40 relations: Advance corporation tax, Companies House, Corporate tax in the United States, Corporation, Customs, Debt-to-equity ratio, Direct tax, Dividend, Dividend imputation, Dividends received deduction, Domestic international sales corporation, Excise, Gross income, Income tax, Incorporation (business), Interest, Internal Revenue Service, Limited liability company, MACRS, OECD, Partnership, Partnership taxation, Payroll tax, Permanent establishment, Property tax, Return of capital, S corporation, Sole proprietorship, Standard deduction, Tax Analysts, Tax credit, Tax deduction, Tax exemption, Tax rates in Europe, Tax residence, Tax treaty, United Kingdom corporation tax, Value-added tax, Wealth tax, Withholding tax.
In the United Kingdom, the advance corporation tax (ACT) was part of a partial dividend imputation system introduced in 1973 under which companies were required to withhold tax on dividends before they were distributed to shareholders.
Companies House is the United Kingdom's registrar of companies and is an executive agency and trading fund of Her Majesty's Government.
Corporate tax is imposed in the United States at the federal, most state, and some local levels on the income of entities treated for tax purposes as corporations.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports, personal, and hazardous items, into and out of a country.
The debt-to-equity ratio (D/E) is a financial ratio indicating the relative proportion of shareholders' equity and debt used to finance a company's assets.
Though the actual definitions vary between jurisdictions, in general, a direct tax is a tax imposed upon a person or property as distinct from a tax imposed upon a transaction, which is described as an indirect tax.
A dividend is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, usually as a distribution of profits.
Dividend imputation is a corporate tax system in which some or all of the tax paid by a company may be attributed, or imputed, to the shareholders by way of a tax credit to reduce the income tax payable on a distribution.
The dividends-received deduction (or "DRD"), under U.S. federal income tax law, is a tax deduction received by a corporation on the dividends it receives by other corporations in which it has an ownership stake.
The domestic international sales corporation is a provision unique to tax law in the United States.
Gross income is all a person's receipts and gains from all sources, before any deductions.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
Incorporation is the formation of a new corporation (a corporation being a legal entity that is effectively recognized as a person under the law).
Interest is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (i.e., the amount borrowed), at a particular rate.
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service of the United States federal government.
A limited liability company (LLC) is the United States of America-specific form of a private limited company.
The Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) is the current tax depreciation system in the United States.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
A partnership is an arrangement where parties, known as partners, agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests.
Partnership taxation is the concept of taxing a partnership business entity.
Payroll taxes are taxes imposed on employers or employees, and are usually calculated as a percentage of the salaries that employers pay their staff.
A permanent establishment (PE) is a fixed place of business which generally gives rise to income or value-added tax liability in a particular jurisdiction.
A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property, usually levied on real estate.
Return of capital (ROC) refers to principal payments back to "capital owners" (shareholders, partners, unitholders) that exceed the growth (net income/taxable income) of a business or investment.
An S corporation, for United States federal income tax purposes, is a closely held corporation (or, in some cases, a limited liability company (LLC) or a partnership) that makes a valid election to be taxed under Subchapter S of Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code.
A sole proprietorship, also known as the sole trader or simply a proprietorship, is a type of enterprise that is owned and run by one natural person and in which there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business entity.
Under United States tax law, the standard deduction is a dollar amount that non-itemizers may subtract from their income before income tax is applied.
Tax Analysts is a nonprofit publisher of weekly magazines and daily online journals on tax policy and administration.
A tax credit is a tax incentive which allows certain taxpayers to subtract the amount of the credit they have accrued from the total they owe the state.
Tax deduction is a reduction of income that is able to be taxed and is commonly a result of expenses, particularly those incurred to produce additional income.
Tax exemption is a monetary exemption which reduces taxable income.
This is a list of the maximum potential tax rates around Europe for certain income brackets.
The criteria for residence for tax purposes vary considerably from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and "residence" can be different for other, non-tax purposes.
Many countries have entered into tax treaties (also called double tax agreements, or DTAs) with other countries to avoid or mitigate double taxation.
In the United Kingdom, corporation tax is a corporate tax levied in the United Kingdom on the profits made by UK-resident companies and on the profits of entities registered overseas with permanent establishments in the UK.
A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.
A wealth tax (also called a capital tax or equity tax) is a levy on the total value of personal assets, including: bank deposits, real estate, assets in insurance and pension plans, ownership of unincorporated businesses, financial securities, and personal trusts.
A withholding tax, or a retention tax, is an income tax to be paid to the government by the payer of the income rather than by the recipient of the income.
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