173 relations: Act of Parliament, Adam Smith, Africa, American English, Ancient Rome, Andrew Carnegie, Anti-corporate activism, Articles of incorporation, Asiento, Blocker corporation, Board of directors, British English, Bubble Act, Burial society, By-law, Cape of Good Hope, Charles Dickens, Charter, Chartered company, City of London Corporation, Civil law (legal system), Classical liberalism, Commercial law, Common law, Commonwealth of Nations, Community interest company, Companies Act 1862, Company, Company rule in India, Competition law, Conglomerate (company), Constitution of South Africa, Constructive notice, Contract, Cooperative, Corporate crime, Corporate governance, Corporate haven, Corporate law, Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007, Corporate personhood, Corporate promoter, Corporate welfare, Corporation sole, Corporatism, Corporatization, Credit union, Creditor, Crime, Cult (religious practice), ..., Decentralized autonomous organization, Deregulation, Dutch East India Company, East India Company, East Indies, Economic bubble, Economics, Elizabeth I of England, Employment, Ernst Freund, Euronext Amsterdam, Europe, European corporate law, Evil corporation, Falun, Falun Mine, Fascism, Fiduciary, Foreign corporation, Fraud, George Stephenson, German company law, Germany, Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung, Good standing, Government debt, Guild, History of company law in the United Kingdom, History of competition law, Holding company, Hudson's Bay Company, Human rights, Incorporation (business), Industrial Revolution, Informal attire, Insolvency, Insurance, James Watt, John D. Rockefeller, Joint Stock Companies Act 1844, Joint Stock Companies Act 1856, Joint-stock company, Justinian I, Kingdom of Great Britain, Laissez-faire, Latin, Law of agency, Lawsuit, Legal liability, Legal person, Limited liability, Limited Liability Act 1855, Limited liability company, List of company registers, Livery company, Living wage, Local and personal Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom, London, Magnus IV of Sweden, Maluku Islands, Manslaughter, Martin Chuzzlewit, Maurya Empire, Megacorporation, Mercantilism, Mergers and acquisitions, Monopoly, Multinational corporation, Nationalization, New Jersey, Nonprofit corporation, Organizational culture, Oxford University Press, Partnership, Perpetual succession, Pope, Portugal, Preferred stock, Privatization, Professional corporation, Profit (accounting), Public limited company, Registered agent, Registrar of Companies, Restraint of trade, Return on investment, Robert Hessen, Robert Lowe, Robert Sobel, Roman law, Royal charter, Royal Navy, Salomon v A Salomon & Co Ltd, Share (finance), Shareholder, Shelf corporation, Small business, Sole proprietorship, South Sea Company, Spice, Standard Oil, State-owned enterprise, Stewart Kyd, Stock, Supervisory board, Sweden, The Economist, The Wealth of Nations, Treaty of Utrecht, Trust law, Tulip mania, United Kingdom company law, United States, United States antitrust law, United States corporate law, University of Michigan, Unlimited company, Unlimited liability corporation, Voluntary association, Vorstand, War of the Spanish Succession, William Ewart Gladstone, Worker cooperative. Expand index (123 more) » « Shrink index
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrew Carnegie (but commonly or;MacKay, p. 29. November 25, 1835August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, and philanthropist.
Anti-corporate activism holds that the influence of big business corporations is a detriment to the public good and to the democratic process.
Articles of incorporation, also referred to as the certificate of incorporation or the corporate charter, is a document or charter that establishes the existence of a corporation in the United States and Canada.
The asiento was the license issued by the Spanish crown, they were included in some peace treaties, by which a set of merchants received the monopoly on a trade route or product, an example of it was the payment of a fee, granting legal permission to sell a fixed number of African slaves in the Spanish colonies.
A blocker corporation is a type of C Corporation in the United States that has been used by tax exempt individuals to protect their investments from taxation when they participate in private equity or with hedge funds.
A board of directors is a recognized group of people who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Bubble Act 1720 (also Royal Exchange and London Assurance Corporation Act 1719) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain passed on 11 June 1720 that incorporated the Royal Exchange and London Assurance Corporation, but more significantly forbade the formation of any other joint-stock companies unless approved by royal charter.
A burial society is a form of friendly society.
A by-law (bylaw) is a rule or law established by an organization or community to regulate itself, as allowed or provided for by some higher authority.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified.
A chartered company is an association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration, and colonization.
The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the UK's financial sector.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Commercial law, also known as trade law, is the body of law that applies to the rights, relations, and conduct of persons and businesses engaged in commerce, merchandising, trade, and sales.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
A community interest company (CIC) is a type of company introduced by the United Kingdom government in 2005 under the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004, designed for social enterprises that want to use their profits and assets for the public good.
The Companies Act 1862 (25 & 26 Vict. c.89) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom regulating UK company law, whose descendant is the Companies Act 2006.
A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
A conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries.
The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the Republic of South Africa.
Constructive notice is the legal fiction that signifies that a person or entity should have known, as a reasonable person would have, of a legal action taken or to be taken, even if they have no actual knowledge of it.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".
In criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation (i.e., a business entity having a separate legal personality from the natural persons that manage its activities), or by individuals acting on behalf of a corporation or other business entity (see vicarious liability and corporate liability).
Corporate governance is the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and directed.
A corporate haven, corporate tax haven, or multinational tax haven, is a jurisdiction that international corporates find attractive for establishing subsidiaries and/or incorporation of regional or main company headquarters, mostly due to favourable tax regimes (not just the headline tax rate), and/or favourable secrecy laws (such as the avoidance of sanctions or disclosure of tax schemes), and/or favourable regulatory regimes (such as looser data-protection or employment laws).
Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses.
The Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 (c. 19) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that seeks to broaden the law on corporate manslaughter in the United Kingdom.
Corporate personhood is the legal notion that a corporation, separately from its associated human beings (like owners, managers, or employees), has at least some of the legal rights and responsibilities enjoyed by natural persons (physical humans).
A corporate promoter is a firm or person who does the preliminary work incidental to the formation of a company, including its promotion, incorporation, and floatation, and solicits people to invest money in the company, usually when it is being formed.
Corporate welfare is a term that analogizes corporate subsidies to welfare payments for the poor.
A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single ("sole") incorporated office, occupied by a single ("sole") natural person.
Corporatism is the organization of a society by corporate groups and agricultural, labour, military or scientific syndicates and guilds on the basis of their common interests.
Corporatization is the process of transforming state assets, government agencies, or municipal organizations into corporations.
A credit union is a member-owned financial cooperative, controlled by its members and operated on the principle of people helping people, providing its members credit at competitive rates as well as other financial services.
A creditor is a party (for example, person, organization, company, or government) that has a claim on the services of a second party.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Cult is literally the "care" (Latin cultus) owed to deities and to temples, shrines, or churches.
A decentralized autonomous organization (DAO), sometimes labeled a decentralized autonomous corporation (DAC), is an organization that is run through rules encoded as computer programs called smart contracts.
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.
An economic bubble or asset bubble (sometimes also referred to as a speculative bubble, a market bubble, a price bubble, a financial bubble, a speculative mania, or a balloon) is trade in an asset at a price or price range that strongly exceeds the asset's intrinsic value.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.
Ernst Freund (January 30, 1864 in New York City – October 20, 1932 in Chicago, Illinois) was a noted American legal scholar.
Euronext Amsterdam is a stock exchange based in Amsterdam.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European corporate law is a part of European Union law, which concerns the formation, operation and insolvency of corporations in the European Union.
An evil corporation is a trope in popular culture that portrays a corporation as ignoring social responsibility in order to make money for its shareholders.
Falun is a city and the seat of Falun Municipality in Dalarna County, Sweden, with 37,291 inhabitants in 2010.
Falun Mine (Swedish: Falu Gruva) was a mine in Falun, Sweden, that operated for a millennium from the 10th century to 1992.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
A fiduciary is a person who holds a legal or ethical relationship of trust with one or more other parties (person or group of persons).
A foreign corporation is a term used in the United States for an existing corporation that is registered to do business in a state or jurisdiction other than where it was originally incorporated.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.
George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was a British civil engineer and mechanical engineer.
German company law (Gesellschaftsrecht) is an influential legal regime for companies in Germany.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (abbreviated GmbH and also GesmbH in Austria) is a type of legal entity very common in Germany, Austria, Switzerland (where it is equivalent to a société à responsabilité limitée) and Liechtenstein.
A person or organization in good standing is regarded as having complied with all their explicit obligations, while not being subject to any form of sanction, suspension or disciplinary censure.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
The history of company law in the United Kingdom concerns the change and development in UK company law within the context of the history of companies, deriving from its predecessors in Roman and English law.
The history of competition law refers to attempts by governments to regulate competitive markets for goods and services, leading up to the modern competition or antitrust laws around the world today.
A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock.
The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Incorporation is the formation of a new corporation (a corporation being a legal entity that is effectively recognized as a person under the law).
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Informal attire, also called international corporate attire, Western business attire, business/office wear or tenue de ville is a dress code, typified by a suit (and a necktie for men).
Insolvency is the state of being unable to pay the money owed, by a person or company, on time; those in a state of insolvency are said to be insolvent.
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
John Davison Rockefeller Sr. (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937) was an American oil industry business magnate, industrialist, and philanthropist.
The Joint Stock Companies Act 1844 (7 & 8 Vict. c.110) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that expanded access to the incorporation of joint-stock companies.
The Joint Stock Companies Act 1856 (19 & 20 Vict. c.47) was a consolidating statute, recognised as the founding piece of modern United Kingdom company law legislation.
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The law of agency is an area of commercial law dealing with a set of contractual, quasi-contractual and non-contractual fiduciary relationships that involve a person, called the agent, that is authorized to act on behalf of another (called the principal) to create legal relations with a third party.
A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.
In law, liable means "esponsible or answerable in law; legally obligated." Legal liability concerns both civil law and criminal law and can arise from various areas of law, such as contracts, torts, taxes, or fines given by government agencies.
A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.
Limited liability is where a person's financial liability is limited to a fixed sum, most commonly the value of a person's investment in a company or partnership.
The Limited Liability Act 1855 (18 & 19 Vict c 133) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that first allowed limited liability for corporations that could be established by the general public in the UK.
A limited liability company (LLC) is the United States of America-specific form of a private limited company.
A company register is a register of organizations in the jurisdiction they operate under.
The livery companies of the City of London, currently 110 in number, comprise London's ancient and modern trade associations and guilds, almost all of which are styled the "Worshipful Company of..." their respective craft, trade or profession.
A living wage is the minimum income necessary for a worker to meet their basic needs.
Private Acts are laws in the United Kingdom which apply to a particular individual or group of individuals, or corporate entity.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Magnus IV (April or May 1316 – 1 December 1374; Swedish Magnus Eriksson) was King of Sweden from 1319 to 1364, King of Norway as Magnus VII (including Iceland and Greenland) from 1319 to 1343, and ruler of Scania from 1332 to 1360.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
Manslaughter is a common law legal term for homicide considered by law as less culpable than murder.
The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit (commonly known as Martin Chuzzlewit) is a novel by Charles Dickens, considered the last of his picaresque novels.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Megacorporation, mega-corporation, or megacorp, a term popularized by William Gibson, derives from the combination of the prefix mega- with the word corporation.
Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
A nonprofit corporation is any legal entity which has been incorporated under the law of its jurisdiction for purposes other than making profits for its owners or shareholders.
Organizational culture encompasses values and behaviours that "contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization".
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A partnership is an arrangement where parties, known as partners, agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests.
In company law, perpetual succession is the continuation of a corporation's or other organization's existence despite the death, bankruptcy, insanity, change in membership or an exit from the business of any owner or member, or any transfer of stock,etc.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Preferred stock (also called preferred shares, preference shares or simply preferreds) is a type of stock which may have any combination of features not possessed by common stock including properties of both an equity and a debt instrument, and is generally considered a hybrid instrument.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Professional corporations or professional service corporation (abbreviated as PC or PSC) are those corporate entities for which many corporation statutes make special provision, regulating the use of the corporate form by licensed professionals such as attorneys, architects, engineers, public accountants and physicians.
Profit, in accounting, is an income distributed to the owner in a profitable market production process (business).
A public limited company (legally abbreviated to plc) is a type of public company under the United Kingdom company law, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland.
In United States business law, a registered agent, also known as a resident agent or statutory agent, is a business or individual designated to receive service of process (SOP) when a business entity is a party in a legal action such as a lawsuit or summons.
A registrar of companies is a public authority which is responsible for managing a companies register.
Restraint of trade is a common law doctrine relating to the enforceability of contractual restrictions on freedom to conduct business.
Return on investment (ROI) is the ratio between the net profit and cost of investment resulting from an investment of some resource.
Robert Hessen (born 1936) is an American economic and business historian.
Robert Lowe, 1st Viscount Sherbrooke, GCB, PC (4 December 1811 – 27 July 1892), British statesman, was a pivotal but often forgotten figure who shaped British politics in the latter half of the 19th century.
Robert Sobel (February 19, 1931 – June 2, 1999) was an American professor of history at Hofstra University and a well-known and prolific writer of business histories.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
is a landmark UK company law case.
In financial markets, a share is a unit used as mutual funds, limited partnerships, and real estate investment trusts.
A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation.
A shelf corporation, shelf company, or aged corporation is a company or corporation that has had no activity.
Small businesses are privately owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships that have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation.
A sole proprietorship, also known as the sole trader or simply a proprietorship, is a type of enterprise that is owned and run by one natural person and in which there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business entity.
The South Sea Company (officially The Governor and Company of the merchants of Great Britain, trading to the South Seas and other parts of America, and for the encouragement of fishing) was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Standard Oil Co.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
Stewart Kyd (1759 – 26 January 1811) was a Scottish politician and legal writer.
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners.
A supervisory board or supervisory committee, often called board of directors, is a group of individuals chosen by the stockholders of a company to promote their interests through the governance of the company and to hire and supervise the executive directors and CEO.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.
Tulip mania (Dutch: tulpenmanie) was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for some bulbs of the recently introduced and fashionable tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then dramatically collapsed in February 1637.
The United Kingdom company law regulates corporations formed under the Companies Act 2006.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
United States antitrust law is a collection of federal and state government laws that regulates the conduct and organization of business corporations, generally to promote fair competition for the benefit of consumers.
United States corporate law regulates the governance, finance and power of corporations in US law.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
An unlimited company or private unlimited company is a hybrid company (corporation) incorporated with or without a share capital (and similar to its limited company counterpart) but where the legal liability of the members or shareholders is not limited: that is, its members or shareholders have a joint, several and non-limited obligation to meet any insufficiency in the assets of the company to enable settlement of any outstanding financial liability in the event of the company's formal liquidation.
An unlimited liability corporation (ULC) is a Canadian corporation designation, wherein shareholders are liable up to unlimited amounts for any liability, act or default of the corporation.
A voluntary group or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, common-interest association,Prins HEL et al. (2010).. Cengage Learning. association, or society) is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement, usually as volunteers, to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose.
In German corporate governance, a Vorstand is the executive board of a corporation (public limited company).
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
A worker cooperative, is a cooperative that is owned and self-managed by its workers.
Close corporation, Company history, Company law history, Coporation, Coportate, Corp., Corperation, Corplate, Corporate, Corporate agenda, Corporate enterprise, Corporate enterprises, Corporate entities, Corporate entity, Corporations, History of companies, History of company law, History of corporate law, History of corporations, Incorporated business, Incorporated businesses, Mutual Benefit Corporation, Mutual benefit corporation.