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Cosmic ray

Index Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies. [1]

245 relations: Abundance of the chemical elements, Active galactic nucleus, Advanced Composition Explorer, Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter, Air shower (physics), Airbus A330, Akeno Giant Air Shower Array, Alan Andrew Watson, Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, Alpha particle, Antimatter, Antiproton, Archaeology, Astronomical unit, Atmosphere of Earth, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Azimuth, Beryllium, Beryllium-10, BESS (experiment), Beta particle, Bhabha scattering, Big Bang, Boron, Brady Haran, Bruno Rossi, Bubble chamber, California Institute of Technology, Cancer, Carbon-14, Cassini–Huygens, Centaurus A, Central nervous system effects from radiation exposure during spaceflight, Central processing unit, Centrifugal mechanism of acceleration, Cherenkov radiation, Chicago Air Shower Array, CHICOS, Chlorine-36, Cloud chamber, CLOUD experiment, CMOS, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, Compton scattering, Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Sciences and Education, Cornell University, Cosmic microwave background, Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass Experiment, Cosmic ray spallation, ..., Cosmic ray visual phenomena, Crab Nebula, Dark matter, Discover (magazine), Domenico Pacini, Earth, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Earth's magnetic field, Edward P. Ney, Eiffel Tower, Einstein Observatory, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electrometer, Electron, Electronics, Electronvolt, Environmental radioactivity, Erg, Erich Regener, Ernest Rutherford, European Physical Journal H, Extinction event, Extragalactic cosmic ray, Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, Fermion, Flux, Forbush decrease, Fritz Zwicky, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Galaxy, GAMMA, Gamma ray, Gamma-ray burst, Geiger counter, Geomagnetic pole, Gilbert Jerome Perlow, Global warming, Goddard Space Flight Center, GRAPES-3, Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit, Harvard College Observatory, Health threat from cosmic rays, HEGRA, Heliosphere, Helium, Henri Becquerel, Henrik Svensmark, High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment, High Energy Astronomy Observatory 1, High Energy Astronomy Observatory 3, High Energy Stereoscopic System, High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Detector, Homi J. Bhabha, Horace W. Babcock, Hot air balloon, Human mission to Mars, HZE ions, IBM, IceCube Neutrino Observatory, Integrated circuit, Intel, International Cosmic Ray Conference, International Journal of Modern Physics, International Space Station, Interstellar Boundary Explorer, Interstellar medium, Invariant mass, Ion, Ionization, Ionizing radiation, Jacob Clay, James Cronin, Java, Jet airliner, Joule, Kaon, KASCADE, Kinetic energy, Large Hadron Collider, Latitude, Lightning, List of scientists who disagree with the scientific consensus on global warming, Lithium, Longitude, LUCID, MAGIC (telescope), Manganese, MARIACHI, Mars, Mars Science Laboratory, Mass in special relativity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massive particle, Meson, Microprocessor, Milagro (experiment), Milky Way, Millimetre, Mobile app, Molecule, Moon, Muon, Mutation rate, NASA, Nature (journal), Nature Publishing Group, Neutron, Neutron activation, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nuclear fission, Nuovo Cimento, Oh-My-God particle, Ordovician, P. Buford Price, PAMELA detector, Pampas, PERDaix, Photon, Photon energy, Physical Review Letters, Physikalische Zeitschrift, Pierre Auger Observatory, Pierre Victor Auger, Pion, Polar route, Polycarbonate, Positron, Potassium-40, Proton, Qantas Flight 72, Quasar, Radiation, Radiation assessment detector, Radio galaxy, Radioactive decay, Radiocarbon dating, Radionuclide, Radiosonde, Radon, Random-access memory, Real-time Neutron Monitor Database, Robert Andrews Millikan, Robert E. Dickinson, Robert M. Walker (physicist), Runaway breakdown, Satellite, Scandium, Scintillation (physics), Scintillator, Sea level, Sievert, Smartphone, Smithsonian Institution, Sodium hydroxide, Soft error, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Solar cycle, Solar energetic particles, Solar particle event, Solar System, Solar wind, Soudan 2, Spaceship Earth (detector), SpaceUp, Speed of light, STS-91, Supernova, Telescope Array Project, Theodor Wulf, Titanium, TRACER (cosmic ray detector), Track Imaging Cherenkov Experiment, Transistor, Tritium, Tunka experiment, Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, University of California Press, University of Chicago, University of Leeds, University of Nottingham, Vanadium, VERITAS, Very Large Telescope, Very-high-energy gamma ray, Victor Francis Hess, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Walter Heitler, Walther Bothe, Washington Large Area Time Coincidence Array, Werner Kolhörster, X-ray. Expand index (195 more) »

Abundance of the chemical elements

The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.

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Active galactic nucleus

An active galactic nucleus (AGN) is a compact region at the center of a galaxy that has a much higher than normal luminosity over at least some portion—and possibly all—of the electromagnetic spectrum, with characteristics indicating that the excess luminosity is not produced by stars.

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Advanced Composition Explorer

Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) is a NASA Explorers program Solar and space exploration mission to study matter comprising energetic particles from the solar wind, the interplanetary medium, and other sources.

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Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter

The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) is a balloon-borne instrument flying in the stratosphere over Antarctica to measure the energy and composition of cosmic rays.

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Air shower (physics)

An air shower is an extensive (many kilometres wide) cascade of ionized particles and electromagnetic radiation produced in the atmosphere when a primary cosmic ray (i.e. one of extraterrestrial origin) enters the atmosphere.

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Airbus A330

The Airbus A330 is a medium- to long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus.

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Akeno Giant Air Shower Array

The Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA) is a very large surface array designed to study the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

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Alan Andrew Watson

Alan Andrew Watson, FRS, (born 26 September 1938 in Edinburgh) is physicist and an Emeritus Professor at the University of Leeds, England.

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Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, also designated AMS-02, is a particle physics experiment module that is mounted on the International Space Station (ISS).

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Alpha particle

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.

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In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.

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The antiproton,, (pronounced p-bar) is the antiparticle of the proton.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Astronomical unit

The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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An azimuth (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.

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Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.

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Beryllium-10 (10Be) is a radioactive isotope of beryllium.

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BESS (experiment)

BESS is a particle physics experiment carried by a balloon.

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Beta particle

A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.

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Bhabha scattering

In quantum electrodynamics, Bhabha scattering is the electron-positron scattering process: There are two leading-order Feynman diagrams contributing to this interaction: an annihilation process and a scattering process.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

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Brady Haran

Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.

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Bruno Rossi

Bruno Benedetto Rossi (13 April 1905 – 21 November 1993) was an Italian experimental physicist.

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Bubble chamber

A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid (most often liquid hydrogen) used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it.

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California Institute of Technology

The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.

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The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.

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Centaurus A

Centaurus A or NGC 5128 is a galaxy in the constellation of Centaurus.

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Central nervous system effects from radiation exposure during spaceflight

A vigorous ground-based cellular and animal model research program will help quantify the risk to the CNS from space radiation exposure on future long distance space missions and promote the development of optimized countermeasures.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Centrifugal mechanism of acceleration

Centrifugal acceleration of astroparticles to relativistic energies might take place in rotating astrophysical objects (see also Fermi acceleration).

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Cherenkov radiation

Cherenkov radiation (sometimes spelled "Cerenkov") is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.

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Chicago Air Shower Array

The Chicago Air Shower Array (CASA) was a very large array of scintillation counters located in Utah, fifty miles (80 kilometers) southwest of Salt Lake City in Dugway Proving Grounds.

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The California High School Cosmic Ray Observatory, (abbreviated CHICOS, for California HIgh school Cosmic ray ObServatory), operated by the Kellogg Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California, United States, is one of the world's largest ongoing Cosmic Ray observatory programs.

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Chlorine-36 is an isotope of chlorine.

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Cloud chamber

A Cloud Chamber, also known as a Wilson Cloud Chamber, is a particle detector used for visualizing the passage of ionizing radiation.

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CLOUD experiment

Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets or CLOUD is an experiment being run at CERN by a group of researchers led by Jasper Kirkby to investigate the microphysics between galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and aerosols under controlled conditions.

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Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.

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Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was a space observatory detecting photons with energies from 20 keV to 30 GeV, in Earth orbit from 1991 to 2000.

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Compton scattering

Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.

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Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Sciences and Education

The Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Sciences and Education (CLASSE) is a particle accelerator facility located in Wilson Laboratory on the Cornell University campus in Ithaca, NY.

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Cornell University

Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.

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Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass Experiment

Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) is an experiment to determine the composition of cosmic rays up to the 1015 eV (also known as the "knee prospect") in the cosmic ray spectrum.

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Cosmic ray spallation

Cosmic ray spallation is a naturally occurring nuclear reaction causing nucleosynthesis.

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Cosmic ray visual phenomena

Cosmic ray visual phenomena, or "light flashes" (LF), are spontaneous flashes of light visually perceived by some astronauts outside the magnetosphere of the Earth, such as during the Apollo program.

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Crab Nebula

The Crab Nebula (catalogue designations M1, NGC 1952, Taurus A) is a supernova remnant in the constellation of Taurus.

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Dark matter

Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.

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Discover (magazine)

Discover is an American general audience science magazine launched in October 1980 by Time Inc.

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Domenico Pacini

Domenico Pacini (Marino, February 20, 1878 – Rome, May 23, 1934) was an Italian physicist noted for his contributions to the discovery of cosmic rays.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth and Planetary Science Letters

Earth and Planetary Science Letters is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on physical, chemical and mechanical processes of the Earth and other planets, including extrasolar ones.

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Earth's magnetic field

Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.

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Edward P. Ney

Edward Purdy Ney (October 28, 1920 – July 9, 1996) was an American physicist who made major contributions to cosmic ray research, atmospheric physics, heliophysics, and infrared astronomy.

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Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower (tour Eiffel) is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.

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Einstein Observatory

Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2) was the first fully imaging X-ray telescope put into space and the second of NASA's three High Energy Astrophysical Observatories.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

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An electrometer is an electrical instrument for measuring electric charge or electrical potential difference.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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Environmental radioactivity

Environmental radioactivity is produced by radioactive materials in the human environment.

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The erg is a unit of energy and work equal to 10−7 joules.

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Erich Regener

Erich Rudolf Alexander Regener (12 November 1881 – 27 February 1955) was a German physicist known primarily for the design and construction of instruments to measure cosmic ray intensity at various altitudes.

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Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.

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European Physical Journal H

The European Physical Journal H: Historical Perspectives on Contemporary Physics (EPJ H) is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal which focuses on the history of modern physics.

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Extinction event

An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.

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Extragalactic cosmic ray

Extragalactic cosmic rays are very-high-energy particles that flow into the Solar System from beyond the Milky Way galaxy.

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Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), formerly called the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), is a space observatory being used to perform gamma-ray astronomy observations from low Earth orbit.

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In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.

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Forbush decrease

A Forbush decrease is a rapid decrease in the observed galactic cosmic ray intensity following a coronal mass ejection (CME).

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Fritz Zwicky

Fritz Zwicky (February 14, 1898 – February 8, 1974) was a Swiss astronomer.

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Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.

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A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.

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The GAMMA experiment is a study of.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Gamma-ray burst

In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies.

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Geiger counter

The Geiger counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation used widely in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.

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Geomagnetic pole

The geomagnetic poles are antipodal points where the axis of a best-fitting dipole intersects the Earth's surface.

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Gilbert Jerome Perlow

Gilbert "Gil" Jerome Perlow (10 February 1916 – 17 February 2007), was an American physicist famous for his work related to the Mössbauer effect, and an editor of the Journal of Applied Physics and Applied Physics Letters.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Goddard Space Flight Center

The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.

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The GRAPES-3 experiment (or Gamma Ray Astronomy PeV EnergieS phase-3) located at Ooty in India started as a collaboration of the Indian Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Japanese Osaka City University, and now also includes the Japanese Nagoya Women's University.

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Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit

The Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit (GZK limit) is a theoretical upper limit on the energy of cosmic ray protons traveling from other galaxies through the intergalactic medium to our galaxy.

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Harvard College Observatory

The Harvard College Observatory (HCO) is an institution managing a complex of buildings and multiple instruments used for astronomical research by the Harvard University Department of Astronomy.

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Health threat from cosmic rays

The health threat from cosmic rays is the danger posed by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles to astronauts on interplanetary missions or any missions that venture through the Van-Allen Belts or outside the Earth's magnetosphere.

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HEGRA, which stands for High-Energy-Gamma-Ray Astronomy, was an atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for Gamma-ray astronomy.

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The heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Henri Becquerel

Antoine Henri Becquerel (15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity.

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Henrik Svensmark

Henrik Svensmark (born 1958) is a physicist and professor in the Division of Solar System Physics at the Danish National Space Institute (DTU Space) in Copenhagen.

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High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment

The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment or High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (also known as HAWC) is a gamma-ray and cosmic ray observatory located on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla at an altitude of 4100 meters, at.

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High Energy Astronomy Observatory 1

HEAO-1 was an X-ray telescope launched in 1977.

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High Energy Astronomy Observatory 3

The last of NASA's three High Energy Astronomy Observatories, HEAO 3 was launched 20 September 1979 on an Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle, into a nearly circular, 43.6 degree inclination low-Earth orbit with an initial perigeum of 486.4 km.

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High Energy Stereoscopic System

High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is a system of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) for the investigation of cosmic gamma rays in the photon energy range of 0.03 to 100 TeV.

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High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Detector

The High Resolution Fly's Eye or HiRes detector was an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray observatory that operated in the western Utah desert from May 1997 until April 2006.

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Homi J. Bhabha

Homi Jehangir Bhabha (30 October 1909 – 24 January 1966) was an Indian nuclear physicist, founding director, and professor of physics at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR).

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Horace W. Babcock

Horace Welcome Babcock (September 13, 1912 – August 29, 2003) was an American astronomer.

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Hot air balloon

A hot air balloon is a lighter-than-air aircraft consisting of a bag, called an envelope, which contains heated air.

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Human mission to Mars

A human mission to Mars has been the subject of science fiction, aerospace engineering, and scientific proposals since the 19th century.

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HZE ions

HZE ions are the high-energy nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which have an electric charge greater than +2.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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IceCube Neutrino Observatory

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory (or simply IceCube) is a neutrino observatory constructed at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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International Cosmic Ray Conference

The International Cosmic Ray Conference, or ICRC, is a physics conference organized biennially by the of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) since 1947, where physicists from the whole world present the results of their research in Astroparticle Physics.

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International Journal of Modern Physics

The International Journal of Modern Physics is a series of Physics journals published by World Scientific.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Interstellar Boundary Explorer

Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is a NASA satellite that is making a map of the boundary between the Solar System and interstellar space.

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Interstellar medium

In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.

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Invariant mass

The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Jacob Clay

Jacob Clay (1882–1955) was a prominent Dutch physicist who first suggested and provided evidence that cosmic rays are charged particles.

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James Cronin

James Watson Cronin (September 29, 1931 – August 25, 2016) was an American particle physicist.

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Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.

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Jet airliner

A jet airliner (or jetliner) is an airliner powered by jet engines (passenger jet aircraft).

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The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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In particle physics, a kaon, also called a K meson and denoted,The positively charged kaon used to be called τ+ and θ+, as it was supposed to be two different particles until the 1960s.

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KASCADE is a European physics experiment started in 1996 at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany (now Karlsruher Institut für Technologie), an extensive air shower experiment array to study the cosmic ray primary composition and the hadronic interactions in the energy range of 1016–1018 eV, measuring simultaneously the electronic, muonic and hadronic components.

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Kinetic energy

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

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Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.

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In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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List of scientists who disagree with the scientific consensus on global warming

This is a list of scientists who have made statements that conflict with the scientific consensus on global warming as summarized by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and endorsed by other scientific bodies.

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Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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LUCID (Langton Ultimate Cosmic ray Intensity Detector) is a cosmic ray detector built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd and designed at Simon Langton Grammar School for Boys, in Canterbury, England.

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MAGIC (telescope)

MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes) is a system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes situated at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma, one of the Canary Islands, at about 2200 m above sea level.

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Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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MARIACHI, the Mixed Apparatus for Radar Investigation of Cosmic-rays of High Ionization, is an apparatus for the detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) via bi-static radar interferometry using VHF transmitters.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mars Science Laboratory

Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26, 2011, which successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012.

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Mass in special relativity

Mass in special relativity incorporates the general understandings from the laws of motion of special relativity along with its concept of mass–energy equivalence.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Massive particle

The term massive particle refers to particles which have real non-zero rest mass.

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In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions.

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A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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Milagro (experiment)

Milagro (the Spanish word for miracle) was a ground-based water Cherenkov radiation telescope situated in the Jemez Mountains near Los Alamos, New Mexico at the Fenton Hill Observatory site.

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Milky Way

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.

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The millimetre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.

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Mobile app

A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.

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Mutation rate

In genetics, the mutation rate is the frequency of new mutations in a single gene or organism over time.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nature Publishing Group

Nature Publishing Group is a division of the international scientific publishing company Springer Nature that publishes academic journals, magazines, online databases, and services in science and medicine.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Neutron activation

Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.

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Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

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Nuovo Cimento

Nuovo Cimento is a series of peer-reviewed scientific journals of physics.

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Oh-My-God particle

The Oh-My-God particle was an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray detected on the evening of 15 October 1991 over Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, by the University of Utah's Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Detector.

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The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.

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P. Buford Price

Paul Buford Price, usually known as P. Buford Price, is a professor in the Graduate School at the University of California, Berkeley and a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

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PAMELA detector

PAMELA (Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics) was a cosmic ray research module attached to an Earth orbiting satellite.

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The Pampas (from the pampa, meaning "plain") are fertile South American lowlands that cover more than and include the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Córdoba; all of Uruguay; and the southernmost Brazilian State, Rio Grande do Sul.

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PERDaix (Proton Electron Radiation Detector Aix-la-Chapelle) is a novel, small and light weight magnetic spectrometer to measure the charge and mass dependent solar modulation periodically for deeper understanding of cosmic rays.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Photon energy

Photon energy is the energy carried by a single photon.

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Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

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Physikalische Zeitschrift

Physikalische Zeitschrift (English: Physical Journal) was a German scientific journal of physics published from 1899 to 1945 by S. Hirzel Verlag.

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Pierre Auger Observatory

The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international cosmic ray observatory in Argentina designed to detect ultra-high-energy cosmic rays: sub-atomic particles traveling nearly at the speed of light and each with energies beyond 1018 eV.

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Pierre Victor Auger

Pierre Victor Auger (14 May 1899 – 25 December 1993) was a French physicist, born in Paris.

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In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.

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Polar route

A polar route is an aircraft route across the uninhabited polar ice cap regions.

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Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.

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The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.

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Potassium-40 (40K) is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.251 years.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Qantas Flight 72

Qantas Flight 72 (QF72) was a scheduled flight from Singapore Changi Airport to Perth Airport on 7 October 2008 that made an emergency landing at Learmonth airport near the town of Exmouth, Western Australia following an inflight accident featuring a pair of sudden uncommanded pitch-down manoeuvres that severely injured many of the passengers and crew.

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A quasar (also known as a QSO or quasi-stellar object) is an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN).

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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Radiation assessment detector

The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is an instrument mounted on the Mars Science Laboratory ''Curiosity'' rover.

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Radio galaxy

Radio galaxies and their relatives, radio-loud quasars and blazars, are types of active galaxy that are very luminous at radio wavelengths, with luminosities up to 1039 W between 10 MHz and 100 GHz.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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A radiosonde is a battery-powered telemetry instrument package carried into the atmosphere usually by a weather balloon that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them by radio to a ground receiver.

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Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Real-time Neutron Monitor Database

The Real-time Neutron Monitor Database (or NMDB) is a worldwide network of standardized neutron monitors, used to record variations of the primary cosmic rays.

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Robert Andrews Millikan

Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.

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Robert E. Dickinson

Robert Earl Dickinson (born 26 March 1940, Millersburg, Ohio) is an American meteorologist and geoscientist.

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Robert M. Walker (physicist)

Robert M. Walker (February 6, 1929 – February 12, 2004) was an American physicist, a planetary scientist, the founder and director of McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis, noted for his co-discovery of the etchability of nuclear particle tracks in solids,R.

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Runaway breakdown

Runaway breakdown is a theory of lightning initiation proposed by Alex Gurevich in 1992.

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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.

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Scintillation (physics)

Scintillation is a flash of light produced in a transparent material by the passage of a particle (an electron, an alpha particle, an ion, or a high-energy photon).

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A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.

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Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.

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A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Soft error

In electronics and computing, a soft error is a type of error where a signal or datum is wrong.

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Solar and Heliospheric Observatory

The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft built by a European industrial consortium led by Matra Marconi Space (now Astrium) that was launched on a Lockheed Martin Atlas II AS launch vehicle on December 2, 1995, to study the Sun, and has discovered over 3000 comets.

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Solar cycle

The solar cycle or solar magnetic activity cycle is the nearly periodic 11-year change in the Sun's activity (including changes in the levels of solar radiation and ejection of solar material) and appearance (changes in the number and size of sunspots, flares, and other manifestations).

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Solar energetic particles

Solar energetic particles (SEP) are high-energy particles coming from the Sun.

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Solar particle event

A solar proton event (SPE), or "proton storm", occurs when particles (mostly protons) emitted by the Sun become accelerated either close to the Sun during a flare or in interplanetary space by CME shocks.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Solar wind

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.

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Soudan 2

Soudan 2 was a particle detector located in the Soudan Mine in Northern Minnesota, United States.

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Spaceship Earth (detector)

Spaceship Earth is a network of neutron monitors designed to measure the flux of cosmic rays arriving at Earth from different directions.

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SpaceUp is an open-attendance space exploration unconference, where participants decide the topics, schedule, and structure of the event.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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STS-91 was the final Space Shuttle mission to the Mir space station.

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A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Telescope Array Project

The Telescope Array project is an international collaboration involving research and educational institutions in Japan, The United States, Russia, South Korea, and Belgium.

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Theodor Wulf

Theodor Wulf (July 28, 1868 – June 19, 1946) was a German physicist and Jesuit priest who was one of the first experimenters to detect excess atmospheric radiation.

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Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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TRACER (cosmic ray detector)

Transition Radiation Array for Cosmic Energetic Radiation (TRACER) is a balloon flown cosmic ray detector built and designed at the University of Chicago.

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Track Imaging Cherenkov Experiment

The Track Imaging Cherenkov Experiment (TrICE) is a ground-based cosmic ray telescope located at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, IL.

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A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.

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Tunka experiment

The Tunka experiment now named TAIGA (Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy) measures air showers, which are initiated by charged cosmic rays or high energy gamma rays.

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Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray

In astroparticle physics, an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) is a cosmic ray particle with a kinetic energy greater than eV, far beyond both the rest mass and energies typical of other cosmic ray particles.

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United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was set up by resolution of the United Nations General Assembly in 1955.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Leeds

The University of Leeds is a Russell Group university in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.

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University of Nottingham

The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.

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Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.

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VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) is a major ground-based gamma-ray observatory with an array of four 12 meter optical reflectors for gamma-ray astronomy in the GeV – TeV photon energy range.

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Very Large Telescope

The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is a telescope facility operated by the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

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Very-high-energy gamma ray

Very-high-energy gamma ray (VHEGR) denotes gamma radiation with photon energies of 100 GeV to 100 TeV, i.e., 1011 to 1014 electronvolts.

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Victor Francis Hess

Victor Franz Hess (24 June 188317 December 1964) was an Austrian-American physicist, and Nobel laureate in physics, who discovered cosmic rays.

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Voyager 1

Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.

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Voyager 2

Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.

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Walter Heitler

Walter Heinrich Heitler (2 January 1904 – 15 November 1981) was a German physicist who made contributions to quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory.

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Walther Bothe

Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (8 January 1891 – 8 February 1957) was a German nuclear physicist, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954 with Max Born.

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Washington Large Area Time Coincidence Array

The Washington Area Large-scale Time-coincidence Array (WALTA) is a cosmic ray physics experiment run by the University of Washington to investigate ultra high energy cosmic rays (>1019eV).

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Werner Kolhörster

Werner Heinrich Gustav Kolhörster (28 December 1887 – 5 August 1946) was a German physicist and a pioneer of research into cosmic rays.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Anomalous cosmic ray, Astroparticle, Auger shower, Cosmic Ray, Cosmic Rays, Cosmic particle, Cosmic radiation, Cosmic rays, Cosmic-ray, Cosmic-ray detector, Cosmic-ray mesons, Cosmic-rays, Cosmoclimatology, Extensive shower, Galactic cosmic radiation, Galactic cosmic ray, Galactic cosmic rays, Galatic cosmic rays, Origin of cosmic rays, Origins of cosmic rays, Primary cosmic ray, Primary cosmic rays, Secondary cosmic rays, Solar cosmic ray.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_ray

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