well as other financial services.

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A creditor is a party (for example, person, organization, company, or government) that has a claim on the services of a second party.

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Delaware Court of Chancery

The Delaware Court of Chancery is a court of equity in the American state of Delaware.

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Delaware General Corporation Law

The Delaware General Corporation Law (Title 8, Chapter 1 of the Delaware Code) is the statute governing corporate law in the U.S. state of Delaware.

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Delegation is the assignment of any responsibility or authority to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities.

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Derivative suit

A shareholder derivative suit is a lawsuit brought by a shareholder on behalf of a corporation against a third party.

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Discovery (law)

Discovery, in the law of the United States and other countries, is a pre-trial procedure in a lawsuit in which each party, through the law of civil procedure, can obtain evidence from the other party or parties by means of discovery devices such as a request for answers to interrogatories, request for production of documents, request for admissions and depositions.

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Distribution of wealth

--> The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society.

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A dividend is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, usually as a distribution of profits.

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Dutch East India Company

The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.

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Dutch guilder

The Dutch guilder (gulden) or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro.

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Dutch Republic

The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Edward Matthew Ward

Edward Matthew Ward (14 July 1816 – 15 January 1879) was an English Victorian narrative painter best known for his murals in the Palace of Westminster depicting episodes in British history from the English Civil War to the Glorious Revolution.

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Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English law

English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.

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Enterprise Act 2002

The Enterprise Act 2002 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made major changes to UK competition law with respect to mergers and also changed the law governing insolvency bankruptcy.

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Environment (biophysical)

A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.

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Environmental law

Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.

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European corporate law

European corporate law is a part of European Union law, which concerns the formation, operation and insolvency of corporations in the European Union.

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Family business

A family business is a commercial organization in which decision-making is influenced by multiple generations of a family — related by blood or marriage or adoption — who has both the ability to influence the vision of the business and the willingness to use this ability to pursue distinctive goals.

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Federal Court of Justice

The Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof, BGH) in Karlsruhe is the highest court in the system of ordinary jurisdiction (ordentliche Gerichtsbarkeit) in Germany.

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Federal law

Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country.

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A fiduciary is a person who holds a legal or ethical relationship of trust with one or more other parties (person or group of persons).

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Financial assistance (share purchase)

Financial assistance in law refers to assistance given by a company for the purchase of its own shares or the shares of its holding companies.

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Financial law

Financial law is the law and regulation of the insurance, derivatives, commercial banking, capital markets and investment management sectors.

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Foss v Harbottle

Foss v Harbottle (1843) is a leading English precedent in corporate law.

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Gardiner Means

Gardiner Coit Means (June 8, 1896 in Windham, Connecticut – February 15, 1988 in Vienna, Virginia) was an American economist who worked at Harvard University, where he met lawyer-diplomat Adolf Berle.

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German company law

German company law (Gesellschaftsrecht) is an influential legal regime for companies in Germany.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Hazem Daouk

Hazem Daouk is a financial economist, known for his work on securities regulation, especially insider trading, earnings management and short selling.

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Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Incorporation (business)

Incorporation is the formation of a new corporation (a corporation being a legal entity that is effectively recognized as a person under the law).

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Insolvency is the state of being unable to pay the money owed, by a person or company, on time; those in a state of insolvency are said to be insolvent.

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Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.

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Interest of the company

The interest of the company (sometimes company benefit or commercial benefit) is a concept that the board of directors in corporations are in most legal systems required to use their powers for the commercial benefit of the company and its members.

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An investor is a person that allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return.

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Joint Stock Companies Act 1844

The Joint Stock Companies Act 1844 (7 & 8 Vict. c.110) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that expanded access to the incorporation of joint-stock companies.

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Joint Stock Companies Act 1856

The Joint Stock Companies Act 1856 (19 & 20 Vict. c.47) was a consolidating statute, recognised as the founding piece of modern United Kingdom company law legislation.

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Joint-stock company

A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.

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Judicial functions of the House of Lords

The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, historically also had a judicial function.

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Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.

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Labour law

Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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Law of agency

The law of agency is an area of commercial law dealing with a set of contractual, quasi-contractual and non-contractual fiduciary relationships that involve a person, called the agent, that is authorized to act on behalf of another (called the principal) to create legal relations with a third party.

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A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.

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Legal person

A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.

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Limited company

In a limited company, the liability of members or subscribers of the company is limited to what they have invested or guaranteed to the company.

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Limited liability

Limited liability is where a person's financial liability is limited to a fixed sum, most commonly the value of a person's investment in a company or partnership.

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Limited Liability Act 1855

The Limited Liability Act 1855 (18 & 19 Vict c 133) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that first allowed limited liability for corporations that could be established by the general public in the UK.

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Limited liability company

A limited liability company (LLC) is the United States of America-specific form of a private limited company.

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Limited liability limited partnership

The limited liability limited partnership (LLLP) is a relatively new modification of the limited partnership, a form of business entity recognized under United States commercial law.

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Limited liability partnership

A limited liability partnership (LLP) is a partnership in which some or all partners (depending on the jurisdiction) have limited liabilities.

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Limited partnership

A limited partnership (LP) is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership except that while a general partnership must have at least two general partners (GPs), a limited partnership must have at least one GP and at least one limited partner.

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In United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and United States law and business, liquidation is the process by which a company is brought to an end.

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Liquidator (law)

In law, a liquidator is the officer appointed when a company goes into winding-up or liquidation who has responsibility for collecting in all of the assets under such circumstances of the company and settling all claims against the company before putting the company into dissolution.

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List of business entities

A business entity is an entity that is formed and administered as per corporate law in order to engage in business activities, charitable work, or other activities allowable.

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List of companies named after people

This is a list of companies named after people.

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List of company name etymologies

This is a list of company names with their name origins explained.

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List of company registers

A company register is a register of organizations in the jurisdiction they operate under.

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Local ordinance

A local ordinance is a law usually found in a code of laws for a political division smaller than a state or nation, i.e., a local government such as a municipality, county, parish, prefecture, etc.

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Macaura v Northern Assurance Co Ltd

Macaura v Northern Assurance Co Ltd AC 619 appeared before the House Of Lords concerning the principle of lifting the corporate veil.

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Management science

Management science (MS), is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management, economics, business, engineering, management consulting, and other sciences.

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Materiality (law)

Materiality is a legal term that has different meanings, depending on context.

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Memorandum of association

The memorandum of association of company, often simply called the memorandum (and then often capitalised as an abbreviation for the official name, which is a proper noun and usually includes other words) is one of the most important documents and must be drafted with care.

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Model Business Corporation Act

The Model Business Corporation Act (MBCA) is a model set of law prepared by the Committee on Corporate Laws of the Section of Business Law of the American Bar Association and is followed by twenty-four states.

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A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.

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Multinational Gas and Petrochemical Co v Multinational Gas and Petrochemical Services Ltd

Multinational Gas and Petrochemical Co v Multinational Gas and Petrochemical Services Ltd Ch 258 is a leading United Kingdom company law case relating to directors' liability.

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Nonprofit organization

A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.

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Offshore financial centre

An offshore financial centre (OFC) is a jurisdiction specializing in providing corporate and commercial services, such as offshore banking licenses (international banking license) or the incorporation of offshore companies (international business companies).

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Option (finance)

In finance, an option is a contract which gives the buyer (the owner or holder of the option) the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on a specified date, depending on the form of the option.

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An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.

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Organizational culture

Organizational culture encompasses values and behaviours that "contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization".

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A partnership is an arrangement where parties, known as partners, agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests.

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Piercing the corporate veil

Piercing the corporate veil or lifting the corporate veil is a legal decision to treat the rights or duties of a corporation as the rights or liabilities of its shareholders.

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Preferred stock

Preferred stock (also called preferred shares, preference shares or simply preferreds) is a type of stock which may have any combination of features not possessed by common stock including properties of both an equity and a debt instrument, and is generally considered a hybrid instrument.

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Principal–agent problem

The principal–agent problem, in political science and economics, (also known as agency dilemma or the agency problem) occurs when one person or entity (the "agent") is able to make decisions and/or take actions on behalf of, or that impact, another person or entity: the "principal".

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Private company limited by guarantee

In British and Irish company law, a company limited by guarantee (LBG) is an alternative type of corporation used primarily for non-profit organisations that require legal personality.

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Private company limited by shares

A private company limited by shares is a class of private limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, Scotland, certain Commonwealth countries, and the Republic of Ireland.

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Profit maximization

In economics, profit maximization is the short run or long run process by which a firm may determine the price, input, and output levels that lead to the greatest profit.

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Public company

A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public corporation is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets.

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Public limited company

A public limited company (legally abbreviated to plc) is a type of public company under the United Kingdom company law, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland.

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Public service law

Public service law may refer to.

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A quasi-corporation is an entity that exercises some of the functions of a corporation, but has not been granted separate legal personality by statute.

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Race to the bottom

The race to the bottom is a socio-economic phrase which is used to describe government deregulation of the business environment, or reduction in tax rates, in order to attract or retain economic activity in their jurisdictions.

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Reflective loss

In United Kingdom company law, reflective loss is the loss of individual shareholders that is inseparable from general loss of the company.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.

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Robert C. Clark

Robert C. Clark (born 1944) is currently Harvard University Distinguished Service Professor of the Harvard Law School.

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Robert Lowe

Robert Lowe, 1st Viscount Sherbrooke, GCB, PC (4 December 1811 – 27 July 1892), British statesman, was a pivotal but often forgotten figure who shaped British politics in the latter half of the 19th century.

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Robert Rolfe, 1st Baron Cranworth

Robert Monsey Rolfe, 1st Baron Cranworth, PC (18 December 1790 – 26 July 1868) was a British lawyer and Liberal politician.

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Ronald Coase

Ronald Harry Coase (29 December 1910 – 2 September 2013) was a British economist and author.

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Royal British Bank v Turquand

Royal British Bank v Turquand (1856) 6 E&B 327 is a UK company law case that held people transacting with companies are entitled to assume that internal company rules are complied with, even if they are not.

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Royal charter

A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.

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Salomon v A Salomon & Co Ltd

is a landmark UK company law case.

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Securities regulation in the United States

Securities regulation in the United States is the field of U.S. law that covers transactions and other dealings with securities.

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Security (finance)

A security is a tradable financial asset.

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Senior management

Senior management, executive management, or a management team is generally a team of individuals at the highest level of management of an organization who have the day-to-day tasks of managing that organization — sometimes a company or a corporation.

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Share (finance)

In financial markets, a share is a unit used as mutual funds, limited partnerships, and real estate investment trusts.

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A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation.

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Shareholders' agreement

A shareholders' agreement (sometimes referred to in the U.S. as a stockholders' agreement) (SHA) is an agreement amongst the shareholders or members of a company.

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Societas Europaea

A societas Europaea (SE; Latin: European society or company; plural: societates Europaeae) is a public company registered in accordance with the corporate law of the European Union (EU), introduced in 2004 with the Council Regulation on the Statute for a European Company.

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Sole proprietorship

A sole proprietorship, also known as the sole trader or simply a proprietorship, is a type of enterprise that is owned and run by one natural person and in which there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business entity.

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South Sea Company

The South Sea Company (officially The Governor and Company of the merchants of Great Britain, trading to the South Seas and other parts of America, and for the encouragement of fishing) was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Stakeholder (corporate)

In a corporation, as defined in its first usage in a 1963 internal memorandum at the Stanford Research Institute, a stakeholder is a member of the "groups without whose support the organization would cease to exist".

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State-owned enterprise

A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.

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The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners.

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Stock exchange

A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.

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Tate is an institution that houses the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, and international modern and contemporary art.

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The Companies (Model Articles) Regulations 2008

The Companies (Model Articles) Regulations 2008 are the default company constitution for limited companies under UK company law.

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The Delaware Journal of Corporate Law

The Delaware Journal of Corporate Law is Widener University School of Law's corporate law review.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Modern Corporation and Private Property

The Modern Corporation and Private Property is a book written by Adolf Berle and Gardiner Means published in 1932 regarding the foundations of United States corporate law.

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A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.

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Trust law

A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.

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Tulip mania

Tulip mania (Dutch: tulpenmanie) was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for some bulbs of the recently introduced and fashionable tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then dramatically collapsed in February 1637.

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U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.

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U.S. state

A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.

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Ultra vires

Ultra vires is a Latin phrase meaning "beyond the powers".

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Unintended consequences

In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Kingdom company law

The United Kingdom company law regulates corporations formed under the Companies Act 2006.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States corporate law

United States corporate law regulates the governance, finance and power of corporations in US law.

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Unlimited company

An unlimited company or private unlimited company is a hybrid company (corporation) incorporated with or without a share capital (and similar to its limited company counterpart) but where the legal liability of the members or shareholders is not limited: that is, its members or shareholders have a joint, several and non-limited obligation to meet any insufficiency in the assets of the company to enable settlement of any outstanding financial liability in the event of the company's formal liquidation.

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Utpal Bhattacharya

Utpal Bhattacharya is a finance professor at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

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Venture capital

Venture capital (VC) is a type of private equity, a form of financing that is provided by firms or funds to small, early-stage, emerging firms that are deemed to have high growth potential, or which have demonstrated high growth (in terms of number of employees, annual revenue, or both).

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Void (law)

In law, void means of no legal effect.

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Voting trust

A voting trust is an arrangement whereby the shares in a company of one or more shareholders and the voting rights attached thereto are legally transferred to a trustee, usually for a specified period of time (the "trust period").

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Warrant (finance)

In finance, a warrant is a security that entitles the holder to buy the underlying stock of the issuing company at a fixed price called exercise price until the expiry date.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_law

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