142 relations: Addison's disease, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal gland, Adrenal insufficiency, Adrenalectomy, Adrenaline, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Aerobic exercise, Aldosterone, Allergy, Anatomy, Androstadienone, Angiotensin, Anorexia nervosa, Anterior pituitary, Anxiety disorder, Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome, Asperger syndrome, Autism, Blood sugar level, Bone marrow, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Caffeine, Calcium, Carbohydrate, Cholesterol, Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, Circadian rhythm, Clinical urine tests, Collagen, Corticosteroid, Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 2, Corticosterone, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Cortisone, Cushing's syndrome, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Deoxycorticosterone, Dermatitis, Diuretic, Elastin, Energy homeostasis, Essential hypertension, Fasting, Fat, Fear, Fever, Flashbulb memory, Glucagon, Glucocorticoid, ..., Gluconeogenesis, Glucose 1-phosphate, Glucose transporter, GLUT4, Glycogen, Glycogen phosphorylase, Glycogenolysis, Hippocampus, Hydrocortisone, Hyperkalemia, Hypertension, Hypoglycemia, Hypothalamus, Immune system, Immunoglobulin A, Immunoglobulin E, Immunoglobulin M, Insulin, Insulin resistance, Interferon gamma, Interleukin, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 12, Interleukin 13, Interleukin 2, Interleukin 4, Interleukin-1 family, Lipolysis, Lipopolysaccharide, List of corticosteroids, Magnesium, Major depressive disorder, Massage, Membrane glucocorticoid receptor, Memory, Metabolic syndrome, Metabolism, Microgram, Mole (unit), Mood disorder, Music therapy, Natural killer cell, Natural product, Nelson's syndrome, Obesity, Omega-3 fatty acid, Omega-6 fatty acid, Osteoporosis, Pain, Pathogenesis, PH, Phosphatidylserine, Pituitary gland, Potassium, Pregnane, Protein, Proteolysis, Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome, Rash, Rate-determining step, Reference range, Reference ranges for blood tests, Retina, Rheumatism, RU-28362, Serotonin, Sex steroid, Sheehan's syndrome, Skin, Skin biopsy, Sleep deprivation, Sodium, Steroid hormone, Stress (biology), Superoxide dismutase, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Surfactant, Surgery, T cell, T helper cell, Temperature, Tetrahydrocortisone, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Vasopressin, VO2 max, White blood cell, Withania somnifera, Zona fasciculata, 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 5-HT2C receptor, 5α-Reductase. Expand index (92 more) » « Shrink index
Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
Adrenalectomy (sometimes written as ADX for the procedure or resulting state) is the surgical removal of one or both (bilateral adrenalectomy) adrenal glands.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Androstadienone, also known as androsta-4,16-dien-3-one, is an endogenous steroid that has been described as having potent pheromone-like activities in humans.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is an autosomal recessive disorder causing hypertension (high blood pressure) and hypokalemia (abnormally low levels of potassium).
Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger's, is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Corticosteroid 11-β-dehydrogenase isozyme 2 also known as 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HSD11B2 gene.
Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may also be spelled corticotrophin) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.
Cortisone, also known as 17α,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione, is a pregnane (21-carbon) steroid hormone.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Deoxycorticosterone (DOC), or desoxycorticosterone, may refer to.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting.
In biology, energy homeostasis, or the homeostatic control of energy balance, is a biological process that involves the coordinated homeostatic regulation of food intake (energy inflow) and energy expenditure (energy outflow).
Essential hypertension (also called primary hypertension or idiopathic hypertension) is the form of hypertension that by definition has no identifiable cause.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
A flashbulb memory is a highly detailed, exceptionally vivid 'snapshot' of the moment and circumstances in which a piece of surprising and consequential (or emotionally arousing) news was heard.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucose 1-phosphate (also called cori ester) is a glucose molecule with a phosphate group on the 1'-carbon.
Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose across the plasma membrane.
Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycogen phosphorylase is one of the phosphorylase enzymes.
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several forms of antibody that are produced by vertebrates.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.
Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes).
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an interleukin that is naturally produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and human B-lymphoblastoid cells (NC-37) in response to antigenic stimulation.
Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL13 gene.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.
The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults.
Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
This is a list of corticosteroids (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids) or derivatives of cortisol (hydrocortisone).
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Massage is to work and act on the body with pressure.
Membrane glucocorticoid receptors (mGRs) are a group of receptors which bind and are activated by glucocorticoids such as cortisol and corticosterone, as well as certain exogenous glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program.
Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Nelson's syndrome is a rare disorder and occurs in patients who have had both adrenal glands removed owing to Cushing's disease.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Omega-6 fatty acids (also referred to as ω-6 fatty acids or n-6 fatty acids) are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the ''n''-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pregnane is a C21 steroid and, indirectly, a parent of progesterone.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome is a medical condition in which patients display the signs, symptoms, and abnormal hormone levels seen in Cushing's syndrome.
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
In chemical kinetics, the overall rate of a reaction is often approximately determined by the slowest step, known as the rate-determining step (RDS) or rate-limiting step.
In health-related fields, a reference range or reference interval is the range of values for a physiologic measurement in healthy persons (for example, the amount of creatinine in the blood, or the partial pressure of oxygen).
Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Rheumatism or rheumatic disorder is an umbrella term for conditions causing chronic, often intermittent pain affecting the joints and/or connective tissue.
RU-28362 is a synthetic androstane glucocorticoid that was developed by Roussel Uclaf.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sheehan's syndrome, also known as postpartum pituitary gland necrosis, is hypopituitarism (decreased functioning of the pituitary gland), caused by ischemic necrosis due to blood loss and hypovolemic shock during and after childbirth.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Skin biopsy is a biopsy technique in which a skin lesion is removed to be sent to a pathologist to render a microscopic diagnosis.
Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2&minus) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Tetrahydrocortisone, or urocortisone, is a steroid and an inactive metabolite of cortisone.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
VO2 max (also maximal oxygen consumption, maximal oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity) is the maximum rate of oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise (exercise of increasing intensity).
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Withania somnifera, known commonly as ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, poison gooseberry, or winter cherry, is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family.
The zona fasciculata constitutes the middle and also the widest zone of the adrenal cortex, sitting directly beneath the zona glomerulosa.
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD-11β or 11β-HSD) is a family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of inert 11 keto-products (cortisone) to active cortisol, or vice versa, thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors: Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 11beta-hydroxysteroid and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 11-oxosteroid, NADPH, and H+.
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, also known as cortisone reductase, is an NADPH-dependent enzyme highly expressed in key metabolic tissues including liver, adipose tissue, and the central nervous system.
The 5-HT2C receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.
24 hour cortisol, A-Hydrocort, ATC code A01AC03, ATC code A07EA02, ATC code C05AA01, ATC code D07AA02, ATC code D07XA01, ATC code H02AB09, ATC code S01BA02, ATC code S01CB03, ATC code S02BA01, ATCvet code QA01AC03, ATCvet code QA07EA02, ATCvet code QC05AA01, ATCvet code QD07AA02, ATCvet code QD07XA01, ATCvet code QH02AB09, ATCvet code QS01BA02, ATCvet code QS01CB03, ATCvet code QS02BA01, Acticort, Aeroseb HC, Aeroseb-HC, Ala-Cort, Ala-Scalp, Ala-cort, Alacort, Algicirtis, Alphaderm, Anflam, Anusol HC, Anusol hc, Aquacort, Aquanil HC, Balneol-hc, Barseb HC, Basan-Corti, Beta-hc, CaldeCORT Spray, Cetacort, Clear aid, Cobadex, Colocort, Compound F, Cort-Dome, Cort-Quin, Cortaid, Cortanal, Cortef, Cortef Acetate, Cortenema, Cortesal, Corticosterol, Corticreme, Cortifan, Cortifoam, Cortiment, Cortisol alcohol, Cortisole, Cortisolonum, Cortisporin Otico, Cortispray, Cortizol, Cortoderm, Cortof, Cortolotion, Cortonema, Cortoxide, Cortril, Cremesone, Cremicort-H, Cutisol, Delacort, Derm-Aid, Dermacort, Dermaspray, Dermil, Dermocortal, Dermolate, Dioderm, Dome-cort, Domolene-HC, Dricort, Drotic, EF corlin, Efcorbin, Efcortelan, Efcortelin, Eldecort, Eldercort, Emocort, Epicort, Epiderm H, Epifoam, Esiderm H, Evacort, Ficortril, Fiocortril, Flexicort, Foille Insetti, Genacort, Glycort, Gyno-Cortisone, H-Cort, Heb Cort, Heb-Cort, Hemsol-HC, Hi-cor, Hidalone, Hidro-Colisona, Hycort, Hycortol, Hycortole, Hyderm, Hydracort, Hydrasson, Hydro-adreson, Hydro-colisona, Hydrocort, Hydrocortal, Hydroskin, Hytisone, Hytone, Hytone lotion, Incortin-H, Incortin-hydrogen, Kendall's compound F, Komed HC, Kyypakkaus, Lacticare HC, Lacticare-HC, Lactisona, Lanacort, Locoid Lipocream, Lubricort, Maintasone, Medicort, Meusicort, Micort-HC, Micort-hc, Mildison, Milliderm, Neosporin-H Ear, Nogenic HC, Novohydrocort, Nutracort, Nystaform-HC, Optef, Orabase HCA, Otalgine, Otocort, Otosone-F, Pandel, Pediotic Suspension, Penecort, Permicort, Polcort H, Prepcort, Prevex HC, Proctocort, Proctofoam, Protocort, Rectoid, Reichstein's Substance M, Remederm HC, Sanatison, Scalpicin Capilar, Schericur, Scheroson F, Sigmacort, Signef, Solu-Cortef, Solucortef, Stie-cort, Stiefcorcil, Stress hormone, Stress hormones, Synacort, Systral Hydrocort, Tarcortin, Tetrahydro E, Tetrahydrocompound E, Texacort, Texacort lotion 25, Timocort, Transderma H, Traumaide, Uniderm, Urocortisone, VoSol HC, Vytone, Zenoxone.