212 relations: Addison's disease, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal ferredoxin, Adrenal insufficiency, Adverse drug reaction, Adverse effect, Alclometasone dipropionate, Aldosterone, Aldosterone synthase, Allergen of the Year, Allergic rhinitis, Allergy, Amcinonide, Anabolic steroid, Anaphylaxis, Angioedema, Anti-inflammatory, Antibiotic, Anticorticosteroid, Anxiety, Asthma, Atopic dermatitis, Autoimmune hepatitis, Beclometasone, Beclometasone dipropionate, Betamethasone, Betamethasone dipropionate, Betamethasone valerate, Bile, Brain tumor, Budesonide, Budesonide/formoterol, Candidiasis, Carbohydrate, Catabolism, Cataract, Central serous retinopathy, Cerebral edema, Chemotherapy, Cholesterol, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Ciclesonide, Clobetasol propionate, Clobetasone butyrate, Colitis, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Contact dermatitis, Contraindication, Corticosteroid receptor, Corticosterone, ..., Cortisol, Cortisone, Cortisone acetate, Crohn's disease, Cushing's syndrome, Cutaneous condition, CYP17A1, Cytochrome P450, Depression (mood), Dermatology, Dermatomyositis, Desonide, Dexamethasone, Diabetes mellitus, Dioscorea mexicana, Diosgenin, Disease, DNA synthesis, Drug allergy, Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety, Edward Calvin Kendall, Electrolyte, Endocrinology, Enzyme, Eosinophilic pneumonia, Epidermis, Epithelium, Fludrocortisone, Flunisolide, Fluocinolone acetonide, Fluocinonide, Fluocortolone, Fluorometholone, Fluprednidene acetate, Fluticasone furoate, Fluticasone propionate, Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol, Food allergy, Gastroenterology, Glucocorticoid, Glucocorticoid receptor, Halcinonide, Halometasone, Hematology, Hemolytic anemia, Histidine, Hives, Hormonal contraception, Hydrocortisone, Hydrocortisone aceponate, Hydrocortisone acetate, Hydrocortisone buteprate, Hydrocortisone butyrate, Hydrocortisone valerate, Hyperglycemia, Hypernatremia, Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Hypertension, Hypokalemia, IgG4-related disease, Immune system, Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Immunology, Immunosuppression, Inflammation, Inflammatory bowel disease, Insulin resistance, Interstitial lung disease, Ion transporter, Keratoconjunctivitis, Kidney, Leukemia, Leukocyte extravasation, Leukotriene, Lewis Hastings Sarett, Lichen planus, List of corticosteroid cyclic ketals, List of corticosteroid esters, List of corticosteroids, List of steroid abbreviations, Lymphoma, Marker degradation, Medication, Medicine, Merck & Co., Metabolic alkalosis, Metabolism, Methylprednisolone, Mineralocorticoid, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Miracle, Mitochondrion, Mometasone, Mometasone furoate, Moon face, Mucous membrane, Multiple myeloma, Multiple sclerosis, Nasal polyp, Nephron, Nephrotic syndrome, Nobel Prize, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Ondansetron, Ophthalmology, Organ transplantation, Osmoregulation, Ox, Pemphigus vulgaris, Peptic ulcer disease, Percy Lavon Julian, Peripheral edema, Philip Showalter Hench, Phospholipase A2, Physiology, Pneumonia, Polyarteritis nodosa, Polymyalgia rheumatica, Polymyositis, Prednicarbate, Prednisolone, Prednisone, Progesterone, Prostaglandin, Prostate cancer, Protein, Pulmonology, Receptor modulator, Retinopathy, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, Rhinitis, Rhizopus, Russell Earl Marker, Sarcoidosis, Steroid, Steroid 11β-hydroxylase, Steroid hormone, Steroid-induced osteoporosis, Stress (biology), Syntex, Systematic review, Systemic lupus erythematosus, T cell, Tadeusz Reichstein, Tendinosis, Teratology, Tixocortol pivalate, Tobramycin/dexamethasone, Traumatic brain injury, Triamcinolone, Triamcinolone acetonide, Type IV hypersensitivity, Ulcerative colitis, Upjohn, Uveitis, Vasculitis, Vasoconstriction, Vertebrate, Zona fasciculata, Zona glomerulosa, 21-Hydroxylase. Expand index (162 more) » « Shrink index
Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
Adrenal ferredoxin (also adrenodoxin (ADX), adrenodoxin, mitochondrial, hepatoredoxin, ferredoxin-1 (FDX1)) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FDX1 gene.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Alclometasone dipropionate is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid and a corticosteroid ester.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Aldosterone synthase is a steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone.
Allergen of the Year is an annual "award" of dubious distinction voted upon by the American Contact Dermatitis Society.
Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Amcinonide (trade name Cyclocort) is a topical glucocorticoid used to treat itching, redness and swelling associated with several dermatologic conditions such as atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
Angioedema is an area of swelling of the lower layer of skin and tissue just under the skin or mucous membranes.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Anticorticosteroids or anticorticoids are drugs which oppose the actions of corticosteroids.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis).
Autoimmune hepatitis, formerly called lupoid hepatitis, is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the liver that occurs when the body's immune system attacks liver cells causing the liver to be inflamed.
Beclometasone (brand names Becotide, Beclocort), or beclomethasone, is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid which is marketed in Norway and Russia.
Beclometasone dipropionate, also spelled beclomethasone dipropionate and sold under the brand name Qvar among others, is a steroid medication.
Betamethasone is a steroid medication.
Betamethasone dipropionate is a glucocorticoid steroid with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive abilities.
Betamethasone valerate is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid and a corticosteroid ester.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
Budesonide (BUD), sold under the brand name Pulmicort among others, is a medication of the corticosteroid type.
Budesonide/formoterol, sold under the brand name Symbicort among others, is a combination medication used in the management of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast).
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
Central serous retinopathy (CSR), also known as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC or CSCR), is an eye disease which causes visual impairment, often temporary, usually in one eye.
Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Ciclesonide is a glucocorticoid used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis.
Clobetasol propionate is a corticosteroid of the glucocorticoid class used to treat various skin disorders including eczema and psoriasis.
Clobetasone butyrate is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid and a corticosteroid ester.
Colitis is an inflammation of the colon.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).
Contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin.
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.
The corticosteroid receptors are receptors for corticosteroids.
Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cortisone, also known as 17α,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione, is a pregnane (21-carbon) steroid hormone.
Cortisone acetate (brand names Adreson, Cortison, Cortisone, Cortisone Acetate, Cortone, Cortistab, Cortisyl, others) is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid and corticosteroid ester which is marketed in many countries throughout the world, including in the United States, the United Kingdom, and various other European countries.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.
Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
Dermatomyositis (DM) is a long term inflammatory disorder which affects muscles.
Desonide (INN) is a low-potency topical corticosteroid anti-inflammatory that has been available since the 1970s.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Dioscorea mexicana, Mexican yam or cabeza de negro is a species of yam in the genus Dioscorea.
Diosgenin, a phytosteroid sapogenin, is the product of hydrolysis by acids, strong bases, or enzymes of saponins, extracted from the tubers of Dioscorea wild yam, such as the Kokoro.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
DNA synthesis is the natural or artificial creation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules.
A drug allergy is an allergy to a drug, most commonly a medication, and is a form of adverse drug reaction.
The Journal of Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety is a peer-reviewed healthcare journal covering patient safety issues.
Edward Calvin Kendall (March 8, 1886 – May 4, 1972) was an American chemist.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a disease in which an eosinophil, a type of white blood cell, accumulates in the lung.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Fludrocortisone, sold under the brand name Florinef among others, is a corticosteroid which is used to treat adrenogenital syndrome, postural hypotension, and adrenal insufficiency.
Flunisolide (marketed as AeroBid, Nasalide, Nasarel) is a corticosteroid often prescribed as treatment for allergic rhinitis.
Fluocinolone acetonide is a corticosteroid primarily used in dermatology to reduce skin inflammation and relieve itching.
Fluocinonide (Fluonex, Lidex, Lidex-E, Lonide, Lyderm, and Vanos) is a potent glucocorticoid used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of skin disorders such as eczema and seborrhoeic dermatitis.
Fluocortolone is a glucocorticoid used in the treatment of several conditions, including hemorrhoids.
Fluorometholone (INN, BAN, JAN) (brand names Efflumidex, Flucon, FML Forte, FML, others), also known as 6α-methyl-9α-fluoro-11β,17α-dihydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione, is a synthetic glucocorticoid which is used in the treatment of inflammatory eye diseases.
Fluprednidene acetate (trade name Decoderm among others) is a moderately potent glucocorticoid used in form of a cream to treat skin inflammations such as atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis.
Fluticasone furoate is a synthetic corticosteroid derived from fluticasone, marketed by GlaxoSmithKline as Veramyst and Flonase Sensimist (US), Allermist (Japan, アラミスト) and Avamys (Australia, Canada, EU, South Africa, South America, Mexico, Israel, Italy and South Korea) for the treatment of non-allergic and allergic rhinitis administered by a nasal spray.
Fluticasone propionate belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids, specifically glucocorticoids, which are hormones that predominantly affect the metabolism of carbohydrates and, to a lesser extent, fat and protein.
The combination preparation fluticasone/salmeterol is a formulation containing fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate, used in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food.
Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.
Halcinonide is a high potency corticosteroid, in group II (second most potent group) under US classification.
Halometasone is a potent (Group III) synthetic tri-halogenated corticosteroid for topical application possessing pronounced anti-inflammatory, antiexudative, antiepidermoplastic, antiallergic, and antipruritic properties.
Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
Hemolytic anemia or haemolytic anaemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular, but usually in the spleen).
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.
Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system.
Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.
Hydrocortisone aceponate is a corticosteroid that is used in form of creams for the treatment of various dermatoses (skin conditions).
Hydrocortisone acetate is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid and a corticosteroid ester.
Hydrocortisone buteprate is a topical steroid.
Hydrocortisone butyrate is a corticosteroid that comes in one of the following forms.
Hydrocortisone valerate is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid and a corticosteroid ester.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hypernatremia, also spelled hypernatraemia, is a high concentration of sodium in the blood.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP; also called allergic alveolitis, bagpipe lung, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, EAA) is an inflammation of the alveoli within the lung caused by hypersensitivity to inhaled organic dusts.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), formerly known as IgG4-related systemic disease, is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by tissue infiltration with lymphocytes and IgG4-secreting plasma cells, various degrees of fibrosis (scarring) and a usually prompt response to oral steroids.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a type of thrombocytopenic purpura defined as isolated low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) with normal bone marrow and the absence of other causes of thrombocytopenia.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD), or diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), is a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium (the tissue and space around the air sacs of the lungs).
In biology, an ion transporter (or ion pump) is a transmembrane protein that moves ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration gradient through active transport.
Keratoconjunctivitis is inflammation ("-itis") of the cornea and conjunctiva.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
Leukocyte extravasation, less commonly called diapedesis, is the movement of leukocytes out of the circulatory system and towards the site of tissue damage or infection.
Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.
Lewis Hastings Sarett (December 22, 1917 – November 29, 1999) was an American organic chemist.
Lichen planus (LP) is a disease characterized by itchy reddish-purple polygon-shaped skin lesions on the lower back, wrists, and ankles.
This is a list of corticosteroid cyclic ketals, including cyclic ketals (cyclic acetals) of steroidal glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.
This is a list of corticosteroid esters, including esters of steroidal glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.
This is a list of corticosteroids (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids) or derivatives of cortisol (hydrocortisone).
The steroid hormones are referred to by various abbreviations in the biological literature.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
The Marker degradation is a three-step synthetic route in steroid chemistry developed by American chemist Russell Earl Marker in 1938–40.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Merck & Company, Inc., d.b.a. Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.
Metabolic alkalosis is a metabolic condition in which the pH of tissue is elevated beyond the normal range (7.35–7.45).
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Methylprednisolone, sold under the brand names Depo-Medrol and Solu-Medrol among others, is a corticosteroid medication used to suppress the immune system and decrease inflammation.
Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.
The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.
A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Mometasone (INN, BAN), is a synthetic, steroidal glucocorticoid or corticosteroid that was never marketed.
Mometasone furoate is a glucocorticoid or corticosteroid used topically to reduce inflammation of the skin or in the airways.
Moon facies, or moon face, is a medical sign in which the face develops a rounded appearance due to fat deposits on the sides of the face.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Nasal polyps (NP) are noncancerous growths within the nose or sinuses.
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated.
An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.
Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare chronic blistering skin disease and the most common form of pemphigus.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Percy Lavon Julian (April 11, 1899 – April 19, 1975) was an African American research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants.
Peripheral edema is edema (accumulation of fluid causing swelling) in tissues perfused by the peripheral vascular system, usually in the lower limbs.
Philip Showalter Hench (February 28, 1896 – March 30, 1965) was an American physician.
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes that release fatty acids from the second carbon group of glycerol.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), also known as panarteritis nodosa, periarteritis nodosa, Kussmaul disease, or Kussmaul-Maier disease, is a systemic necrotizing inflammation of blood vessels (vasculitis) affecting small- or medium-sized muscular arteries, typically involving the arteries of the kidneys and other internal organs but generally sparing the lungs' circulation.
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a syndrome with pain or stiffness, usually in the neck, shoulders, upper arms, and hips, but which may occur all over the body.
Polymyositis (PM) is a type of chronic inflammation of the muscles (inflammatory myopathy) related to dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis.
Prednicarbate is a relatively new topical corticosteroid drug.
Prednisolone is a steroid medication used to treat certain types of allergies, inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorders, and cancers.
Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
A receptor modulator, or receptor ligand, is a type of drug which binds to and modulates receptors.
Retinopathy is any damage to the retina of the eyes, which may cause vision impairment.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.
Rhinitis, also known as coryza, is irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose.
Rhizopus is a genus of common saprophytic fungi on plants and specialized parasites on animals.
Russell Earl Marker (March 12, 1902 – March 3, 1995) was an American chemist who invented the octane rating system when he was working at the Ethyl Corporation.
Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Steroid 11β-hydroxylase is a steroid hydroxylase found in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Steroid-induced osteoporosis (SIOP) is osteoporosis arising due to use of glucocorticoids (steroid hormones) - analogous to Cushing's syndrome and involving mainly the axial skeleton.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Laboratorios Syntex SA was a pharmaceutical company formed in Mexico City in 1944 by Russell Marker to manufacture therapeutic steroids from the Mexican yams called cabeza de negro (Dioscorea mexicana) and Barbasco (Dioscorea composita).
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
Tadeusz Reichstein (20 July 1897 – 1 August 1996) was a Polish-Swiss chemist and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate (1950).
Tendinosis, means or sometimes called chronic tendinitis, chronic tendinopathy, or chronic tendon injury, is damage to a tendon at a cellular level (the suffix "osis" implies a pathology of chronic degeneration without inflammation).
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Tixocortol pivalate is a corticosteroid.
Tobramycin/dexamethasone (INNs, trade name Tobradex, Tobrason in Jordan) is a prescription medication in the form of eye drops and eye ointment, marketed by Alcon.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Triamcinolone is an intermediate-acting synthetic glucocorticoid given orally, by injection, by inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream.
Triamcinolone acetonide is a synthetic corticosteroid used topically to treat various skin conditions, to relieve the discomfort of mouth sores and intra-articularly by proceduralists to treat various joint conditions.
Type 4 hypersensitivity is often called delayed type hypersensitivity as the reaction takes several days to develop.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
The Upjohn Company was a pharmaceutical manufacturing firm founded in 1886 in Kalamazoo, Michigan by Dr. William E. Upjohn, an 1875 graduate of the University of Michigan medical school.
Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea.
Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The zona fasciculata constitutes the middle and also the widest zone of the adrenal cortex, sitting directly beneath the zona glomerulosa.
The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Steroid 21-hydroxylase, also called steroid 21-monooxygenase, 21α-Hydroxylase, P450 21A2, and, less commonly 21β-Hydroxylase, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved with the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol.
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