178 relations: Achilles' heel, Alkaline earth metal, Alloy, Aluminium, Aluminium alloy, Aluminium oxide, Anaerobic corrosion, Anode, Anti-corrosion, Aqueous solution, Biofilm, Biogenic sulfide corrosion, Boron oxide, Borosilicate glass, Bridge, Brittleness, Cadmium, Calcium oxide, Carbon black, Carbon monoxide, Carbonation, Cast iron, Cathode, Cathodic protection, Ceramic, Chemical bond, Chemical kinetics, Chemotroph, Chloride, Chlorine, Chromate and dichromate, Chromate conversion coating, Chromium, Chromium carbide, Compacted oxide layer glaze, Concentration cell, Concrete, Concrete cover, Conductive polymer, Corrosion engineering, Corrosion in space, Corrosion inhibitor, Corrosive substance, Crevice corrosion, Crystallite, Cyclic corrosion testing, Deep foundation, Diffusion, Dimetcote, Direct current, ..., DNA, Duran (glass), Electrical resistivity measurement of concrete, Electrochemical cell, Electrochemistry, Electrode potential, Electrolyte, Electronegativity, Electropolishing, Entropy, Environmental stress fracture, Erosion, Faraday paradox (electrochemistry), Federal Highway Administration, Fibre-reinforced plastic tanks and vessels, Fluoride, Forensic engineering, Frost, Galvanic anode, Galvanic cell, Galvanic series, Getter, Glass, Glass disease, Gold, Graphite, Gross domestic product, Hard water, Hazard symbol, Hot-dip galvanization, Humidity, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen analyzer, Hydrogen embrittlement, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrolysis, Hydroxide, Ion, Ionizing radiation, Iron, Kelvin probe force microscope, Litter, Magnesium, Mercury (element), Metal, Metal dusting, Mianus River Bridge, Microbial corrosion, Microorganism, Nanometre, National Transportation Safety Board, Natural rubber, Neodymium magnet, Niobium, Noble metal, Nucleation, Oil platform, Oxide, Oxygen, Ozone, Ozone cracking, Paint, Panel edge staining, Passivation (chemistry), Periodic table, PH, Phosphate, Phosphoric acid, Pigment, Pipeline transport, Pitting corrosion, Pitting resistance equivalent number, Plastic shopping bag, Plasticizer, Plating, Platinum, Polarization (electrochemistry), Polyaniline, Polymer, Polymer degradation, Polyurethane, Polyvinyl chloride, Pourbaix diagram, Prentice Hall, Pyrex, Radical (chemistry), Reaction–diffusion system, Rebar, Redox, Reduction potential, Reinforced concrete, Reinforcement, Rouging, Rust, SAE 304 stainless steel, Salinity, Salt (chemistry), Salt spray test, Seawater, Silicon, Silver Bridge, Sodium oxide, Sodium silicate, Solder, Spall, Stainless steel, Steel, Stress concentration, Stress corrosion cracking, Structural integrity and failure, Sulfate-reducing microorganisms, Sulfide, Sulfide stress cracking, Sulfur, Surfactant, Suspension bridge, Temperature, Thermodynamics, Titanium, Titanium dioxide, Tribocorrosion, Ultraviolet, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Vitreous enamel, Welding, West Virginia, Zinc, Zinc pest. Expand index (128 more) » « Shrink index
An Achilles' heel is a weakness in spite of overall strength, which can lead to downfall.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium alloys (or aluminum alloys; see spelling differences) are alloys in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Hydrogen corrosion is a form of metal corrosion occurring in the presence of anoxic water.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Anti-corrosion refers to the protection of metal surfaces from corroding in high-risk (corrosive) environments.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
Biogenic sulfide corrosion is a bacterially mediated process of forming hydrogen sulfide gas and the subsequent conversion to sulfuric acid that attacks concrete and steel within wastewater environments.
Boron oxide may refer to.
Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.
A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.
# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbonation refers to reactions of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes.
Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion,.
Chromate conversion coating is a type of conversion coating used to passivate steel, aluminium, zinc, cadmium, copper, silver, magnesium, and tin alloys.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Chromium carbide is a ceramic compound that exists in several different chemical compositions: Cr3C2, Cr7C3,and Cr23C6.
Compacted oxide layer glaze describes the often shiny, wear-protective layer of oxide formed when two metals (or a metal and ceramic) are slid against each other at high temperature in an oxygen-containing atmosphere.
In battery technology, a concentration cell is a limited form of a galvanic cell that has two equivalent half-cells of the same composition differing only in concentrations.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
Concrete cover, in reinforced concrete, is the least distance between the surface of embedded reinforcement and the outer surface of the concrete (ACI 130).
Conductive polymers or, more precisely, intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) are organic polymers that conduct electricity.
Corrosion Engineering is the specialist discipline of applying scientific knowledge, natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, devices, systems and procedures to manage the natural phenomenon known as corrosion.
Corrosion in space is the corrosion of materials occurring in outer space.
A corrosion inhibitor is a chemical compound that, when added to a liquid or gas, decreases the corrosion rate of a material, typically a metal or an alloy.
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
Crevice corrosion refers to corrosion occurring in confined spaces to which the access of the working fluid from the environment is limited.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
Cyclic Corrosion Testing (CCT) has evolved in recent years, largely within the automotive industry, as a way of accelerating real-world corrosion failures, under laboratory controlled conditions.
A deep foundation is a type of foundation that transfers building loads to the earth farther down from the surface than a shallow foundation does to a subsurface layer or a range of depths.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Dimetcote is commonly used for steel corrosion resistance.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DURAN is a brand name for the internationally defined borosilicate glass 3.3 (DIN ISO 3585) produced by the German company since 2005 under license from the Schott AG, which was the first to develop it and sold it from 1893 until the equity carve-out of the DURAN Group in 2005.
Concrete electrical resistivity can be obtained by applying a current into the concrete and measuring the response voltage.
An electrochemical cell (EC) is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
Electrode potential, E, in chemistry or electrochemistry, according to a IUPAC definition, is the electromotive force of a cell built of two electrodes.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Electropolishing, also known as electrochemical polishing, anodic polishing or electrolytic polishing (especially in the metallography field), is an electrochemical process that removes material from a metallic workpiece.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
In materials science, environmental stress fracture or environment assisted fracture is the generic name given to premature failure under the influence of tensile stresses and harmful environments of materials such as metals and alloys, composites, plastics and ceramics.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
The Faraday paradox was a once inexplicable aspect of the reaction between nitric acid and steel.
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation.
FRP (Fibreglass Reinforced Plastics, also known as GRP, or Glass Reinforced Plastics) is a modern composite material of construction for chemical plant equipment like tanks and vessels.
Forensic engineering has been defined as "the investigation of failures - ranging from serviceability to catastrophic - which may lead to legal activity, including both civil and criminal". It therefore includes the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury, damage to property or economic loss.
Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.
A galvanic anode is the main component of a galvanic cathodic protection (CP) system used to protect buried or submerged metal structures from corrosion.
A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell.
The galvanic series (or electropotential series) determines the nobility of metals and semi-metals.
A getter is a deposit of reactive material that is placed inside a vacuum system, for the purpose of completing and maintaining the vacuum.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Glass disease, also referred to as sick glass or glass illness, is a degradation process of glass that can result in weeping, crizzling, spalling, cracking and fragmentation.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").
Hazard symbols or warning symbols are recognisable symbols designed to warn about hazardous or dangerous materials, locations, or objects, including electric currents, poisons, and radioactivity.
Hot-dip galvanization is a form of galvanization.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
A hydrogen analyzer is a device used to measure the hydrogen concentration in steels and alloys.
Hydrogen embrittlement is the process by which hydride-forming metals such as titanium, vanadium, zirconium, tantalum, and niobium become brittle and fracture due to the introduction and subsequent diffusion of hydrogen into the metal.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), also known as surface potential microscopy, is a noncontact variant of atomic force microscopy (AFM).
Litter consists of waste products that have been disposed improperly, without consent, at an inappropriate location.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal dusting is "a catastrophic form of corrosion that occurs when susceptible materials are exposed to environments with high carbon activities." The corrosion manifests itself as a break-up of bulk metal to metal powder.
The Mianus River Bridge is a span that carries Interstate 95 over the Mianus River in the Cos Cob section of Greenwich, Connecticut.
Microbial corrosion, also called bacterial corrosion, bio-corrosion, microbiologically influenced corrosion, or microbially induced corrosion (MIC), is corrosion caused or promoted by microorganisms, usually chemoautotrophs.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is an independent U.S. government investigative agency responsible for civil transportation accident investigation.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
A neodymium magnet (also known as NdFeB, NIB or Neo magnet), the most widely used type of rare-earth magnet, is a permanent magnet made from an alloy of neodymium, iron and boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
Nucleation is the first step in the formation of either a new thermodynamic phase or a new structure via self-assembly or self-organization.
An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Cracks can be formed in many different elastomers by ozone attack, and the characteristic form of attack of vulnerable rubbers is known as ozone cracking.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Panel edge staining is a naturally occurring problem that occurs to anodized aluminium and stainless steel paneling and facades.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.
Pitting corrosion, or pitting, is a form of extremely localized corrosion that leads to the creation of small holes in the metal.
Pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) is a predictive measurement of a stainless steels resistance to localized pitting corrosion based on their chemical composition.
Plastic shopping bags, carrier bags, or plastic grocery bags) are a type of plastic bag used as shopping bags and made from various kinds of plastic. In use by consumers worldwide since the 1960s, these bags are sometimes called single-use bags, referring to carrying items from a store to a home. However, reuse for storage or trash is common, and modern plastic shopping bags are increasingly recyclable or biodegradable. In recent decades, numerous countries have introduced legislation restricting the sale of plastic bags, in a bid to reduce littering and plastic pollution. Some reusable shopping bags are made of plastic film, fibers, or fabric.
Plasticizers (UK: plasticisers) or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or decrease the viscosity of a material.
Plating is a surface covering in which a metal is deposited on a conductive surface.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
In electrochemistry, polarization is a collective term for certain mechanical side-effects (of an electrochemical process) by which isolating barriers develop at the interface between electrode and electrolyte.
Polyaniline (PANI) is a conducting polymer of the semi-flexible rod polymer family.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polymer degradation is a change in the properties—tensile strength, color, shape, etc.—of a polymer or polymer-based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals such as acids, alkalis and some salts.
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
In electrochemistry, a Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, EH-pH diagram or a pE/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
Pyrex (trademarked as PYREX) is a brand introduced by Corning Inc. in 1908 for a line of clear, low-thermal-expansion borosilicate glass used for laboratory glassware and kitchenware.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Reaction–diffusion systems are mathematical models which correspond to several physical phenomena: the most common is the change in space and time of the concentration of one or more chemical substances: local chemical reactions in which the substances are transformed into each other, and diffusion which causes the substances to spread out over a surface in space.
Rebar (short for reinforcing bar), collectively known as reinforcing steel and reinforcement steel, is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used as a tension device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures to strengthen and hold the concrete in compression.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential, ORP, pE, ε, or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.
Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
Rouging refers to a form of corrosion found in stainless steel.
Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.
SAE 304 stainless steel is the most common stainless steel.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
The salt spray (or salt fog) test is a standardized and popular corrosion test method, used to check corrosion resistance of materials and surface coatings.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
The Silver Bridge was an eyebar-chain suspension bridge built in 1928 and named for the color of its aluminum paint.
Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O.
Sodium silicate is a generic name for chemical compounds with the formula or ·, such as sodium metasilicate, sodium orthosilicate, and sodium pyrosilicate.
Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
Spall is flakes of a material that are broken off a larger solid body and can be produced by a variety of mechanisms, including as a result of projectile impact, corrosion, weathering, cavitation, or excessive rolling pressure (as in a ball bearing).
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A stress concentration (often called stress raisers or stress risers) is a location in an object where stress is concentrated.
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the growth of crack formation in a corrosive environment.
Structural integrity and failure is an aspect of engineering which deals with the ability of a structure to support a designed load (weight, force, etc...) without breaking, and includes the study of past structural failures in order to prevent failures in future designs.
Sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) or sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are a group composed of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfate-reducing archaea (SRA), both of which can perform anaerobic respiration utilizing sulfate (SO42–) as terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfide stress cracking (SSC) is a form of hydrogen embrittlement which is a cathodic cracking mechanism.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
Tribocorrosion is a material degradation process due to the combined effect of corrosion and wear.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Upper Saddle River is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc pest (from German Zinkpest), also known as zinc rot, is a destructive, intercrystalline corrosion process of zinc alloys containing lead impurities.
Chemical durability, Corrode, Corroding, Corrosion Types, Corrosion and rusting, Corrosion prevention, Corrosion resistance, Corrosion-resistant, Corrosions, Corrosives, Corrosivity, Corrossion, Glass classification, Hydrolytic class, Metal corrosion, Rusting of iron.