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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. [1]

300 relations: Abortifacient, Achaemenid Empire, Acrylic fiber, Agrarian reform, American Civil War, Americas, Andhra Pradesh, Angus Maddison, Antebellum South, Antwerp, Aphid, Aral Sea, Arthur Coke Burnell, Australia, Autoignition temperature, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacteria, Bacterial blight of cotton, Bankruptcy, Battle of Plassey, BBCH-scale (cotton), Beetle, Bengal Subah, Birmingham, Blockade, Blue-collar worker, Boll weevil, Boll Weevil Eradication Program, Bookbinding, Brazil, British Empire, British Raj, British West Africa, Brown marmorated stink bug, Bt cotton, Calico, California, Cambric, Cambridge University Press, Cameroon, Captive market, Cargill, Caribbean, Cash crop, Ceiba pentandra, Cellulose, Cellulose acetate, Central America, China, China Cotton Association, ..., Chintz, Coffee filter, Columbia Encyclopedia, Company rule in India, Confederate States of America, Corduroy, Cosmetics, Cotton gin, Cotton mill, Cotton paper, Cotton picker, Cotton recycling, Cotton Research and Promotion Act, Cottonopolis, Cottonseed meal, Cottonseed oil, Craig Murray, Crank (mechanism), CRC Press, Crochet, Crop yield, Das Kapital, Defoliant, Deindustrialization, Delhi Sultanate, Denim, Desertification, Developing country, Dhaka, Diaper, Duty (economics), East India Company, Egypt, Eli Whitney, Emancipation Proclamation, Environmental Justice Foundation, Export, Fair trade, Fall armyworm, Fars Province, Ferdowsi, Fertilizer, Fiber, Final good, Fire hose, Fire point, Fishing net, Fly, Food and Agriculture Organization, France, Frost, Fustian, Futures contract, Gene stacked event, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified crops, Genetically modified organism, Glyphosate, Gossypium, Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium herbaceum, Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypol, Gujarat, Haarlem, Han dynasty, Helicoverpa zea, Henry Yule, Herbicide, Herodotus, Histories (Herodotus), History of Egypt under the British, History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty, Hosiery, Illumina (company), Import, India, Indian subcontinent, Indigo, Indus Valley Civilisation, Industrial Revolution, Insecticide, International Cotton Advisory Committee, International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications, International Year of Natural Fibres, Iran, Irfan Habib, Irrigation, Isma'il Pasha, James Hargreaves, Japan, Jean Chardin, Jeans, John Esposito, John F. Richards, John Mandeville, John Wyatt (inventor), Karl Marx, Karnataka, King Cotton, Knitting, Korea, Lancashire, Lepidoptera, Lewis Paul, Lille, Linen, Lower Egypt, Madapolam, Maharashtra, Mahatma Gandhi, Mali, Malvaceae, Manchester, Manufacturing, Marco Polo, Medicine, Megasthenes, Mehrgarh, Memphis, Tennessee, Mercerised cotton, Merv, Mexico, Miridae, Mobile Cotton Exchange, Moche culture, Moisture vapor transmission rate, Monocropping, Monogastric, Monsanto, Mughal Empire, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Muslim conquest of Sicily, Muslim world, Muslin, National Organic Program, Natural fiber, Naturally colored cotton, Nazca culture, New Orleans Cotton Exchange, New York Cotton Exchange, New York Mercantile Exchange, Nicaragua, Nitrocellulose, Norman conquest of southern Italy, Norte Chico civilization, Nutrient, Nylon, OECD, Ogallala Aquifer, Organic cotton, Organic farming, Oxford University Press, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis, Papermaking, Paul Bairoch, Pearson Education, Pectin, Persian language, Persian literature, Peru, Pesticide, Pink bollworm, Plantation, Plantations in the American South, Polyester, Port, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protectionism, Protein, Protoplasm, Pyrethroid, Rakhigarhi, Rayon, Rey, Iran, Richard Arkwright, Robe, Routledge, Ruminant, Russia, Safavid dynasty, Salt (chemistry), Sampson Gamgee, Samuel Crompton, Satin, Scirtothrips dorsalis, Seersucker, Seleucus I Nicator, Senegal, Shahnameh, Sharecropping, Shrub, Slavery in the United States, Sock, Soil, Soil salinity, South Plains, Southern United States, Soviet Union, Spindle (textiles), Spinning frame, Spinning jenny, Spinning mule, Spinning wheel, Steam engine, Subsidy, Synthetic fiber, T-shirt, Taiwan, Tariff, Tarnished plant bug, Tax, Tehuacán, Tent, Terrycloth, Texas, Textile, Textile industry, Textile manufacturing, The Cotton Museum, The New York Times, Tonne, Towel, Traditional medicine, Twill, Umayyad conquest of Hispania, Undergarment, Union (American Civil War), United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, University of California Press, University of Chicago Press, Uzbekistan, Vegetable Lamb of Tartary, Vegetable oil, Venice, Wars of Alexander the Great, Water, Water resources, Water wheel, Wax, William G. Moseley, Windmill, Working animal, World war, Worm drive, Yarn, Yunnan. Expand index (250 more) »

Abortifacient

An abortifacient ("that which will cause a miscarriage" from Latin: abortus "miscarriage" and faciens "making") is a substance that induces abortion.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Acrylic fiber

Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer (polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100,000, about 1900 monomer units.

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Agrarian reform

Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or, broadly, to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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Americas

The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.

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Angus Maddison

Angus Maddison (6 December 1926 – 24 April 2010) was a British economist specialising in quantitative macroeconomic history, including the measurement and analysis of economic growth and development.

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Antebellum South

The Antebellum era was a period in the history of the Southern United States, from the late 18th century until the start of the American Civil War in 1861, marked by the economic growth of the South.

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Antwerp

Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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Aphid

Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.

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Aral Sea

The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.

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Arthur Coke Burnell

Arthur Coke Burnell (11 July 184012 October 1882) was an English scholar in Sanskrit He is probably best known as the co-compiler of Hobson-Jobson, a compendium of Anglo-Indian terms.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Autoignition temperature

The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it spontaneously ignites in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.

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Bacillus thuringiensis

Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacterial blight of cotton

Bacterial blight of cotton is a disease affecting the cotton plant resulting from infection by Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar malvacearum (Xcm) a Gram negative, motile rod-shaped, non spore-forming bacterium with a single polar flagellum.

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Bankruptcy

Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.

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Battle of Plassey

The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757.

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BBCH-scale (cotton)

In biology, the BBCH-scale for cotton describes the phenological development of cotton plants Gossypium hirsutum using the BBCH-scale.

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Beetle

Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.

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Bengal Subah

The Bengal Subah was a subdivision of the Mughal Empire encompassing modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal between the 16th and 18th centuries.

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Birmingham

Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Blockade

A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.

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Blue-collar worker

In the United States and (at least some) other English-speaking countries, a blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs manual labor.

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Boll weevil

The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a beetle which feeds on cotton buds and flowers.

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Boll Weevil Eradication Program

The Boll Weevil Eradication Program is a program sponsored by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) that has sought to eradicate the boll weevil in the cotton-growing areas of the United States.

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Bookbinding

Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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British West Africa

British West Africa was the collective name for British colonies in West Africa during the colonial period, either in the general geographical sense or the formal colonial administrative entity.

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Brown marmorated stink bug

The brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) is an insect in the family Pentatomidae that is native to China, Japan, the Korean peninsula, and Taiwan.

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Bt cotton

Bt cotton is a genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically modified pest resistant plant cotton variety, which produces an insecticide to bollworm.

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Calico

Calico (in British usage since 1505) is a plain-woven textile made from unbleached and often not fully processed cotton.

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California

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Cambric

Cambric, or batiste, one of the finest and most dense kinds of cloth, is a lightweight plain-weave cloth, originally from the French commune of Cambrai, woven in greige, then bleached, piece-dyed and often glazed or calendered.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cameroon

No description.

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Captive market

Captive markets are markets where the potential consumers face a severely limited number of competitive suppliers; their only choices are to purchase what is available or to make no purchase at all.

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Cargill

Cargill, Incorporated is an American privately held global corporation based in Minnetonka, Minnesota, and incorporated in Wilmington, Delaware.

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Caribbean

The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

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Cash crop

A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.

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Ceiba pentandra

Ceiba pentandra is a tropical tree of the order Malvales and the family Malvaceae (previously separated in the family Bombacaceae), native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, northern South America, and (as the variety C. pentandra var. guineensis) to tropical west Africa.

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Cellulose

Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

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Cellulose acetate

Cellulose acetate is the acetate ester of cellulose.

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China Cotton Association

China Cotton Association (CCA) is a Chinese non-profit federation specializing in cotton, which is voluntarily established by cotton farmers, cotton farmers' cooperative organizations, enterprises engaged in cotton production, purchase, processing and operation, cotton textile enterprises, cotton research institutes and other organs and which accepts the supervision and management of the Chinese Ministry of Civil Affairs and the professional guidance of the All-China Federation of Supply and Marketing Cooperatives.

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Chintz

Chintz (from the plural of chint) was originally glazed calico textiles, initially specifically those imported from India, printed with designs featuring flowers and other patterns in different colours, typically on a light plain background.

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Coffee filter

A coffee filter is a coffee-brewing utensil, usually made of disposable paper.

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Columbia Encyclopedia

The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.

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Company rule in India

Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Confederate States of America

The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.

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Corduroy

Corduroy is a textile with a distinct pattern, a "cord" or wale.

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Cosmetics

Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.

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Cotton gin

A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, enabling much greater productivity than manual cotton separation.

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Cotton mill

A cotton mill is a factory housing powered spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution when the early mills were important in the development of the factory system.

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Cotton paper

Cotton paper, also known as rag paper, is made using cotton linters or cotton from used cloth (rags) as the primary material.

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Cotton picker

The cotton picker is a machine that automates cotton harvesting in a way that reduces harvest time and maximizes efficiency.

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Cotton recycling

Cotton recycling prevents unneeded wastage and can be a more sustainable alternative to disposal.

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Cotton Research and Promotion Act

The Cotton Research and Promotion Act is an act passed by the United States Congress in 1966 in response to the declining market of cotton, in order to build consumer demand and "sell the story of American upland cotton".

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Cottonopolis

Cottonopolis was a 19th century nickname for Manchester, as it was a metropolis and the centre of the cotton industry.

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Cottonseed meal

Cottonseed meal is the byproduct remaining after cotton is ginned and the seeds crushed and the oil extracted.

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Cottonseed oil

Cottonseed oil is a cooking oil extracted from the seeds of cotton plants of various species, mainly Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum, that are grown for cotton fiber, animal feed, and oil.

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Craig Murray

Craig John Murray (born 17 October 1958) is a British former diplomat turned political activist, human rights campaigner, blogger and whistleblower.

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Crank (mechanism)

A crank is an arm attached at a right angle to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from the shaft.

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CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.

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Crochet

Not to be confused with Crotchet, the common name for a Quarter note in music. Crochet is a process of creating fabric by interlocking loops of yarn, thread, or strands of other materials using a crochet hook.

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Crop yield

In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).

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Das Kapital

Das Kapital, also known as Capital.

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Defoliant

A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause their leaves to fall off.

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Deindustrialization

Deindustrialization or deindustrialisation is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.

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Delhi Sultanate

The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).

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Denim

Denim is a sturdy cotton warp-faced textile in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads.

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Desertification

Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dhaka

Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.

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Diaper

A diaper (American English) or a nappy (Australian English and British English) is a type of underwear that allows the wearer to defecate or urinate without the use of a toilet, by absorbing or containing waste products to prevent soiling of outer clothing or the external environment.

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Duty (economics)

In economics, a duty is a kind of tax levied by a state.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Eli Whitney

Eli Whitney (December 8, 1765 – January 8, 1825) was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin.

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Emancipation Proclamation

The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.

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Environmental Justice Foundation

The Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF) is a non-governmental organisation (NGO) founded in 2001 by Steve Trent and Juliette Williams that promotes the non-violent resolution of human rights abuses and related environmental issues in the Global South.

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Export

The term export means sending of goods or services produced in one country to another country.

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Fair trade

Fair trade is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions.

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Fall armyworm

The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a species in the order of Lepidoptera and is the larval life stage of a fall armyworm moth.

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Fars Province

Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.

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Ferdowsi

Abu ʾl-Qasim Firdowsi Tusi (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi (also transliterated as Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran.

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Fertilizer

A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Fiber

Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.

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Final good

In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.

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Fire hose

A fire hose (or firehose) is a high-pressure hose that carries water or other fire retardant (such as foam) to a fire to extinguish it.

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Fire point

The fire point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which the vapour of that fuel will continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an open flame.

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Fishing net

A fishing net is a net used for fishing.

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Fly

True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frost

Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.

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Fustian

Fustian is a variety of heavy cloth woven from cotton, chiefly prepared for menswear.

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Futures contract

In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.

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Gene stacked event

A genetically modified organism (GMO) and all subsequent identical clones resulting from a transformation process are called collectively a transformation event.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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Genetically modified crops

Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.

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Genetically modified organism

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).

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Glyphosate

Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.

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Gossypium

Gossypium is a genus of flowering plants in the tribe Gossypieae of the mallow family, Malvaceae from which cotton is harvested.

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Gossypium arboreum

Gossypium arboreum, commonly called tree cotton, is a species of cotton native to India, Pakistan and other tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World.

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Gossypium barbadense

Gossypium barbadense, also known as extra-long staple (ELS) cotton, is a species of cotton plant that has been cultivated to have ELS fibres – fibres longer than – which are associated with high quality cotton cloth.

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Gossypium herbaceum

Gossypium herbaceum, commonly known as Levant cotton, is a species of cotton native to the semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Arabia where it still grows in the wild as a perennial shrub.

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Gossypium hirsutum

Gossypium hirsutum, also known as upland cotton or Mexican cotton, is the most widely planted species of cotton in the United States, constituting some 95% of all cotton production there.

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Gossypol

Gossypol is a natural phenol derived from the cotton plant (genus Gossypium).

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Gujarat

Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.

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Haarlem

Haarlem (predecessor of Harlem in the English language) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Helicoverpa zea

Helicoverpa zea, commonly known as the corn earworm, is a species (formerly in the genus Heliothis) in the family Noctuidae.

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Henry Yule

Sir Henry Yule KCSI (1 May 1820 – 30 December 1889) was a Scottish Orientalist.

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Herbicide

Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.

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Herodotus

Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Histories (Herodotus)

The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.

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History of Egypt under the British

The history of Egypt under the British lasts from 1882, when it was occupied by British forces during the Anglo-Egyptian War, until 1956, when the last British forces withdrew in accordance with the Anglo-Egyptian agreement of 1954 after the Suez Crisis.

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History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty

The history of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali Pasha dynasty (1805–1953) spanned the later period of Ottoman Egypt, the Khedivate of Egypt under British patronage, and the nominally independent Sultanate of Egypt and Kingdom of Egypt, ending with the Revolution of 1952 and the formation of the Republic of Egypt.

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Hosiery

Hosiery, also referred to as legwear, describes garments worn directly on the feet and legs.

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Illumina (company)

Illumina, Inc. is an American company incorporated in April 1998 that develops, manufactures and markets integrated systems for the analysis of genetic variation and biological function.

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Import

An import is a good brought into a jurisdiction, especially across a national border, from an external source.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indigo

Indigo is a deep and rich color close to the color wheel blue (a primary color in the RGB color space), as well as to some variants of ultramarine.

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Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Insecticide

Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.

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International Cotton Advisory Committee

The International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) is an association of governments of cotton producing, consuming and trading countries which acts as the international commodity body for cotton and cotton textiles.

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International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications

The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) is a non-profit international organization that shares agricultural biotechnology, focusing on genetic engineering.

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International Year of Natural Fibres

The United Nations General Assembly declared 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fibres, as well as the International Year of Astronomy.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Irfan Habib

Irfan Habib (born 1931) is an Indian historian of ancient and medieval India, following the approach of Marxist historiography.

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Irrigation

Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Isma'il Pasha

Isma'il Pasha (إسماعيل باشا Ismā‘īl Bāshā, Turkish: İsmail Paşa), known as Ismail the Magnificent (31 December 1830 – 2 March 1895), was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom.

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James Hargreaves

James Hargreaves (c. 1720 – 22 April 1778) was a weaver, carpenter and inventor in Lancashire, England.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jean Chardin

Jean Chardin (16 November 1643 – 5 January 1713), born Jean-Baptiste Chardin, and also known as Sir John Chardin, was a French jeweller and traveller whose ten-volume book The Travels of Sir John Chardin is regarded as one of the finest works of early Western scholarship on Persia and the Near East in general.

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Jeans

Jeans are a type of trousers, typically made from denim or dungaree cloth.

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John Esposito

John Louis Esposito (born May 19, 1940) is University Professor, Professor of Religion & International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He was also the Founding Director of the Prince Alwaleed Center for Muslim–Christian Understanding at Georgetown.

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John F. Richards

John F. Richards (November 3, 1938 - August 23, 2007) was a historian of South Asia and in particular of the Mughal Empire.

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John Mandeville

Sir John Mandeville is the supposed author of The Travels of Sir John Mandeville, a travel memoir which first circulated between 1357 and 1371.

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John Wyatt (inventor)

John Wyatt (April 1700 – 29 November 1766), an English inventor, was born near Lichfield and was related to Sarah Ford, Doctor Johnson's mother.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Karnataka

Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.

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King Cotton

"King Cotton" is a slogan which summarized the strategy used before the American Civil War (of 1861–1865) by pro-secessionists in the southern states (the future Confederate States of America) to claim the feasibility of secession and to prove there was no need to fear a war with the northern states.

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Knitting

Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric for use in many types of garments.

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Korea

Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Lancashire

Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.

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Lepidoptera

Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).

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Lewis Paul

Lewis Paul (died 1759) was the original inventor of roller spinning, the basis of the water frame for spinning cotton in a cotton mill.

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Lille

Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.

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Linen

Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.

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Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt (مصر السفلى.) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.

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Madapolam

Madapolam is a soft cotton fabric manufactured from fine yarns with a dense pick laid out in linen weave.

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Maharashtra

Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.

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Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.

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Mali

Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.

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Malvaceae

Malvaceae, or the mallows, is a family of flowering plants estimated to contain 244 genera with 4225 known species.

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Manchester

Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.

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Manufacturing

Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.

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Medicine

Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Megasthenes

Megasthenes (Μεγασθένης, c. 350 – c. 290 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period.

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Mehrgarh

Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; مهرګړ; مہرگڑھ), sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley.

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Memphis, Tennessee

Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee.

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Mercerised cotton

Mercerisation is a treatment for cellulosic material, typically cotton threads, that strengthens them and gives them a lustrous appearance.

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Merv

Merv (Merw, Мерв, مرو; مرو, Marv), formerly Achaemenid Persian Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria (Margiana) (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μαργιανῆς), was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Miridae

The Miridae are a large and diverse insect family at one time known by the taxonomic synonym Capsidae.

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Mobile Cotton Exchange

The Mobile Cotton Exchange was a commodities exchange that operated from 1871 until 1942 in the Alabama port city of Mobile to enable key local cotton factors and merchants to maintain control over cotton sales, warehousing, and shipping from Mobile Bay.

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Moche culture

The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.

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Moisture vapor transmission rate

Moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR), also water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), is a measure of the passage of water vapor through a substance.

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Monocropping

Monocropping is the agricultural practice of growing a single crop year after year on the same land, in the absence of rotation through other crops or growing multiple crops on the same land (polyculture).

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Monogastric

A monogastric organism has a simple single-chambered stomach, compared with a ruminant organism, like a cow, goat, or sheep, which has a four-chambered complex stomach.

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Monsanto

Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.

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Muslim conquest of Sicily

The Muslim conquest of Sicily began in June 827 and lasted until 902, when the last major Byzantine stronghold on the island, Taormina, fell.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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Muslin

Muslin, also mousseline, is a cotton fabric of plain weave.

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National Organic Program

The National Organic Program (NOP) is the federal regulatory framework in the United States of America governing organic food.

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Natural fiber

Natural fibers or natural fibres (see spelling differences) are fibres that are produced by plants, animals, and geological processes.

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Naturally colored cotton

Naturally colored cotton is cotton that has been bred to have colors other than the yellowish off-white typical of modern commercial cotton fibres.

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Nazca culture

The Nazca culture (also Nasca) was the archaeological culture that flourished from beside the arid, southern coast of Peru in the river valleys of the Rio Grande de Nazca drainage and the Ica Valley.

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New Orleans Cotton Exchange

The New Orleans Cotton Exchange was established in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1871 as a centralized forum for the trade of cotton.

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New York Cotton Exchange

The New York Cotton Exchange (NYCE) is a commodities exchange founded in 1870 by a group of one hundred cotton brokers and merchants at 1 Hanover Square in New York City.

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New York Mercantile Exchange

The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is a commodity futures exchange owned and operated by CME Group of Chicago.

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Nicaragua

Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Nitrocellulose

Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.

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Norman conquest of southern Italy

The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.

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Norte Chico civilization

The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization)The name is disputed.

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Nutrient

A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Nylon

Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Ogallala Aquifer

The Ogallala Aquifer is a shallow water table aquifer surrounded by sand, silt, clay and gravel located beneath the Great Plains in the United States.

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Organic cotton

Organic cotton is generally defined as cotton that is grown organically in subtropical countries such as Turkey, China, and parts of the USA from non-genetically modified plants, and without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers or pesticides.

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Organic farming

Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxycarenus hyalinipennis

Oxycarenus hyalinipennis, common name cotton seed bug, is a species of plant bug belonging to the family Lygaeidae, subfamily Oxycareninae.

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Papermaking

The art, science, and technology of papermaking addresses the methods, equipment, and materials used to make paper and cardboard, these being used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes and useful products.

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Paul Bairoch

Paul Bairoch (24 July 1930 in Antwerp – 12 February 1999 in Geneva) was one of the great post-war economic historians who specialised in global economic history, urban history and historical demography.

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Pearson Education

Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.

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Pectin

Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Persian literature

Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.

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Peru

Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Pesticide

Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.

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Pink bollworm

The pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella; lagarta rosada) is an insect known for being a pest in cotton farming.

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Plantation

A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.

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Plantations in the American South

Plantations were an important aspect of the history of the American South, particularly the antebellum (pre-American Civil War) era.

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Polyester

Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.

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Port

A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Protectionism

Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protoplasm

Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane.

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Pyrethroid

A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).

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Rakhigarhi

Rakhigarhi, (राखीगढ़ी) or Rakhi Garhi (Rakhi Shahpur + Rakhi Khas), is a village in Hisar District in the state of Haryana in India, situated 150 kilometers to the northwest of Delhi.

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Rayon

Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from regenerated cellulose fiber.

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Rey, Iran

Rey or Ray (شهر ری, Šahr-e Rey, “City of Ray”), also known as Rhages (Ῥάγαι, or Europos (Ευρωπός) Rhagai; Rhagae or Rhaganae) and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County in Tehran Province of Iran, and the oldest existing city in the province.

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Richard Arkwright

Sir Richard Arkwright (23 December 1732 – 3 August 1792) was an English inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution.

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Robe

A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Ruminant

Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Sampson Gamgee

Dr Joseph Sampson Gamgee, MRCS, FRSE (17 April 1828, Livorno, Italy – 18 September 1886) was a surgeon at the Queen's Hospital (later the General Hospital) in Birmingham, England.

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Samuel Crompton

Samuel Crompton (3 December 1753 – 26 June 1827) was an English inventor and pioneer of the spinning industry.

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Satin

Satin is a weave that typically has a glossy surface and a dull back.

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Scirtothrips dorsalis

The chilli thripsThis is the more common international spelling of "chilli" outside of the United States.

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Seersucker

Seersucker is a thin, puckered, all-cotton fabric, commonly striped or chequered, used to make clothing for spring and summer wear.

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Seleucus I Nicator

Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.

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Senegal

Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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Shahnameh

The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.

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Sharecropping

Sharecropping is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.

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Shrub

A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant.

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Slavery in the United States

Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Sock

A sock is an item of clothing worn on the feet and often covering the ankle or some part of the calf.

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Soil

Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Soil salinity

Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.

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South Plains

The South Plains is region in northwest Texas, consisting of 24 counties.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spindle (textiles)

A spindle is a straight spike usually made from wood used for spinning, twisting fibers such as wool, flax, hemp, cotton into yarn.

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Spinning frame

The spinning frame is an Industrial Revolution invention for spinning thread or yarn from fibres such as wool or cotton in a mechanised way.

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Spinning jenny

The spinning jenny is a multi-spindle spinning frame, and was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution.

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Spinning mule

The spinning mule is a machine used to spin cotton and other fibres.

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Spinning wheel

A spinning wheel is a device for spinning thread or yarn from natural or synthetic fibres.

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Steam engine

A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.

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Subsidy

A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.

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Synthetic fiber

Synthetic fibers (British English: synthetic fibres) are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes.

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T-shirt

A T-shirt (or t shirt, or tee) is a style of unisex fabric shirt named after the T shape of its body and sleeves.

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Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Tariff

A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.

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Tarnished plant bug

The tarnished plant bug (TPB), Lygus lineolaris, is a species of plant-feeding insect in the family Miridae.

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Tax

A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.

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Tehuacán

Tehuacán is the second largest city in the Mexican state of Puebla, nestled in the Southeast Valley of Tehuacán, bordering the states of Oaxaca and Veracruz.

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Tent

A tent is a shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope.

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Terrycloth

Terrycloth, terry cloth, terry cotton, terry towelling, terry, or simply towelling is a fabric with loops that can absorb large amounts of water.

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Texas

Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.

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Textile

A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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Textile industry

The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn, cloth and clothing.

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Textile manufacturing

Textile manufacturing is a major industry.

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The Cotton Museum

The Cotton Museum, located in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S., is an historical and cultural museum that opened in March 2006 on the former trading floor of the Memphis Cotton Exchange at 65 Union Avenue in downtown Memphis.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Tonne

The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Towel

A towel is a piece of absorbent fabric or paper used for drying or wiping a body or a surface.

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Traditional medicine

Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.

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Twill

Twill is a type of textile weave with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs (in contrast with a satin and plain weave).

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Umayyad conquest of Hispania

The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.

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Undergarment

Undergarments are items of clothing worn beneath outer clothes, usually in direct contact with the skin, although they may comprise more than a single layer.

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Union (American Civil War)

During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.

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Vegetable Lamb of Tartary

The Vegetable Lamb of Tartary (Latin: Agnus scythicus or Planta Tartarica Barometz) is a legendary zoophyte of Central Asia, once believed to grow sheep as its fruit.

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Vegetable oil

Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.

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Venice

Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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Wars of Alexander the Great

The wars of Alexander the Great were fought by King Alexander III of Macedon ("The Great"), first against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords as far east as Punjab, India.

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Water

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Water resources

Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.

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Water wheel

A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.

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Wax

Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.

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William G. Moseley

William G. Moseley (born 1965) is an author, scholar and professor of geography at Macalester College in Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA.

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Windmill

A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades.

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Working animal

A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.

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World war

A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.

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Worm drive

A worm drive is a gear arrangement in which a worm (which is a gear in the form of a screw) meshes with a worm gear (which is similar in appearance to a spur gear).

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Yarn

Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking.

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Yunnan

Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton

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