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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae. [1]

260 relations: Abortifacient, Achaemenid Empire, Acrylic fiber, American Civil War, Andhra Pradesh, Aphid, Aral Sea, Australia, Autoignition temperature, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacteria, Bacterial blight of cotton, Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Bankruptcy, BBCH-scale (cotton), Beetle, Birmingham, Blockade, Blue-collar worker, Boll weevil, Boll Weevil Eradication Program, Bookbinding, Brazil, British Empire, British Raj, British West Africa, Bt cotton, California, Cambric, Cameroon, Cargill, Caribbean, Cash crop, Cellulose, Cellulose acetate, Central America, China Cotton Association, Coffee filter, Columbia Encyclopedia, Confederate States of America, Corduroy, Cosmetics, Cotton Board (United States), Cotton gin, Cotton mill, Cotton paper, Cotton picker, Cotton recycling, Cotton Research and Promotion Act, ..., Cottonopolis, Cottonseed meal, Cottonseed oil, Craig Murray, Crochet, Crop yield, Defoliant, Denim, Dera Ghazi Khan, Desertification, Developing country, Diaper, East Carroll Parish, Louisiana, East India Company, Egypt, Eli Whitney, Emancipation Proclamation, Environmental Justice Foundation, Export, Fair trade, Faisalabad, Fall armyworm, Fars Province, Ferdowsi, Fertilizer, Fiber, Fire hose, Fire point, Fishing net, Fly, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, France, Frost, Futures contract, Gene stacked event, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified crops, Genetically modified organism, Glyphosate, Gossypium, Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium herbaceum, Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypol, Gujarat, Han dynasty, Helicoverpa zea, Herbicide, Herodotus, Histories (Herodotus), History of Egypt under the British, History of the Southern United States, Hosiery, Illumina (company), Import, India, Indus Valley Civilization, Industrial Revolution, Insecticide, International Cotton Advisory Committee, International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications, International Year of Natural Fibres, Iran, Irrigation, Isma'il Pasha, James Hargreaves, Japan, Jean Chardin, Jeans, John Mandeville, John Wyatt (inventor), Kapok tree, Karnataka, Khanewal, King Cotton, Knitting, Korea, Lake Providence, Louisiana, Lancashire, Lepidoptera, Lewis Paul, Lille, List of English words of Arabic origin, Louisiana, Madapolam, Maharashtra, Mahatma Gandhi, Mali, Malvaceae, Manchester, Marco Polo, Medicine, Megasthenes, Mehrgarh, Memphis, Tennessee, Mercerised cotton, Merv, Miridae, Mobile Cotton Exchange, Moche culture, Moisture vapor transmission rate, Monogastric, Monsanto, Multan, Muslin, Muzaffargarh, Natural fiber, Naturally colored cotton, Nazca culture, New Orleans Cotton Exchange, New York Cotton Exchange, New York Mercantile Exchange, Nicaragua, Nitrocellulose, Norte Chico civilization, Nutrient, Nylon, Ogallala Aquifer, Old World, Organic cotton, Organic farming, Outline of ancient India, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis, Pakistan, Papermaking, Pectin, Pentatomidae, Persian language, Persian literature, Peru, Pesticide, Pink bollworm, Plantation, Plantations in the American South, Polyester, Port, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protein, Protoplasm, Punjab, Pakistan, Pyrethroid, Rahim Yar Khan, Rayon, Rey, Iran, Richard Arkwright, Robe, Ruminant, Russia, Safavid dynasty, Salt (chemistry), Sampson Gamgee, Samuel Crompton, Sanghar, Satin, Scirtothrips dorsalis, Seersucker, Seleucus I Nicator, Senegal, Shahnameh, Sharecropping, Shrub, Sindh, Slavery in the United States, Sock, Soil, Soil salinity, South Plains, Southern United States, Soviet Union, Spinning frame, Spinning jenny, Spinning mule, Subsidy, Synthetic fiber, T-shirt, Taiwan, Tarnished plant bug, Tehuacán, Tent, Terrycloth, Texas, Textile, Textile industry, The Cotton Museum, The New York Times, Togo, Tonne, Towel, Traditional medicine, Twill, Undergarment, Union (American Civil War), United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, Uzbekistan, Vegetable Lamb of Tartary, Vegetable oil, Vehari, Wars of Alexander the Great, Water, Water resources, Wax, William G. Moseley, Wool, World, World war, Yarn, Yunnan. Expand index (210 more) »


An abortifacient ("that which will cause a miscarriage" from Latin: abortus "miscarriage" and faciens "making") is a substance that induces abortion.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great, notable for embracing various civilizations and becoming the largest empire of the ancient history, spanning at its maximum extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east.

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Acrylic fiber

Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer (polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100,000, about 1900 monomer units.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War, widely known in the United States as simply the Civil War as well as other sectional names, was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine the survival of the Union or independence for the Confederacy.

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Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of the country.

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Aphids, also known as plant lice and in Britain and the Commonwealth as greenflies, blackflies, or whiteflies (not to be confused with "jumping plant lice" or true whiteflies), are small sap-sucking insects, and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.

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Aral Sea

The Aral Sea (Арал Теңізі Aral Teñizi; Арал тэнгис; ɐˈralʲskəjə ˈmorʲɪ; Баҳри Арал Bahri Aral; older دریای خوارزم Daryâ-ye Khârazm) was an endorheic lake lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.

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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Autoignition temperature

The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it will spontaneously ignite in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.

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Bacillus thuringiensis

Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide.

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Bacteria (singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.

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Bacterial blight of cotton

Bacterial blight of cotton is a disease affecting the cotton plant resulting from infection by Xanthomonas citri pathovar malvacearum, (Xcm) bacteria.

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Bahawalnagar (Punjabi,بہاولنگر), is the capital city of Bahawalnagar District situated in the south east region in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

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Bahawalpur (Punjabi, بہاولپور), is a city in Pakistan.

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Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay the debts it owes to creditors.

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BBCH-scale (cotton)

In biology, the BBCH-scale for cotton describes the phenological development of cotton plants Gossypium hirsutum using the BBCH-scale.

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Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera.

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Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.

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A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.

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Blue-collar worker

In English-speaking countries, a blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs manual labour.

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Boll weevil

The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a beetle which feeds on cotton buds and flowers.

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Boll Weevil Eradication Program

The Boll Weevil Eradication Program is a program sponsored by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) that has sought to eradicate the boll weevil in the cotton-growing areas of the United States.

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Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.

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British Raj

The British Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi) was the rule of Great Britain in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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British West Africa

British West Africa was the collective name for British colonies in West Africa during the colonial period, either in the general geographical sense or more specifically those comprised in a formal colonial administrative entity.

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Bt cotton

Bt cotton is a genetically modified organism (GMO) cotton variety, which produces an insecticide to bollworm.

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California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States.

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Cambric, or batiste, one of the finest and most dense kinds of cloth, is a lightweight plain-weave cloth, originally from the French commune of Cambrai, woven in greige, then bleached, piece-dyed and often glazed or calendered.

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No description.

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Cargill, Inc., is an American privately held, i.e. family business, global corporation, based in Minnetonka, Minnesota, a Minneapolis suburb.

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The Caribbean (or; Caribe; Caraïben; Caribbean Hindustani: कैरिबियन (Kairibiyana); Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts.

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Cash crop

A cash crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.

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Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

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Cellulose acetate

Cellulose acetate is the acetate ester of cellulose.

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica or América del Centro) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast.

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China Cotton Association

China Cotton Association (CCA) is a China non-profit federation in the area of cotton, which is voluntarily established by cotton farmers, cotton farmers' cooperative organizations, enterprises engaged in cotton production, purchase, processing and operation, cotton textile enterprises, cotton research institutes and other organs and which accepts the supervision and management of the Chinese Ministry of Civil Affairs and the professional guidance of the All-China Federation of Supply and Marketing Cooperatives.

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Coffee filter

A coffee filter is a coffee-brewing utensil, usually made of disposable paper.

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Columbia Encyclopedia

The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.

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Confederate States of America

The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a confederation of secessionist American states existing from 1861 to 1865.

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Corduroy is a textile composed of twisted fibers that, when woven, lie parallel (similar to twill) to one another to form the cloth's distinct pattern, a "cord." Modern corduroy is most commonly composed of tufted cords, sometimes exhibiting a channel (bare to the base fabric) between the tufts.

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Cosmetics, also known as makeup or make-up, are care substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body.

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Cotton Board (United States)

The Cotton Board is the oversight and administrative arm of the Cotton Research and Promotion Program.

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Cotton gin

A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing for much greater productivity than manual cotton separation.

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Cotton mill

A cotton mill is a factory housing powered spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution when the early mills were important in the development of the factory system.

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Cotton paper

Cotton paper is made from cotton linters or cotton from used cloths (rags) as the primary material source, hence the name rag paper.

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Cotton picker

The mechanical cotton picker is a machine that automates cotton harvesting in a way that reduces harvest time and maximizes efficiency.

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Cotton recycling

Cotton recycling prevents unneeded wastage and can be a more sustainable alternative to disposal.

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Cotton Research and Promotion Act

The Cotton Research and Promotion Act is an act passed by the United States Congress in 1966 in response to the declining market of cotton, in order to build consumer demand and "sell the story of American upland cotton".

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Cottonopolis denotes a metropolis centred on cotton trading servicing the cotton mills in its hinterland.

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Cottonseed meal

Cottonseed meal is the byproduct remaining after cotton is ginned and the seeds crushed and the oil extracted.

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Cottonseed oil

Cottonseed oil is a cooking oil extracted from the seeds of cotton plants of various species, mainly Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum, that are grown for cotton fiber, animal feed, and oil.

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Craig Murray

Craig John Murray (born 17 October 1958) is a former British ambassador to Uzbekistan, and was Rector of the University of Dundee (2007-10).

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Crochet is a process of creating fabric by interlocking loops of yarn, thread, or strands of other materials using a crochet hook.

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Crop yield

In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).

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A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause its leaves to fall off.

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Denim is a sturdy cotton warp-faced twill textile in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads.

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Dera Ghazi Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan (ڈيره غازي خان), abbreviated as D. G. Khan or locally as in nastaʿlīq script, is a geographically central city of Pakistan at the junction of all four provinces of Pakistan.

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Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry land region becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.

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Developing country

A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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A diaper (also called a nappy in South Africa, Ireland, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia and Zimbabwe) is a type of underwear that allows one to defecate or urinate, without the use of a toilet.

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East Carroll Parish, Louisiana

East Carroll Parish (Paroisse de Carroll Est) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company and informally as John Company was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to pursue trade with the East Indies, but which ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and Qing China.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Eli Whitney

Eli Whitney (December 8, 1765 – January 8, 1825) was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin.

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Emancipation Proclamation

The Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.

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Environmental Justice Foundation

The Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF) is a non-governmental organisation (NGO) founded in 2001 by Steve Trent and Juliette Williams that promotes the non-violent resolution of human rights abuses and related environmental issues in the Global South.

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The term export means shipping the goods and services out of the port of a country.

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Fair trade

Fair trade is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions and to promote sustainability.

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Faisalabad, formerly Lyallpur, is the third most populous city in Pakistan after Karachi and Lahore.

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Fall armyworm

The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is part of the order of Lepidoptera and is the larval (see caterpillar) life stage of a fall armyworm moth.

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Fars Province

Fars Province (استان فارس Ostân e Fârs), is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of Iran.

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Hakim Abu ʾl-Qasim Ferdowsi Tusi (935–1025 CE), or Firdawsi, was a highly revered Persian poet and the author of the epic of Shahnameh (the Persian "Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Iran and the Persian-speaking world.

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A fertilizer (or fertiliser in British English) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues (usually leaves) to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Fiber or fibre (from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic string used as a component of composite materials, or, when matted into sheets, used to make products such as paper, papyrus, or felt.

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Fire hose

A fire hose is a high-pressure hose that carries water or other fire retardant (such as foam) to a fire to extinguish it.

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Fire point

The fire point of a fuel is the temperature at which the vapour produced by that given fuel will continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an open flame.

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Fishing net

A fishing net or fishnet is a net used for fishing.

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True flies are insects of the order Diptera (from the Greek di.

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is an agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.

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Futures contract

In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a contract between two parties to buy or sell an asset for a price agreed upon today (the futures price) with delivery and payment occurring at a future point, the delivery date.

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Gene stacked event

A genetically modified organism (GMO) and all subsequent identical clones resulting from a transformation process are called collectively a transformation event.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology.

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Genetically modified crops

Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering techniques.

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Genetically modified organism

A genetically modified organism (GMO), also known as a transgenic organism, is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.

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Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses known to compete with commercial crops grown around the globe.

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Gossypium is the cotton genus.

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Gossypium arboreum

Gossypium arboreum, commonly called tree cotton, is a species of cotton native to India, Pakistan and other tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World.

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Gossypium barbadense

Gossypium barbadense, also known as extra long staple (ELS) cotton as it generally has a staple of at least 1 3/8" or longer, and also as sea island cotton, is a species of cotton plant.

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Gossypium herbaceum

Gossypium herbaceum, commonly known as Levant cotton, is a species of cotton native to the semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Arabia where it still grows in the wild as a perennial shrub.

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Gossypium hirsutum

Gossypium hirsutum, also known as upland cotton or Mexican cotton, is the most widely planted species of cotton in the United States, constituting some 95% of all cotton production there.

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Gossypol is a natural phenol derived from the cotton plant (genus Gossypium).

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Gujarat is a state in the western part of India.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the "Han people" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC – 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Latter Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To pay for its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han period. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including papermaking, the nautical steering rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BC) launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empress dowagers, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty ceased to exist.

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Helicoverpa zea

Helicoverpa zea, commonly known as the corn earworm, is a species (formerly in the genus Heliothis) in the family Noctuidae.

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Herbicide(s), also commonly known as weedkillers, are pesticides used to kill unwanted plants.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος Hēródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484–425 BC).

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Histories (Herodotus)

The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is now considered as the founding work of history in Western literature.

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History of Egypt under the British

The history of Egypt under the British lasts from 1882, when it was occupied by British forces, until 1956, when the last British forces withdrew in accordance with the Anglo-Egyptian agreement of 1954.

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History of the Southern United States

The history of the Southern United States reaches back hundreds of years and includes the Mississippian people, well known for their mound building.

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Hosiery, also referred to as legwear, describes garments worn directly on the feet and legs.

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Illumina (company)

Illumina, Inc. is an American company incorporated in April 1998 that develops, manufactures and markets integrated systems for the analysis of genetic variation and biological function.

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An import is a good brought into a jurisdiction, especially across a national border, from an external source.

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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE, pre-Harappan cultures starting c.7500 BCE) in northwest Indian subcontinent (including present day Pakistan, northwest India) and also in some regions in northeast Afghanistan.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects.

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International Cotton Advisory Committee

The International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) is an association of governments of cotton producing, consuming and trading countries which acts as the international commodity body for cotton and cotton textiles.

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International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications

The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) is a non-profit international organization that shares the benefits of agricultural biotechnology, with a special focus on resource-poor farmers in developing countries.

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International Year of Natural Fibres

The United Nations General Assembly declared 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fibres, as well as the International Year of Astronomy.

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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.

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Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil.

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Isma'il Pasha

Isma'il Pasha (إسماعيل باشا Ismā‘īl Bāshā, Turkish: İsmail Paşa), known as Ismail the Magnificent (31 December 1830 – 2 March 1895), was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom.

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James Hargreaves

James Hargreaves (c. 1720 – 22 April 1778) was a weaver, carpenter and inventor in Lancashire, England.

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Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.

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Jean Chardin

Jean Chardin (16 November 1643 – 5 January 1713), born Jean-Baptiste Chardin, and also known as Sir John Chardin, was a French jeweller and traveler whose ten-volume book The Travels of Sir John Chardin is regarded as one of the finest works of early Western scholarship on Persia and the Near East in general.

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Jeans are trousers typically made from denim or dungaree cloth.

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John Mandeville

Sir John Mandeville is the supposed author of The Travels of Sir John Mandeville, a travel memoir which circulated between 1357 and 1371.

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John Wyatt (inventor)

John Wyatt (April 1700 – 29 November 1766), an English inventor, was born near Lichfield and was related to Sarah Ford, Doctor Johnson's mother.

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Kapok tree

Kapok tree can refer to several plants.

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Karnataka is a state in south western region of India.

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Khanewal (خانیوال), (خانیوال) is a city and the capital of Khanewal District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

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King Cotton

King Cotton was a slogan summarizing the strategy used during the American Civil War by the Confederacy to show that secession was feasible and there was no need to fear a war by the United States.

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Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric.

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Korea, called Hanguk (한국; Hanja: 韓國) or Daehan (대한; Hanja: 大韓) in South Korea and Chosŏn (조선; Hanja: 朝鮮) in North Korea and elsewhere, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct sovereign states, North Korea (also known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or DPRK) and South Korea (also known as the Republic of Korea, or ROK).

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Lake Providence, Louisiana

Lake Providence is a town in and the parish seat of East Carroll Parish in northeastern Louisiana, United States.

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Lancashire (archaically the County Palatine of Lancaster; abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.

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The Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes moths and butterflies (both called lepidopterans).

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Lewis Paul

Lewis Paul (died 1759) was the original inventor of roller spinning, the basis of the water frame for spinning cotton in a cotton mill.

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Lille (Rijsel) is a city in the North of France.

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List of English words of Arabic origin

The following English words have been acquired either directly from Arabic or else indirectly by passing from Arabic into other languages and then into English.

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Louisiana (or; État de Louisiane,; Louisiana Creole: Léta de la Lwizyàn) is a state located in the southern region of the United States.

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Madapolam is a soft cotton fabric manufactured from fine yarns with a dense pick laid out in linen weave.

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Maharashtra (Marathi pronunciation:, abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is the nation's third largest state and also the world's second-most populous sub-national entity.

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Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India.

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Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa.

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The Malvaceae, or the mallows, are a family of flowering plants estimated to contain 243 genera with 4225+ species.

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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 514,417 in 2013.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (September 15, 1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant traveller whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde (Book of the Marvels of the World, also known as The Travels of Marco Polo, c. 1300), a book that introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China.

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Medicine (British English; American English) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Megasthenes (Μεγασθένης, ca. 350 – 290 BC) was a Greek ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period, author of the work Indika.

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Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; مهرګړ; مہرگڑھ), sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, near the capital of the Kachi District Dadhar, is one of the most important Neolithic (6500 BCE to c. 2500 BCE) sites in archaeology.

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Memphis, Tennessee

Memphis is a city in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Shelby County.

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Mercerised cotton

Mercerisation is a treatment for cellulosic material a typically cotton threads, that strengthens them and gives them a lustrous appearance.

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Merv (Merw, مرو, Marv), formerly Achaemenid Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μαργιανῆς), was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan.

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The Miridae are large and diverse insect family at one time known by the taxonomic synonym Capsidae.

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Mobile Cotton Exchange

The Mobile Cotton Exchange was a commodities exchange that operated from 1871 until 1942 in the Alabama port city of Mobile to enable key local cotton factors and merchants to maintain control over cotton sales, warehousing, and shipping from Mobile Bay.

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Moche culture

The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc.) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche and Trujillo, from about 100 AD to 800 AD, during the Regional Development Epoch.

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Moisture vapor transmission rate

Moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR), also water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), is a measure of the passage of water vapor through a substance.

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A monogastric organism has a simple single-chambered stomach, compared with a ruminant organism, like a cow, goat, or sheep, which has a four-chambered complex stomach.

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Monsanto Company is a publicly traded American multinational agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation headquartered in Creve Coeur, Greater St. Louis, Missouri.

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Multan (مُلتان), is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.

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Muslin is a cotton fabric of plain weave.

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Muzaffargarh (مُظفّرگڑھ) is a city in southwestern Punjab, Pakistan, located on the bank of the Chenab River.

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Natural fiber

Fibers or fibres (see spelling differences) are a class of hair-like materials that are continuous "'filaments"' or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to pieces of thread.

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Naturally colored cotton

Naturally colored cotton is cotton that has been bred to have colors other than the yellowish off-white typical of modern commercial cotton fibres.

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Nazca culture

The Nazca culture (also Nasca) was the archaeological culture that flourished from 100 BC to 800 AD beside the dry southern coast of Peru in the river valleys of the Rio Grande de Nazca drainage and the Ica Valley.

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New Orleans Cotton Exchange

The New Orleans Cotton Exchange was established in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1871 as a centralized forum for the trade of cotton.

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New York Cotton Exchange

The New York Cotton Exchange (NYCE) was a commodities exchange founded in 1870 by a group of one hundred cotton brokers and merchants at 1 Hanover Square (later known as India House) in New York City.

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New York Mercantile Exchange

The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is a commodity futures exchange owned and operated by CME Group of Chicago.

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Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus.

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Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.

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Norte Chico civilization

The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization) was a complex pre-Columbian society that included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru.

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Nutrients are components in foods that an organism uses to survive and grow.

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Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, more specifically aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.

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Ogallala Aquifer

The Ogallala Aquifer is a shallow water table aquifer located beneath the Great Plains in the United States.

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Old World

The Old World consists of Africa, Europe, and Asia, regarded collectively as the part of the world known to Europeans before contact with the Americas.

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Organic cotton

Organic cotton is generally understood as cotton and is grown in subtropical countries such as Turkey, China, USA from non genetically modified plants, that is to be grown without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers or pesticides.

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Organic farming

Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost, and biological pest control.

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Outline of ancient India

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient India: Ancient India – India as it existed from the pre-historic times (c. 7000 BCE or earlier) to the start of the Middle Ages (c. 500 CE).

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Oxycarenus hyalinipennis

Oxycarenus hyalinipennis is a species of plant bug belonging to the family Lygaeidae, subfamily Oxycareninae.

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Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.

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Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is used universally today for writing and packaging.

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Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.

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Pentatomidae, Greek pente meaning five and tomos meaning section, are a family of insects belonging to order Hemiptera including some of the stink bugs and shield bugs.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Persian literature

Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی) is one of the world's oldest literatures.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw; Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Pesticides are substances meant for attracting, seducing, and then destroying, or mitigating any pest.

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Pink bollworm

The pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), lagarta rosada, is an insect known for being a pest in cotton farming.

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A plantation is a large piece of land (or water) usually in a tropical or semitropical area where one crop is specifically planted for widespread commercial sale and usually tended by resident laborers.

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Plantations in the American South

Plantations were an important aspect of the history of the American South, particularly the antebellum (pre-American Civil War) South.

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Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.

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A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane.

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Punjab, Pakistan

Punjab (پنجاب, Shahmukhī Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters"), also spelled Panjab, is the most populous of the four provinces of Pakistan.

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A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).

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Rahim Yar Khan

Rahim Yar Khan (Punjabi) is a city in Punjab province of Pakistan.

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Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulose fiber.

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Rey, Iran

Rey or Ray (شهر ری, Shahr-e-Ray, "City of Ray"), also known as Rhages (Ῥάγαι, Rhagai; Rhagae or Rhaganae) and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran, and is the oldest existing city in the province.

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Richard Arkwright

Sir Richard Arkwright (born 23 December 1732 in Preston, died 3 August 1792 in Cromford) was an inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution.

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A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment.

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Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through bacterial actions.

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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (سلسلهٔ صفويان; Səfəvilər sülaləsi, صفويلر سولاله‌سى) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Persia (modern Iran) after the fall of the Sasanian Empire - following the Muslim conquest of Persia in the seventh century A.D., and "is often considered the beginning of modern Persian history".

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that results from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Sampson Gamgee

Dr Joseph Sampson Gamgee, MRCS, FRSE (17 April 1828, Livorno, Italy – 18 September 1886) was a surgeon at the Queen's Hospital (later the General Hospital) in Birmingham, England.

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Samuel Crompton

Samuel Crompton (3 December 1753 – 26 June 1827) was an English inventor and pioneer of the spinning industry.

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Sanghar (سانگھڙ سانگھڑ) is a city in Sanghar District, Sindh, Pakistan.

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Satin is a weave that typically has a glossy surface and a dull back.

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Scirtothrips dorsalis

The chilli thripsThis is the more common international spelling of "chilli" outside of the United States.

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Seersucker is a thin, puckered, all-cotton fabric, commonly striped or chequered, used to make clothing for spring and summer wear.

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Seleucus I Nicator

Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ) was one of the Diadochi.

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Senegal (le Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.

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Sharecropping is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.

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A shrub is a small to medium-sized woody plant.

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Sindh سندھ; (سنڌ (Perso- Arabic); Indus; Ἰνδός; Sindhu) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the south east of the country.

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Slavery in the United States

Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel slavery that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries after it gained independence and before the end of the American Civil War.

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A sock is an item of clothing worn on the feet and often covering the ankle and some part of the calf.

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Soil is the mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and the countless organisms that together support life on earth.

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Soil salinity

Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.

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South Plains

South Plains is a vernacular term that refers to a region in northwest Texas.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—is a region of the United States of America.

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Soviet Union

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.

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Spinning frame

The spinning frame is an Industrial Revolution invention for spinning thread or yarn from fibres such as wool or cotton in a mechanized way.

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Spinning jenny

The spinning jenny, is a multi-spindle spinning frame, and was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution.

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Spinning mule

The spinning mule, is a machine used to spin cotton and other fibres in the mills of Lancashire and elsewhere.

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A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.

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Synthetic fiber

Synthetic fibers or fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to improve on naturally occurring animal and plant fibers.

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A T-shirt (or tee shirt, or tee) is a style of fabric shirt, named after the T shape of the body and sleeves.

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Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Tarnished plant bug

The tarnished plant bug (TPB) or Lygus lineolaris is a species of plant-feeding insects of the family Miridae.

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Tehuacán is the second largest city in the Mexican state of Puebla, nestled in the Southeast Valley of Tehuacán, bordering the states of Oaxaca and Veracruz.

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A tent is a shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope.

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Terrycloth, terry cloth, terry towelling, terry, or simply towelling is a fabric with loops that can absorb large amounts of water.

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Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second most populous and second largest state of the United States of America.

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A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn.

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Textile industry

The textile industry or apparel industry is primarily concerned with the design and production of yarn, cloth, clothing, and their distribution.

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The Cotton Museum

The Cotton Museum, located in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S., is an historical and cultural museum that opened in March 2006 on the former trading floor of the Memphis Cotton Exchange at 65 Union Avenue in downtown Memphis.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.

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Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a country in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.

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The tonne (British and SI; or metric ton (in the United States) is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to.

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A towel is a piece of absorbent fabric or paper used for drying or wiping the body or a surface.

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Traditional medicine

Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises knowledge systems that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.

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Twill is a type of textile weave with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs (in contrast with a satin and plain weave).

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Undergarments are items of clothing worn beneath outer clothes, usually in direct contact with the skin, although they may comprise more than a single layer.

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Union (American Civil War)

During the American Civil War, the Union was the term used to refer to the United States of America, and specifically to the national government and the 20 free states and five border slave states which supported it.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established on 1 January 1801 under the terms of the Acts of Union 1800, by which the nominally separate kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were united.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal government policy on farming, agriculture, forestry, and food.

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Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi/Ўзбекистон Республикаси), is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia.

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Vegetable Lamb of Tartary

The Vegetable lamb of Tartary (Latin: Agnus scythicus or Planta Tartarica Barometz) is a legendary zoophyte of Central Asia, once believed to grow sheep as its fruit.

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Vegetable oil

A vegetable oil is a triglyceride extracted from a plant.

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Vehari also spelled as Vihari (وہاڑی) is a city about 100 km from the historical city of Multan and is the headquarters of Vehari District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

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Wars of Alexander the Great

The wars of Alexander the Great were fought by King Alexander III of Macedon ("The Great"), first against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords as far east as Punjab, India.

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Water (chemical formula: H2O) is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams, lakes, oceans and rain, and is the major constituent of the fluids of organisms.

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Water resources

Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful.

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Waxes are a class of chemical compounds that are malleable near ambient temperatures.

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William G. Moseley

William G. Moseley (born 1965) is an author, scholar and professor of geography at Macalester College in Saint Paul, Minnesota.

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Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.

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World is a common name for the whole of human civilization, specifically human experience, history, or the human condition in general, worldwide, i.e. anywhere on Earth or pertaining to anywhere on earth.

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World war

A world war is a war involving some of the world's most powerful and populous countries.

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Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, and ropemaking.

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Yunnan (-) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.

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Absorbent cotton, Bomull, Cotton Boll, Cotton Fabric, Cotton cloth, Cotton fiber, Cotton industry, Cotton linter, Cotton picking, Cotton wool, Cottons, Indian Cotton, Manufacture of cotton, Processing of Cotton.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton

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