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Corruption

Index Corruption

Corruption is a form of dishonesty undertaken by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit. [1]

177 relations: Academic careerism, Accounting scandals, Aid, Amos (prophet), Angola, Anti-globalization movement, Appearance of corruption, Arcadi Gaydamak, Arms trafficking, Arthur Schopenhauer, Baksheesh, BBC, Biens mal acquis, Black market, Blackmail, Blood diamond, Brazil, Bribery, Budget, Business ethics, Capitalism, Catholic Church, Central Europe, Charles Pasqua, Chemical substance, Chicago, Christianity, Clientelism, Code of conduct, Collective action problem, Conflict of interest, Conglomerate (company), Constitutional economics, Corporate Accountability International, Corporate crime, Corporate liability, Corporate warfare, Corporation, CorpWatch, Corruption, Corruption in Angola, Corruption in India, Corruption in Lithuania, Corruption in Poland, Corruption Perceptions Index, Criminology, Crony capitalism, Cronyism, Daniel Kaufmann (economist), Darmstadt, ..., Decision-making, Developing country, Discretion, Dishonesty, Embezzlement, Enel Green Power, Enron, European Single Market, European Union, Eurozone, Examining magistrate, Executive (government), Extortion, False evidence, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Police of Brazil, Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Fortune Global 500, François Mitterrand, France, Fraud, Free market, Georges Fenech, Goldman Sachs, Gospel of Matthew, Government of France, Graft (politics), Guanxi, Hermeneutics, History of ancient Israel and Judah, Impunity, In-group favoritism, Independent Police Complaints Commission, Industrial espionage, Influence peddling, Insider trading, Internal affairs (law enforcement), International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Isaiah, Jacques Attali, James W. Fifield Jr., Jean-Charles Marchiani, Jesus, Judicial misconduct, Kėdainiai, Kevin M. Kruse, Kickback (bribery), Kleptocracy, Le Figaro, Legal person, Liechtenstein, List of companies convicted of felony offenses in the United States, List of corporate collapses and scandals, Lithuanian litas, Lobbying, Mafia, Martin Luther, Mexico City, Microcap stock fraud, Mitterrand–Pasqua affair, Money laundering, Monopoly, Multinational corporation, Multinational Monitor, Narco-state, Natural person, Nepotism, New Testament, Ninety-five Theses, Non-governmental organization, Norberto Odebrecht, Odebrecht, OECD, OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, Oligarchy, Operation Car Wash, Organized crime, Paul the Apostle, Paul-Loup Sulitzer, Pay to play, People's Party (Spain), Petrobras, Petrochemical, Petroleum industry, Pierre Falcone, Plato, Police misconduct, Political corruption, Political scandal, Politics, Post-Soviet states, Prague, Princeton University, Principal–agent problem, Prostitution, Pump and dump, Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, Real estate, Regulatory capture, Republic (Plato), Republic of the Congo, Resource curse, Reuters, Rio de Janeiro, Rwanda, Salvador, Bahia, Salvation, Sérgio Moro, Second economy of the Soviet Union, Sicilian Mafia, Siemens, Social Gospel, Switzerland, Theft, Torah, Transparency (behavior), Transparency International, Trial in absentia, Union for a Popular Movement, United Nations, United Nations Convention against Corruption, Venezuela, Vicarious liability (criminal), Wasta, Whistleblower, World Bank, ZTS OSOS. Expand index (127 more) »

Academic careerism

Academic careerism is the tendency of academics (professors specifically and intellectuals generally) to pursue their own enrichment and self-advancement at the expense of honest inquiry, unbiased research and dissemination of truth to their students and society.

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Accounting scandals

Accounting scandals are business scandals which arise from intentional manipulation of financial statements with the disclosure of financial misdeeds by trusted executives of corporations or governments.

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Aid

In international relations, aid (also known as international aid, overseas aid, foreign aid or foreign assistance) is – from the perspective of governments – a voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another.

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Amos (prophet)

Amos was one of the Twelve Minor Prophets.

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Angola

Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.

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Anti-globalization movement

The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalisation movement, is a social movement critical of economic globalization.

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Appearance of corruption

The Appearance of Corruption is a principle of law mentioned in or relevant to several SCOTUS decisions related to campaign finance in the United States.

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Arcadi Gaydamak

Arcadi Aleksandrovich Gaydamak (ארקדי אלכסנדרוביץ' גאידמק; Аркадий Александрович Гайдамак; born 8 April 1952 in Moscow, USSR) is a Russian-born businessman philanthropist and President of the Congress of Jewish Religious Communities and Organizations of Russia (KEROOR).

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Arms trafficking

Arms trafficking, also known as gunrunning, is the trafficking of contraband weapons and ammunition.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.

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Baksheesh

Baksheesh or bagsheesh (from بخشش bakhshesh) is tipping, charitable giving, and certain forms of political corruption and bribery in the Middle East and South Asia.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Biens mal acquis

Biens mal acquis translates as "ill-gotten goods".

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Black market

A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.

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Blackmail

Blackmail is an act, often criminal, involving unjustified threats to make a gain—most commonly money or property—or cause loss to another unless a demand is met.

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Blood diamond

Blood diamonds (also called conflict diamonds, war diamonds, hot diamonds, or red diamonds) is a term used for a diamond mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency, an invading army's war efforts, or a warlord's activity.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Bribery

Bribery is the act of giving or receiving something of value in exchange for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not alter.

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Budget

A budget is a financial plan for a defined period of time, usually a year.It may also include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows.

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Business ethics

Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics, that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Charles Pasqua

Charles Pasqua (18 April 1927 – 29 June 2015) was a French businessman and Gaullist politician.

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Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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Chicago

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Clientelism

Clientelism is the exchange of goods and services for political support, often involving an implicit or explicit quid-pro-quo.

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Code of conduct

A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the social norms, religious rules and responsibilities of, and or proper practices for, an individual.

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Collective action problem

A collective action problem is a situation in which all individuals would be better off cooperating but fail to do so because of conflicting interests between individuals that discourage joint action.

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Conflict of interest

A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.

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Conglomerate (company)

A conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries.

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Constitutional economics

Constitutional economics is a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the choices and activities of economic and political agents".

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Corporate Accountability International

Corporate Accountability (formerly INFACT, Corporate Accountability International) is a non-profit organization, founded in 1977.

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Corporate crime

In criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation (i.e., a business entity having a separate legal personality from the natural persons that manage its activities), or by individuals acting on behalf of a corporation or other business entity (see vicarious liability and corporate liability).

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Corporate liability

In criminal law, corporate liability determines the extent to which a corporation as a legal person can be liable for the acts and omissions of the natural persons it employs.

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Corporate warfare

Corporate warfare refers to attacks on individuals or companies by other individuals or companies.

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Corporation

A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.

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CorpWatch

CorpWatch is a research group based in San Francisco, California, USA.

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Corruption

Corruption is a form of dishonesty undertaken by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.

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Corruption in Angola

Angola's president, Jose Eduardo dos Santos, has been accused of creating one of the most corrupt countries in Africa.

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Corruption in India

Corruption is an issue that adversely affects India's economy of central, state and local government agencies.

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Corruption in Lithuania

Corruption in Lithuania is examined on this page.

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Corruption in Poland

Corruption in Poland has declined over time in the recent years.

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Corruption Perceptions Index

Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".

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Criminology

Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.

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Crony capitalism

Crony capitalism is an economy in which businesses thrive not as a result of risks they take, but rather as a return on money amassed through a nexus between a business class and the political class.

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Cronyism

Cronyism is the practice of partiality in awarding jobs and other advantages to friends, family relatives or trusted colleagues, especially in politics and between politicians and supportive organizations.

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Daniel Kaufmann (economist)

Daniel Kaufmann is the president and CEO of the Natural Resource Governance Institute, formerly the Revenue Watch Institute - Natural Resource Charter.

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Darmstadt

Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region).

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Decision-making

In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Discretion

Discretion has the meaning of acting on one's own authority and judgement.

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Dishonesty

Dishonesty is to act without honesty.

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Embezzlement

Embezzlement is the act of withholding assets for the purpose of conversion (theft) of such assets, by one or more persons to whom the assets were entrusted, either to be held or to be used for specific purposes.

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Enel Green Power

Enel Green Power S.p.A. is an Italian multinational renewable-energy corporation, headquartered in Rome.

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Enron

Enron Corporation was an American energy, commodities, and services company based in Houston, Texas.

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European Single Market

The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eurozone

No description.

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Examining magistrate

In an inquisitorial system of law, the examining magistrate (also called investigating magistrate, inquisitorial magistrate, or investigating judge), is a judge who carries out pre-trial investigations into allegations of crime and in some cases makes a recommendation for prosecution.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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Extortion

Extortion (also called shakedown, outwrestling and exaction) is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion.

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False evidence

False evidence, fabricated evidence, forged evidence or tainted evidence is information created or obtained illegally, to sway the verdict in a court case.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

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Federal Police of Brazil

The Federal Police of Brazil (Portuguese: Polícia Federal) is a federal law enforcement agency of Brazil and one of its three federal police forces.

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Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (FCPA) (et seq.) is a United States federal law known primarily for two of its main provisions, one that addresses accounting transparency requirements under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and another concerning bribery of foreign officials.

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Fortune Global 500

The Fortune Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue and the list is compiled and published annually by Fortune magazine.

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François Mitterrand

François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Fraud

In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Georges Fenech

Georges Fenech (born 26 October 1954) is a French judge and politician.

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Goldman Sachs

The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.

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Gospel of Matthew

The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.

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Government of France

The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.

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Graft (politics)

Graft, as understood in American English, is a form of political corruption, being the unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain.

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Guanxi

Guanxi describes the rudimentary dynamic in personalized social networks of influence (which can be best described as the relationships individuals cultivate with other individuals) and is a central idea in Chinese society.

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Hermeneutics

Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.

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History of ancient Israel and Judah

The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant.

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Impunity

Impunity means "exemption from punishment or loss or escape from fines".

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In-group favoritism

In-group favoritism, sometimes known as in-group–out-group bias, in-group bias, or intergroup bias, is a pattern of favoring members of one's in-group over out-group members.

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Independent Police Complaints Commission

The Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) was a non-departmental public body in England and Wales responsible for overseeing the system for handling complaints made against police forces in England and Wales.

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Industrial espionage

Industrial espionage, economic espionage, corporate spying or corporate espionage is a form of espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of purely national security.

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Influence peddling

Influence peddling is the illegal practice of using one's influence in government or connections with persons in authority to obtain favours or preferential treatment for another, usually in return for payment.

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Insider trading

Insider trading is the trading of a public company's stock or other securities (such as bonds or stock options) by individuals with access to nonpublic information about the company.

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Internal affairs (law enforcement)

The internal affairs refers to a division of a law enforcement agency that investigates incidents and possible suspicions of law-breaking and professional misconduct attributed to officers on the force.

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International Brotherhood of Teamsters

The International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) is a labor union in the United States and Canada.

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Isaiah

Isaiah (or;; ܐܹܫܲܥܝܵܐ ˀēšaˁyā; Greek: Ἠσαΐας, Ēsaïās; Latin: Isaias; Arabic: إشعيا Ašaʿyāʾ or šaʿyā; "Yah is salvation") was the 8th-century BC Jewish prophet for whom the Book of Isaiah is named.

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Jacques Attali

Jacques Attali (born 1 November 1943) is a French economic and social theorist, writer, political adviser and senior civil servant, who served as a counselor to President François Mitterrand from 1981 to 1991 and was the first head of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 1991-1993.

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James W. Fifield Jr.

James William Fifield Jr (June 5, 1899 – February 25, 1977) was an American Congregational minister who led the First Congregational Church in Los Angeles and was co-founder and president of the conservative free-market organization Spiritual Mobilization.

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Jean-Charles Marchiani

Jean-Charles Marchiani, (born August 6, 1943) is a French prefect and politician.

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Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Judicial misconduct

Judicial misconduct occurs when a judge acts in ways that are considered unethical or otherwise violate the judge's obligations of impartial conduct.

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Kėdainiai

Kėdainiai (also known by several other names) is one of the oldest cities in Lithuania.

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Kevin M. Kruse

Kevin M. Kruse is a professor of history at Princeton University.

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Kickback (bribery)

A kickback is a form of negotiated bribery in which a commission is paid to the bribe-taker in exchange for services rendered.

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Kleptocracy

Kleptocracy (from Greek κλέπτης kléptēs, "thief", κλέπτω kléptō, "I steal", and -κρατία -kratía from κράτος krátos, "power, rule") is a government with corrupt leaders (kleptocrats) that use their power to exploit the people and natural resources of their own territory in order to extend their personal wealth and political powers.

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Le Figaro

Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.

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Legal person

A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.

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Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.

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List of companies convicted of felony offenses in the United States

This is a list of corporations that have pleaded guilty to, no contest to, or been convicted of a felony offense or multiple felonies in a state or federal court within the United States, and not had the conviction(s) overturned on appeal.

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List of corporate collapses and scandals

A corporate collapse typically involves the insolvency or bankruptcy of a major business enterprise.

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Lithuanian litas

The Lithuanian litas (ISO currency code LTL, symbolized as Lt; plural litai (nominative) or litų (genitive)) was the currency of Lithuania, until 1 January 2015, when it was replaced by the euro.

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Lobbying

Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.

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Mafia

A mafia is a type of organized crime syndicate whose primary activities are protection racketeering, the arbitration of disputes between criminals, and the organizing and oversight of illegal agreements and transactions.

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Martin Luther

Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.

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Mexico City

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.

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Microcap stock fraud

Microcap stock fraud is a form of securities fraud involving stocks of "microcap" companies, generally defined in the United States as those with a market capitalization of under $250 million.

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Mitterrand–Pasqua affair

The Mitterrand–Pasqua affair, also known informally as Angolagate, is an international political scandal over the secret sale and shipment of arms from Central Europe to the government of Angola by the Government of France in the 1990s.

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Money laundering

Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.

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Monopoly

A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.

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Multinational corporation

A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.

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Multinational Monitor

The Multinational Monitor was a bimonthly magazine founded by Ralph Nader in 1980.

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Narco-state

Narco-state (also narco-capitalism or narco-economy) is a political and economic term applied to states where all legitimate institutions become penetrated by the power and wealth of the illegal drug trade.

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Natural person

In jurisprudence, a natural person is a person (in legal meaning, i.e., one who has its own legal personality) that is an individual human being, as opposed to a legal person, which may be a private (i.e., business entity or non-governmental organization) or public (i.e., government) organization.

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Nepotism

Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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Ninety-five Theses

The Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power of Indulgences is a list of propositions for an academic disputation written in 1517 by Martin Luther, professor of moral theology at the University of Wittenberg, Germany, that started the Reformation, a schism in the Catholic Church which profoundly changed Europe.

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Non-governmental organization

Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.

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Norberto Odebrecht

Norberto Odebrecht (October 9, 1920 – July 19, 2014) was a Brazilian engineer, businessman and philanthropist.

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Odebrecht

Odebrecht Organization is a Brazilian conglomerate consisting of diversified businesses in the fields of engineering, construction, chemicals and petrochemicals.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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OECD Anti-Bribery Convention

The OECD Anti-Bribery Convention (officially Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions) is a convention of the OECD aimed at reducing corruption in developing countries by encouraging sanctions against bribery in international business transactions carried out by companies based in the Convention member countries.

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Oligarchy

Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.

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Operation Car Wash

Operation Car Wash (Operação Lava Jato) is an ongoing criminal investigation being carried out by the Federal Police of Brazil, Curitiba Branch, and judicially commanded by Judge Sérgio Moro since March 17, 2014.

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Organized crime

Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.

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Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.

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Paul-Loup Sulitzer

Paul Loup Karl Sulitzer (born 22 July 1946 in Boulogne-Billancourt) is a French financier and author.

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Pay to play

Pay to play, sometimes pay for play, is a phrase used for a variety of situations in which money is exchanged for services or the privilege to engage in certain activities.

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People's Party (Spain)

The People's Party (Partido Popular; known mostly by its acronym, PP) is a conservative and Christian democratic political party in Spain.

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Petrobras

Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. — Petrobras, more commonly known as simply Petrobras, is a semi-public Brazilian multinational corporation in the petroleum industry headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Petrochemical

Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.

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Petroleum industry

The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.

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Pierre Falcone

Pierre Falcone (born 19 March 1954 in Algiers) is a French businessman.

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Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Police misconduct

Police misconduct refers to inappropriate conduct and or illegal actions taken by police officers in connection with their official duties.

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Political corruption

Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.

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Political scandal

A political scandal is an action or event regarded as morally or legally wrong and causing general public outrage.

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Politics

Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.

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Post-Soviet states

The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.

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Prague

Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Principal–agent problem

The principal–agent problem, in political science and economics, (also known as agency dilemma or the agency problem) occurs when one person or entity (the "agent") is able to make decisions and/or take actions on behalf of, or that impact, another person or entity: the "principal".

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Prostitution

Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.

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Pump and dump

"Pump and dump" (P&D) is a form of securities fraud that involves artificially inflating the price of an owned stock through false and misleading positive statements, in order to sell the cheaply purchased stock at a higher price.

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Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act

The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, commonly referred to as the RICO Act or simply RICO, is a United States federal law that provides for extended criminal penalties and a civil cause of action for acts performed as part of an ongoing criminal organization.

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Real estate

Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.

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Regulatory capture

Regulatory capture is a form of government failure which occurs when a regulatory agency, created to act in the public interest, instead advances the commercial or political concerns of special interest groups that dominate the industry or sector it is charged with regulating.

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Republic (Plato)

The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.

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Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa.

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Resource curse

The resource curse, also known as the paradox of plenty, refers to the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources (like fossil fuels and certain minerals), tend to have less economic growth, less democracy, and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.

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Rwanda

Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.

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Salvador, Bahia

Salvador, also known as São Salvador, Salvador de Bahia, and Salvador da Bahia, is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia.

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Salvation

Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.

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Sérgio Moro

Sérgio Fernando Moro (born 1 August 1972) is a Brazilian federal judge.

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Second economy of the Soviet Union

The second economy in the Soviet Union was the informal sector in the economy of the Soviet Union.

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Sicilian Mafia

The Sicilian Mafia, also known as simply the Mafia and frequently referred to by members as Cosa Nostra (this thing of ours), is a criminal syndicate in Sicily, Italy.

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Siemens

Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

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Social Gospel

The Social Gospel was a movement in North American Protestantism which applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, unclean environment, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Theft

In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.

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Torah

Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.

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Transparency (behavior)

Transparency, as used in science, engineering, business, the humanities and in other social contexts, is operating in such a way that it is easy for others to see what actions are performed.

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Transparency International

Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.

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Trial in absentia

Trial in absentia is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings.

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Union for a Popular Movement

The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire; UMP) was a centre-right political party in France that was one of the two major contemporary political parties in France along with the centre-left Socialist Party (PS).

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Convention against Corruption

The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) is a multilateral treaty negotiated by member states of the and promoted by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

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Venezuela

Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Vicarious liability (criminal)

The legal principle of vicarious liability applies to hold one person liable for the actions of another when engaged in some form of joint or collective activity.

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Wasta

Wasta or wasata (Arabic: وَاسِطة wāsiṭah) is an Arabic word that loosely translates into nepotism, 'clout' or 'who you know'.

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Whistleblower

A whistleblower (also written as whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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ZTS OSOS

ZTS OSOS, previously known as ZTS OZOS, is an armaments company.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corruption

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